Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "
Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly
shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in
Rome dedicated to Pax, the
Roman goddess of Peace. The monument was commissioned by the Roman
Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honor the return of
three years in
Hispania and Gaul, and consecrated on January 30,
9 BC. Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, a Roman
mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via
Flaminia, it stood in the northeastern corner of the Campus
Martius, the former flood plain of the
Tiber River and gradually
became buried under 4 metres (13 ft) of silt deposits. It was
reassembled in its current location, now the Museum of the Ara Pacis,
2.1 The Altar
2.2 Exterior wall decoration
2.3 The east and west walls
2.4 The figures
2.4.1 North wall
2.4.2 South wall
3 Excavation and conservation
3.1 The first protective building housing the monument by Morpurgo
3.2 The new protective building housing the monument by Meier
4 Gallery of reliefs
5 See also
6 References and notes
8 Further reading
9 External links
The altar reflects the Augustan vision of Roman civil religion. The
lower register of its frieze depicts vegetal work meant to communicate
the abundance and prosperity of the Roman
Peace (Latin: Pax Augusta),
while the monument as a whole serves a civic ritual function whilst
simultaneously operating as propaganda for
Augustus and his regime,
easing notions of autocracy and dynastic succession that might
otherwise be unpalatable to traditional Roman culture.
Plan of the Ara Pacis. North is at the left
The monument consists of a traditional open-air altar at its center
surrounded by precinct walls which are pierced on the eastern and
western ends (so called today because of the modern layout) by
openings and elaborately and finely sculpted entirely in Luna marble.
Within the enclosing precinct walls, the altar itself was carved with
images illustrating the lex aria, the law governing the ritual
performed at the altar. The sacrificial procession depicts animals
being led to sacrifice by figures carved in a Republican style similar
to the so-called "
Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus," in sharp contrast
with the style on the exterior of the precinct walls. What remains of
the altar is otherwise fragmentary, but it appears to have been
largely functional with less emphasis on art and decoration.
The interior of the precinct walls are carved with bucrania, ox
skulls, from which carved garlands hang. The garlands bear fruits from
various types of plants, all displayed on a single garland as
allegorical representations of plenty and abundance. The bucrania in
turn evoke the idea of sacrificial piety, appropriate motifs for the
interior of the altar precinct. The lower register of the interior
walls imitate the appearance of traditionally wooden altar precincts,
which were meant to bring to mind other such altars in
Rome and the
tradition of constructing altars at the boundary of the city's
Exterior wall decoration
Ara Pacis: detail of the processional frieze showing members of the
Senate (north face).
Relief showing a sacrifice performed by
Aeneas or Numa Pompilius.
The exterior walls of the
Ara Pacis are divided between allegorical
and pseudo-historical relief panels on the upper register while the
lower register is compared of scenes of nature: harmonic, intertwined
vines that contain wildlife and connote nature under control. The
upper register of the northern and southern walls depict scenes of the
emperor, his family, and members of the regime in the act of
processing to or performing a sacrifice. Various togate figures are
shown with their heads covered (capite velato), signifying their role
as both priests and sacrificiants. Other figures wear laurel crowns,
traditional Roman symbols of victory. Members of individual priestly
colleges are depicted in traditional garb appropriate to their
office, while lictors can be identified by their iconographic
fasces. Women and children are also included among the procession; the
depiction of children in Roman sculpture would have been novel at the
time of the Altar's construction, evoking themes of moral and familial
piety, as well as easing concerns over dynastic intentions while
simultaneously introducing potential heirs to the public eye.
The western and eastern walls are both pierced by entryways to the
altar, although the interior would only have been accessed by a
stairway on the western side. The entryways were flanked by panels
depicting allegorical or mythological scenes evocative of peace, piety
and tradition. On the eastern wall, panels depicted the seated figures
of Roma and Pax, while the western side depicts the discovery of the
twins and she-wolf and the sacrifice of a figure traditionally
identified as Aeneas, but increasingly believed to be Rome's second
king, Numa Pompilius. The identity of these various figures has been a
point of some controversy over the years, relying heavily on
interpretation of fragmentary remains, discussed below.
The sculpture of the
Ara Pacis is primarily symbolic rather than
decorative, and its iconography has several levels of significance.
Studies of the
Ara Pacis and similar public Roman monuments
traditionally address the potent political symbolism of their
decorative programs, and their emphasis and promulgation of dynastic
and other imperial policies; they are usually studied as a form of
imperial propaganda. The
Ara Pacis is seen to embody without conscious
effort the deep-rooted ideological connections among cosmic
sovereignty, military force, and fertility that were first outlined by
Georges Dumézil, connections which are attested in early Roman
culture and more broadly in the substructure of Indo-European culture
at large. Peter Holliday suggested that the Altar's imagery of
the Golden Age, usually discussed as mere poetic allusion, appealed to
a significant component of the Roman populace. The program of the Ara
Pacis addressed this group's very real fears of cyclical history, and
promised that the rule of
Augustus would avert the cataclysmic
destruction of the world predicted by contemporary models of
The east and west walls
Ara Pacis: the so-called "Tellus" panel.
The East and West walls each contain two panels, one well preserved
and one represented only in fragments.
The East Wall contains a badly preserved scene of a female warrior
(bellatrix), possibly Roma, apparently sitting on a pile of weapons
confiscated from the enemy, thus forcing peace upon them by rendering
them unable to make war. This scene has been reconstructed, based
on coins that depict such a seated Roma. When the monument was being
reconstructed at its present site, Edmund Buchner and other scholars
sketched what the panel may have looked like. This interpretation,
although widely accepted, can not be proved correct, as so little of
the original panel survives.
The other panel is more controversial in its subject, but far better
preserved. A goddess sits amid a scene of fertility and prosperity
with twins on her lap. Scholars have variously suggested that the
goddess is Italia, Tellus (Earth), Venus, and Peace, although other
views also circulate. Due to the widespread depiction around the
sculpture of scenes of peace, and because the
Altar is named for
"peace", the favoured conclusion is that the goddess is Pax.
The West Wall also contains two panels. The fragmentary "Lupercal
Panel" apparently preserves the moment when
Romulus and Remus
Romulus and Remus were
Faustulus the shepherd, while Mars looks on.
Again this panel is a modern drawing without much evidence. Marble
fragments of the tree and the head and shoulder of Mars (if it is
Mars) and part of a second individual (thought to be Faustulus)
survive, but the addition of the she-wolf, Romulus, and Remus is
The better preserved scene depicts the sacrifice of a pig (the
standard sacrifice when Romans made a peace treaty) by an old priest
and two attendants. In 1907, this scene was identified by Johannes
Sieveking as the moment when Aeneas, newly arrived in Italy,
sacrificed a sow and her 30 piglets to Juno, as told by
others, even though the scene differs greatly from Vergil's
description. In the 1960s, Stephan Weinstock challenged this
identification (and the very identity of the entire monument), citing
numerous discrepancies that Sieveking and his followers had failed to
notice between Vergil's version and the panel. Subsequently, the
suggestion was made that the scene shows Numa Pompilius, the Roman
king associated with
Peace and the Gates of Janus. Paul Rehak
later published an article with this proposal, confirmed in a chapter
of his posthumous book. This theory has won over many scholars,
despite considerable initial resistance.
The long friezes of the
Ara Pacis (the North and South Walls) contain
figures advancing towards the West, who participate in a state of
thanksgiving to celebrate the
Peace created by Augustus. These figures
fall into four categories: lictors (men carrying fasces, bodyguards of
magistrates); priests (three of the four major collegia –
Pontifices, Septemviri, and Quindecimviri): women and children
(generally from the imperial family, represented in portraiture); and
attendants (a few anonymous figures necessary for religious purposes).
In addition there are two or three non-Roman children, who may be
guests (or hostages) in Rome. Their identification by their
non-Roman costume and their participation in the ceremony advertises
to all that
Rome is the centre of the world, and that other nations
send their young to
Rome to learn Roman ways, so great is Rome's
reputation. The ceremony took place in the summer of 13 BC, but not
necessarily on 4 July, when the Senate voted to build the Ara Pacis.
The north wall has about 46 extant or partially extant figures. The
first two foreground figures are lictors, carrying fasces (bundles of
rods symbolizing Roman authority). The next set of figures
consists of priests from the college of the Septemviri epulones, so
identified by an incense box they carry with special symbols. One
member of this college is missing in a gap.
After them follows the collegium of the quindecimviri sacris
faciundis, also identified by the incense box carried by a public
slave among them. Although the name suggests this college has exactly
fifteen members, the size of the college has grown to 23, including
Augustus and Agrippa, who appear on the South Frieze. The other
twenty-one members are present here. Two very badly damaged figures in
the middle are split by a gap. From photos, the gap appears to affect
a single figure, but as Koeppel, Conlin, and Stern have proven,
in-site examination reveals that one is a foreground and the other a
The last portion of the North Frieze consists of members of the
imperial family. Many scholars used to identify the veiled, leading
figure as Julia, daughter of Augustus, but since Julia appears on the
South Frieze, it is more likely that this figure is Octavia Minor.
Other figures in the entourage might include Marcella (a daughter of
Octavia), Iullus Antonius (a son of Mark Antony), and two boys and a
girl of the imperial family.
In 1894, and again in 1902 and 1903, Eugen Petersen suggested that
Lucius Caesar appears with Agrippa, dressed in a "Trojan" costume for
the Troy Game held in 13 BC (see below). Many scholars, realizing
by 1935 that Lucius was too young to be the boy beside Agrippa,
preferred to identify him as Gaius. They named the smallest child on
the North Frieze "Lucius," even though he is a mere toddler (Lucius
was four in 13 BC). Some scholars assumed this boy also was a
participant in the Troy Games, although he is certainly too young (six
or seven was the minimum age). If this toddler were Lucius, he would
be too young and in the wrong costume for the Troy Games. The best
guess is that he is a Germanic tribal prince, but he is certainly not
a dressed as a Trojan. As Charles Brian Rose has noted, "The variable
value of the Eastern costume and the uneasy interaction of Trojan and
Parthian iconography can make it difficult to determine whether one is
viewing the founders of the Romans or their fiercest opponents."
The youth wearing Hellenistic Greek clothing suited to a Hellenistic
prince has been identified as Gaius in the guise of a camillus, an
adolescent attendant of the
Flamen Dialis. The Gaius
identification is best supported by his size, however an additional
boy in Roman dress who has a bulla (but has lost his head!) is also
the right size, and therefore a better guess. For Gaius to appear in
public without his bulla would invite the evil eye. This same figure
in Hellenistic dress has also been interpreted as Ptolemy of
Mauretania representing Africa, along with the German boy (Europe) and
the Parthian prince (Asia). A foreign prince would not wear a
Ara Pacis: processional frieze showing members of the Imperial
household (south face).
The South Wall has seen a great deal of scholarship and the greatest
number of academic debates. Unlike the North Wall, where most of the
heads are new (not authentic ancient heads, but modern creations), the
heads of the figures on the South Wall are mostly original. Some half
dozen figures are recognizable from looking at other surviving statues
of members of the imperial family. Nevertheless, much debate has taken
place over many of these figures, including Augustus, Agrippa,
Tiberius, Julia, and Antonia.
The figure of
Augustus was not discovered until the 1903 excavation,
and his head was damaged by the cornerstone of the Renaissance palazzo
built on top of the original
Ara Pacis site. Although he was
identified correctly in 1903, Petersen, Strong, and Stuart-Jones
initially saw the figure as the rex sacrorum. Today
Augustus is better
recognized by his hair style than his face.
In the absence of
Augustus from the panel, early scholars debated
whether this figure was
Augustus or Agrippa or Lepidus. In 1907,
Sieveking proposed that this figure was Lepidus, the Pontifex Maximus
at the time. Sieveking later reversed his position with a series of
peculiar suggestions. In 1926, Loewy compared the
Louvre Agrippa of
the Agrippa in Copenhagen (and elsewhere) to the
Ara Pacis in order to
demonstrate iconographical similarity. Aside from a very small
minority of scholars (most vehemently defensive of Lepidus in Rom.
Mitt in the 1930s was Ludwig Curtius), the rest of the academy
concluded that this figure is Agrippa. Ryberg's 1949 article gave
further weight to that conclusion.
Many scholars continue to see the Julia figure as Livia, having
reasoned that Livia has to be on the Ara Pacis. Indeed, Livia does
appear somewhere (her exclusion is unlikely), but by 13 BC Julia had
politically eclipsed Livia, as has been understood and explained by
many scholars. The identification dates back to Milani
in 1891. Furthermore, Livia has no bond to Agrippa, whereas Julia
was his wife and expected to be the unofficial empress of
decades, during and beyond Augustus' lifetime. Julia also better
personified Augustus' new pro-natalism program, having already given
birth to four surviving children. Nevertheless, a majority of scholars
in 2000 preferred to see this figure as Livia.
The Tiberius figure was identified as such by Milani, an
identification that was rarely questioned until the 1940s. Moretti, in
making the glass museum for the
Ara Pacis at Mussolini's command,
guessed that the two consuls (Tiberius and Varus) of 13 flank
Augustus, so he saw this figure as M. Valerius Messalla. V.H. von
Poulsen and Toynbee proposed Iullus Antonius. But as has been
Augustus is flanked by priests, and this figure is
Tiberius. Boschung and Bonanno have both matched the face to early
period Tiberius statuary.
In relation to Antonia, Drusus, and Germanicus, H. Dütschke proposed
in 1880 the correct identity for Antonia and Drusus, but incorrectly
saw the toddler as Claudius. A. von Domaszewski amended this
family identification and correctly saw the child as Germanicus. He
also suggested that the
Ara Pacis is arranged in family groups. He
also correctly determined that the two-year-old child could be only
Germancius, whose exact birth on 24 May 15 BC is known. This helps
prove that the ceremony is an event in 13, although a few scholars
continued to argue the ceremony was that of 9 BC (until definitive
proof in favor of 13 came out in 1939).
In relation to the Domitii Ahenobarbi, von Domaszewski also proposed
in the same 1903 article that the last family on the South Wall is
that of the father of the emperor Nero (born Lucius Domitius
Ahenobarbus). This identification remains widespread today.
Pollini provides the best summary of this viewpoint in his article,
Ahenobarbi, Appuleii and Some Others on the Ara Pacis, where he points
out that the writer Suetonius specifically mentions that Nero's father
went "to the East on the staff of the young Gaius Caesar". As this
campaign is known to have begun in 2 BC, it means that Gnaeus must
have been of mature age by that time, therefore requiring a birth year
of at least 17 BC, which would, in turn, make him sufficiently old to
be the boy on the Ara Pacis. Pollini also reasons that the delay in
Gnaeus' career (only reaching the consulship in 32 AD) resulted from
his documented unpleasant character and points out that the careers of
other members of the family with undesirable traits also suffered
similar delays, notably Augustus' youngest grandson, Agrippa Postumus,
who had no career, and Germanicus' brother, the later emperor,
Claudius, whose career started late. However, there are some
dissenters from this theory. Stern claims that these figures cannot
possibly be the Domitii Ahenobarbi, on the basis of the belief that
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whom von Domaszewski saw as the boy of
the family, was born after the monument's completion. Syme had
also argued that Gnaeus was born after the monument's completion, but
accepted the identification of the Ahenobarbus family, preferring to
identify the boy as an otherwise unknown elder brother and the girl
figure as an otherwise unknown elder sister of Gnaeus—both of whom
died young. Syme also proved somewhat unintentionally, based on the
inscription ILS 6095 that Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus was governor of
Africa in 13 BC and could not be in
Rome for the Ara Pacis
Starting in 1894, Eugen Petersen suggested that
Lucius Caesar appears
with Agrippa, dressed in a "Trojan" costume for the equestrian event
called the Troy Game, which was held in 13 BC for the dedication of
the Theater of Marcellus. This theory won universal acceptance for
many decades, even though the evidence is overwhelmingly against. The
only early challenge was slight: Several scholars, noting the size and
age of the boy beside Agrippa, preferred to identify him as Gaius, an
opinion that prevailed by 1935. The boy is clearly not a Roman, given
his clothing, lack of bulla, and hair. So ingrained was Petersen's
theory, however, that when the distinguished scholar Erika Simon
(1968, 18) suggested the boy is a barbarian, she was subjected to
intense criticism until she retreated (e.g. Mario Torelli (1982, 60 n.
72), once called her opinion "perfect nonsense"). Subsequently, led by
Charles Brian Rose, scholars have realized Petersen was wrong: the boy
is a foreign prince. Stern adds the costume is wrong for a Trojan (no
Phrygian hat) and no bulla – worn by all Roman boys as protection
from the evil eye. Many others have contributed to disprove Petersen's
Excavation and conservation
Section of the interior frieze, showing a damaged original section
amid the modern reconstruction.
Ara Pacis, Smarthistory
In 1568 first fragmentary sculptures were rediscovered beneath Palazzo
Peretti in Lucina (a.k.a. Palazzo Fano-Almagià), right next to the
basilica San Lorenzo in Lucina, close to "Via del Corso", and have
found their way to the Villa Medici, the Vatican, the
Uffizi and the
In 1859 further sculptural fragments were found in the same area under
Teatro Olimpia, part of the Peretti Palace in via in Lucina, close to
the Italian Parliament Building, and the sculptures were recognized as
having belonged to the same monument.
In 1903, well after
Friedrich von Duhn
Friedrich von Duhn had recognized that the reliefs
belonged to the
Ara Pacis (1879–81), known from Augustus' memoir, a
request was sent to the Ministry of Public Education to continue the
excavations. Their success was made possible by the generosity of
Edoardo Almagià, who, as well as giving his permission for the
exploration, donated in advance whatever should be discovered
underneath the palace and made an ongoing financial contribution to
the expenses of the excavation; by July of that year, it became clear
that the conditions were extremely difficult and that the stability of
Teatro Olimpia might well be compromised; when about half the monument
had been examined and 53 fragments recovered, the excavation was
called to a halt.
In 1909 it was decided that several buildings closely surrounding
Augustus were to be destroyed to bring the mausoleum back
Between 1918 and 1921 the President of the Piedmontese Society of
Archaeology and Fine Arts, Oreste Mattirolo, for the first time
suggested that all fragments were to be collected and joined to
rebuild the altar.
In 1932 demolition of buildings surrounding the mausoleum, decided in
1909, started, together with may other demolitions carried on in those
years in the city.
In February 1937, the Italian Cabinet decreed that for the 2000th
anniversary of the birth of Augustus, the excavations should
recommence, using the most advanced technology. Seventy cubic metres
of ground under what was by then the
Cinema Nuovo Olimpia were frozen,
whilst the altar was extracted.
The fragments, although not complete, were collected and joined
together to rebuild the Ara; due to short time available (job had to
be completed before 23 September 1938, last day of Augustean 2000th
anniversary), few fragments available and poor historical sources to
refer to for restoration (basically a couple of ancient Roman coins),
the reconstruction had to be performed with the help of the Italian
artist Odoardo Ferretti.
The first protective building housing the monument by Morpurgo
In 1938 the finally reconstructed Ara was placed near the Mausoleum of
Augustus, and a big pavilion was built around it by architect Vittorio
Ballio Morpurgo as part of Benito Mussolini's attempt to create an
ancient Roman "theme park" to glorify Fascist Italy. Several dozens
of the buildings surrounding the Mausoleum were leveled to free up
space around the monument. This led to a great number of complaints
from the locals and the surrounding city, starting a long series of
arguments and criticisms of the
Ara Pacis project. These arguments are
ongoing despite having the original pavilion replaced by a new one in
2006, known as "
Ara Pacis museum".
The new protective building housing the monument by Meier
The historic Fascist style building around the Altar, locally known as
"teca del Morpurgo", was pulled down in 2006, and replaced by a glass
and steel structure in modern style, designed by architect Richard
Meier. The new cover building, which has been named "Ara Pacis
museum", now stands on the same site as Mussolini's structure. This
new structure is much bigger than previous one and it is divided in
multiple rooms and sections besides the main one containing the altar.
Meier's building construction caused new arguments and criticism,
after the ones which accompanied the first building construction, both
Rome inhabitants and stranger observers, probably due both to
political memory tied to the pre-existent pavilion and to visual
impact of the new pavilion, which in opinion of many is in great
contrast with surrounding historical buildings.
Nicolai Ouroussoff, of the
New York Times
New York Times called the building “a
contemporary expression of what can happen when an architect
fetishizes his own style out of a sense of self-aggrandizement.
Absurdly overscale, it seems indifferent to the naked beauty of the
dense and richly textured city around it.” The presiding
right-wing mayor Gianni Alemanno, backed since July 2008 by culture
undersecretary Francesco Maria Giro said he would tear down the new
structure. Mayor Alemanno has since changed his stance on
the building and has agreed with Mr. Meier to modifications including
drastically reducing the height of the wall between an open-air space
outside the museum and a busy road along the Tiber river. The city
plans to build a wide pedestrian area along the river and run the road
underneath it. "It's an improvement," says Meier, adding that "the
reason that wall was there has to do with traffic and noise. Once that
is eliminated, the idea of opening the piazza to the river is a good
one." The mayor’s office said Alemanno hopes to complete the project
before the end of his term in 2013.
Gallery of reliefs
Ara Pacis relief in the Louve.
Ara Pacis relief
Ara Pacis relief
Ara Pacis relief
Ara Pacis relief
References and notes
^ a b c d e f Diana E. E. Kleiner.
Ara Pacis Augustae (Multimedia
presentation). Yale University.
^ Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 8.5, 12.2
^ a b c Crow 2006, p. 5
^ Torelli 1982
^ Zanker 1990, p. 117
^ Torelli, 29-30.
^ Zanker 1990, p. 121
^ Galinsky 1966, p. 223
^ Dumézil 1958
^ Dumézil 1941
^ Freibergs 1986, pp. 3–32
^ Holliday 1990, p. 542
^ de Grummond 1990, pp. 663–677
^ de Grummond 1990, pp. 664, 668
^ Sieveking 1907
^ Weinstock 1960, pp. 44–58
^ Rehak 2001, p. 201
^ Rehak 2001
^ Stern, Buxton, Hallett, et al. Laurence Richardson credits students
in his seminar at Princeton with its inception.
^ Roberts 2007, line 7
^ Gerhard Koeppel, “Die historischen Reliefs der römischen
Ara Pacis Augustae," Teil 1. Bonner Jahrbücher 187
(1987), 101–157., Diane Atnally Conlin, The Artists of the Ara Pacis
(Chapel Hill 1997), Gaius Stern, "Women Children and Senators on the
Ara Pacis Augustae" Berk. diss. 2006, chapter 7.
^ a b I.M. Le M. Du Quesnay, Horace, Odes 4.5: Pro Reditu Imperatoris
Caesaris Divi Filii Augusti," in Homage to Horace: A Bimillenary
Celebration (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), p. 143 online; Mario
Torelli, Typology and Structure of Roman Historical Reliefs
(University of Michigan Press, 1992), pp. 48–49, 60 online.
^ Charles Brian Rose, "The Parthians in Augustan Rome," in American
Journal of Archaeology 109 (2005), p. 44, discussed pp. 36–44. Rose
points out that only Gaius would have been of an age to participate in
the Troy Game in 13 BC.
^ John Pollini, The Portraiture of Gaius and Lucius Caesar, (1987),
^ Plutarch, Life of Numa Pomilius Numa 7.4.
^ Gaius Stern, "Women Children and Senators on the
Ara Pacis Augustae"
Berk. diss. 2006, chapter 8; Bridget Buxton also employed these
identifications (on Stern's advice) in an earlier study "
Rome at the
Crossroads" (Berk. diss. 2003). See also Kleiner and Buxton, "Pledges
of Empire: The
Ara Pacis and the Donations of Rome," AJA (2008),
^ Loewy, E. (1926). "Bemerkungen zur Ara Pacis". JöAr. 23:
^ Stern, "Livia Augusta on the Ara Pacis," CAMWS-SS, Winston-Salem,
NC, Oct. 2004
^ Du Rocher, Histoire de la
Rome Antique (Paris 1997), 52-53
^ Boschung "Die Bildistypen der iulisch-claudischen Kaiserfamilien,"
JRA 6 (1993), 49
^ Inez Scott Ryberg "The Procession of the Ara Pacis," MAAR 19 (1949),
^ A. Milani "Le Recente scoperte d'antichitá in Verona, Röm. Mitt. 6
(1891), 287 ff.
Ara Pacis (1937), 37-44, Ara pacis Augustae(1948), 220,
figs. 166-67, pl. 26, (1957)
^ von Poulsen (1946), Acta archaeologica 17, 32 ff
^ Toynbee (1953), 85; J. Benario (1960), 348; Polacco (1960-61),
^ H. Dütschke, "Ueber ein römisches Relief mit Darstellung der
Familie des Augustus," Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums zu Hamburg(1880)
^ a b A. von Domaszewski, "Die Familie des
Augustus auf der Ara Pacis
JoAI 6 (1903) 57 ff.
^ E. Welin, "Die beiden Festtagge der
Ara Pacis Augustae,"
ΔΡΑΓΜΑ M.P. Nilsson dedicatum (1939), 500 ff. Welin's article
did not circulate widely, but a summary in English appears as an
appendix in Arnoldo Momigliano, "The
Peace of the Ara Pacis," Journal
of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), 228-231.
^ Suetonius, Life of Nero 5.1
^ John Pollini, "Ahenobarbi, Appuleii and Some Others on the Ara
Pacis", AJArch 90 (1986), p. 455
^ John Pollini, "Ahenobarbi, Appuleii and Some Others on the Ara
Pacis", AJArch 90 (1986), pp. 455-6
^ Gaius Stern, "Nero’s Father and Other Romantic Figures on the Ara
Pacis Augustae," CAMWS, St. Louis, MO, Apr. 2004, "Women, Children and
Senators on the
Ara Pacis Augustae," (Berk diss. 2006).
^ Sir Ronald Syme, "Neglected Children on the Ara Pacis," in AJArch 88
(1984), pp. 583-589, on Lucius as governor of Africa, see The Augustan
Aristocracy (1987), 62, especially 153, 318.
^ Charles Brian Rose wrote The variable value of the Eastern costume
and the uneasy interaction of Trojan and Parthian iconography can make
it difficult to determine whether one is viewing the founders of the
Romans or their fiercest opponents," in "The Parthians in Augustan
Rome," American Journal of Archaeology 109 (2005), p. 44, discussed
pp. 36–44. Rose points out that only Gaius would have been of an age
to participate in the Troy Game in 13 BC. See also Stern "Women,
Children and Senators on the
Ara Pacis Augustae," (Berk diss. 2006),
chapters 5 and 7.
^ "Ara Pacis".
Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved December 17,
^ "Scheda 6 FORMAZIONE DELLA CITTA' INDUSTRIALE XIX secolo".
^ Kallis, Aristotele (2011). The Third Rome, 1922-43: The Making of
the Fascist Capital.
^ Coccia, Benedetto (2008). Il mondo classico nell'immaginario
contemporaneo. Apes. p. 142.
^ Ouroussoff, Nicolai (2006-09-25). "An Oracle of Modernism in Ancient
Rome". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-02-28.
^ Kington, Tom (13 August 2008). "I just don't get modern art, says
Italy's culture minister". The Guardian. London. Retrieved
^ Sanderson, Rachel; Mills, Don (2006-04-22). "Modern building stirs
Roman passions". National Post. pp. A.19.
Rome mayor vows to remove museum". BBC. 2008-05-02. Retrieved
2008-08-17. The city of Rome's newly elected right-wing mayor has
caused waves by vowing to rip down a controversial museum created by a
Gianni Alemanno said the
Ara Pacis Museum, which encases
a 2,000-year-old sacrificial altar, "will be removed".
^ Times of Malta, press release (accessed July 6, 2016)
Crow, Charlotte (June 2006). "The Ara Pacis". History Today. 56
Augustus (c. 14 AD). Res Gestae Divi Augusti [The Achievements of the
Deified Augustus]. Check date values in: date= (help)
Galinsky (1966). "Venus in a relief of the
Ara Pacis Augustae".
American Journal of Archeology. 70: 223–243.
Holliday (December 1990). "Time, History, and Ritual on the Ara Pacis
Augustae". The Art Bulletin. 72 (4): 542–557.
Sieveking (1907). "Zur Ara Pacis". Jahresheft des Österreichischen
Archeologischen Institut (in German). 10.
Rehak (2001). "Rethinking the Meaning of the
Ara Pacis Augustae". The
Art Bulletin. 83.
Zanker, Paul (1990). The power of images in the Age of Augustus.
Translated by Alan Shapiro. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan
Press. ISBN 9780472081240.
Roberts, John, ed. (2007). "Āra Pācis". Oxford Dictionary of the
Classical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191727061.
Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February
2013. Subscription required.
Torelli, Mario (1982). Typology and Structure of Roman Historical
Reliefs. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Dumézil, Georges (1958). L'Idéologie tripartie des Indo-Européens:
réponse à MM. Walter Pötscher et Martin van den Bruwaene. Brussels:
Dumézil, Georges (1941). Jupiter Mars Quirinus. Gallimard.
Freibergs, G. (June 1986). "Indo-European Tripartition and the Ara
Pacis Augustae: An Excursus in Ideological Archeology". Numen. 33 (1):
de Grummond, Nancy (1990). "
Pax Augusta and the Horae on the Ara Pacis
Augustae". American Journal of Archaeology. 94: 663–677.
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Roman Studies. 50 (1–2): 44–58. JSTOR 298286.
Library resources about
Ara Pacis Augustae
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Castriota, David, The
Ara Pacis Augustae and the Imagery of Abundance
in Later Greek and Early Roman Imperial Art, Princeton University
Press, 1995, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 95.09.05, reviewed by Jas
Conlin, Diane Atnally 1997. The Artists of the Ara Pacis: The Process
of Hellenization in Roman Relief Sculpture (Studies in the History of
Rome University of North Carolina Press)
Peter J. Holliday, "Time, History, and Ritual on the Ara Pacis
Augustae" The Art Bulletin 72.4 (December 1990:542-557)
Rossini, Orietta 2006. Ara Pacis, Milan, Electa/.
Riferimenti diretti all'
Ara Pacis Augustae nelle fonti letterarie e
iconografiche antiche. Una galleria, in “La Rivista di Engramma”
n. 58 giugno/agosto 2007
Simona Dolari, Riscoperta e fortuna dei rilievi dell'Ara Pacis
nell'età della Rinascita, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 75
ottobre/novembre 200 9
Ara Pacis 1938. Storia di una anastilosi difficile, in
“La Rivista di Engramma” n. 75 ottobre/novembre 2009
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ara Pacis.
Official web site of the
Ara Pacis Museum of Rome, English version
Comprehensive, high quality photo documentation of the Ara Pacis
Samuel Ball Platner, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome: Ara
Browser with high-quality images
Several pages with photos of the sculpture
"Roman Power and Roman Imperial Sculpture"
Article from the New York Times, September 25 2006, "An Oracle of
Modernism in Ancient Rome" by Nicolai Ouroussoff
Ara Pacis Bibliography annotated with links
Moreno Maggi, A black and white photographic insight about Richard
Ara Pacis in Rome[permanent dead link]
Ara Pacis photos
Smarthistory essay by Dr. Jeffrey Becker.
High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of
Ara Pacis Art Atlas
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Coordinates: 41°54′23″N 12°28′32″E / 41.90639°N
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