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The Info List - Aphonopelma





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Diversity

61–87 species, depending on the source

Synonyms

Apachepelma Smith, 1995 Chaunopelma Chamberlin, 1940 Delopelma Petrunkevitch, 1939 Dugesiella Pocock, 1901 Gosipelma Chamberlin, 1940 Rhechostica Simon, 1892

Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
is a genus of tarantulas, members of which are native to the Americas. It includes nearly all of the North American tarantulas north of Mexico and a considerable part of the tarantulas which range into Central America. About 90 species have been described, but many, if not most, of these are inadequately studied and very little is known about them. Most are large and, like other New World tarantulas, they have urticating hairs. Most are docile in captivity. The taxonomy is poorly understood and species are difficult to tell apart, especially those that are brown or black without other pattern. In captivity they will eat crickets, in the wild they will eat most smaller insects. Most species found in the Southwestern United States have an adult leg span of 4.5 inches (11.5 cm), though some Arizona
Arizona
species have been known, on occasion, to just barely exceed 6 inches (16 cm). Among the species is Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
seemanni, which has striped legs and sometimes is called the zebra tarantula. As typical of spiders, this species produces silk from spinnerets on the abdomen, but it is also capable of producing a silk-like secretion from the feet that helps it gain traction.[2]

Contents

1 Taxonomy

1.1 Phylogeny 1.2 Species

2 References 3 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The genus has a complicated taxonomic history. It was erected in 1901 by Reginald I. Pocock when he split up Eurypelma (now Avicularia), with the type species Eurypelma seemanni. Pocock also separated off the genus Dugesiella. Two more new genera were later distinguished from Aphonopelma: Delopelma by Alexander Petrunkevitch in 1939 and Chaunopelma by Joseph C. Chamberlin in 1940. In 1985, Robert J. Raven reviewed mygalomorph genera and considered the differences among all these genera to be insignificant. He synonymized them under the name Rhechostica, which had been published by Eugène Simon
Eugène Simon
in 1892, so had priority. Since the name Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
was much better known than Rechostica, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 1991 agreed to give Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
precedence over Rhechostica. In 1995, Smith erected the genus Apachepelma for the species A. paloma; in 1997, Prentice transferred it back to Aphonopelma.[3] Phylogeny[edit] Molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the genus is not monophyletic. There appear to be two groups of species: one from Central America, including the type species A. seemanni from Costa Rica, and another made up of species found in the United States. The relationship between the two groups and the genus Sericopelma
Sericopelma
is shown in the cladogram below. It is likely that with further research a new genus will be needed for the American group of species.[3]

  Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
species from Central America

 

Sericopelma

Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
species from the US

Species[edit] As of February 2016[update], the World Spider
Spider
Catalog accepted 87 species.[1] A monograph of the genus within the United States, published in 2016, made some major revisions. Only 15 of the original 55 US species were fully accepted, 33 being reduced to synonyms and 7 to nomina dubia (doubtful names). A further 14 new US species were then described.[3] These revisions are shown in the following list.

Aphonopelma anax
Aphonopelma anax
(Chamberlin, 1940) – USA Aphonopelma anitahoffmannae Locht et al., 2005 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
apacheum Chamberlin, 1940 = A. chalcodes[3] Aphonopelma armada
Aphonopelma armada
(Chamberlin, 1940) – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
arnoldi Smith, 1995 = A. armada[3] Aphonopelma atomicum
Aphonopelma atomicum
Hamilton, 2016 — USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
baergi Chamberlin, 1940, nom. dub.[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
behlei Chamberlin, 1940 = A. marxi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
belindae Gabriel, 2011 – Panama Aphonopelma bicoloratum Struchen, Brändle & Schmidt, 1996 – Mexico Aphonopelma braunshausenii Tesmoingt, 1996 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
breenei Smith, 1995 = A. anax[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
brunnius Chamberlin, 1940 = A. iodius[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
burica Valerio, 1980 – Costa Rica Aphonopelma caniceps (Simon, 1891) – Mexico Aphonopelma catalina
Aphonopelma catalina
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma chalcodes
Aphonopelma chalcodes
Chamberlin, 1940 – USA Aphonopelma chamberlini Smith, 1995 = A. iodius[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
chambersi Smith, 1995 = A. eutylenum[3] Aphonopelma chiricahua
Aphonopelma chiricahua
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
clarki Smith, 1995 = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
clarum Chamberlin, 1940 = A. eutylenum[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
coloradanum (Chamberlin, 1940) = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
cookei Smith, 1995 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
cratium Chamberlin, 1940, nom. dub.[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
crinirufum (Valerio, 1980) – Costa Rica Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
crinitum (Pocock, 1901) – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
cryptethum Chamberlin, 1940 = A. eutylenum[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
duplex (Chamberlin, 1925) – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
echinum (Chamberlin, 1940) = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
eustathes (Chamberlin, 1940) – Mexico Aphonopelma eutylenum
Aphonopelma eutylenum
Chamberlin, 1940 – USA Aphonopelma gabeli
Aphonopelma gabeli
Smith, 1995 – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
geotoma (Chamberlin, 1937) – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
gertschi Smith, 1995 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
griseum Chamberlin, 1940 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
gurleyi Smith, 1995 = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
hageni (Strand, 1906) – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
harlingenum (Chamberlin, 1940) = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma helluo (Simon, 1891) – Mexico Aphonopelma hentzi
Aphonopelma hentzi
(Girard, 1852) – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
hesperum (Chamberlin, 1917) – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
heterops Chamberlin, 1940 = A. moderatum[3] Aphonopelma hollyi Smith, 1995 – USA Aphonopelma icenoglei
Aphonopelma icenoglei
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma iodius
Aphonopelma iodius
(Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939) – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
iviei Smith, 1995 = A. iodius[3] Aphonopelma joshua
Aphonopelma joshua
Prentice, 1997 – USA Aphonopelma johnnycashi
Aphonopelma johnnycashi
Hamilton, 2016 — USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
jungi Smith, 1995 = A. vorhiesi[3] Aphonopelma lanceolatum (Simon, 1891) – Nicaragua Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
latens (Chamberlin, 1917) – El Salvador, Nicaragua Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
levii Smith, 1995 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
lithodomum Chamberlin, 1940 = A. iodius[3] Aphonopelma madera
Aphonopelma madera
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma mareki
Aphonopelma mareki
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma marxi
Aphonopelma marxi
(Simon, 1891) – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
minchi Smith, 1995 = A. chalcodes[3] Aphonopelma moderatum
Aphonopelma moderatum
(Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939) – USA Aphonopelma moellendorfi Hamilton, 2016 – USA Aphonopelma mojave
Aphonopelma mojave
Prentice, 1997 – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
mooreae Smith, 1995 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
mordax (Ausserer, 1871), nom. dub.[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
nayaritum Chamberlin, 1940 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
odelli Smith, 1995 = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma pallidum (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) – Mexico Aphonopelma paloma
Aphonopelma paloma
Prentice, 1993 – USA Aphonopelma parvum
Aphonopelma parvum
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma peloncillo
Aphonopelma peloncillo
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma prenticei
Aphonopelma prenticei
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
phanum Chamberlin, 1940 = A. steindachneri[3] Aphonopelma phasmus Chamberlin, 1940 – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
platnicki Smith, 1995 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
prosoicum Chamberlin, 1940 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
punzoi Smith, 1995 = A. vorhiesi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
radinum (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939), nom. dub.[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
reversum Chamberlin, 1940 = A. steindachneri[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
rothi Smith, 1995 = A. chalcodes[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
ruedanum Chamberlin, 1940 – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
rusticum (Simon, 1891), nom. dub.[3] Aphonopelma saguaro
Aphonopelma saguaro
Hamilton, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
sandersoni Smith, 1995 = A. eutylenum[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
schmidti Smith, 1995 = A. chalcodes[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
sclerothrix (Valerio, 1980) – Costa Rica Aphonopelma seemanni
Aphonopelma seemanni
(F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) – Central America Aphonopelma serratum (Simon, 1891) – Mexico Aphonopelma smithi
Aphonopelma smithi
Smith, 1995 = A. iodius[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
stahnkei Smith, 1995 = A. chalcodes[3] Aphonopelma steindachneri
Aphonopelma steindachneri
(Ausserer, 1875) – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
stoicum (Chamberlin, 1925) – Mexico Aphonopelma sullivani
Aphonopelma sullivani
Smith, 1995 – USA Aphonopelma superstitionense
Aphonopelma superstitionense
Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
texense (Simon, 1891), nom. dub.[3] Aphonopelma truncatum (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) – Mexico Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
vogelae Smith, 1995 = A. marxi[3] Aphonopelma vorhiesi
Aphonopelma vorhiesi
(Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939) – USA Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
waconum (Chamberlin, 1940) = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
wichitanum (Chamberlin, 1940) = A. hentzi[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
xanthochromum (Valerio, 1980) – Costa Rica Aphonopelma xwalxwal
Aphonopelma xwalxwal
Hamilton, 2016 – USA[3] Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
zionis Chamberlin, 1940 = A. iodius[3]

References[edit]

^ a b " Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
Pocock, 1901", World Spider
Spider
Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2016-02-06  ^ Gorb, SN; Niederegger S; Hayashi CY; Summers AP; Votsch W; Walther P (Sep 28, 2006). "Biomaterials: silk-like secretion from tarantula feet". Nature. 443 (7110): 407. doi:10.1038/443407a. PMID 17006505.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Hamilton, C.A.; Hendrixson, B.E. & Bond, J.E. (2016), "Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States", ZooKeys, 560: 1–340, doi:10.3897/zookeys.560.6264, PMC 4768370 , PMID 27006611 

External links[edit]

Media related to Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Aphonopelma
Aphonopelma
at Wikispecies

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q137594 ADW: Aphonopelma BugGuide: 34693 EoL: 111507 EPPO: 1APPMG GBIF: 2153559 iNaturalist: 47423 ITIS: 847890 NCBI: 6896 NZOR: 5783a3be-164a-4aef-a89e-72d6b123f2f5 WSC: urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spi

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