Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is
hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A
person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism
is generally considered to be a form of racism.
Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging from expressions
of hatred of or discrimination against individual
Jews to organized
pogroms by mobs, state police, or even military attacks on entire
Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common usage
until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish
incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland
massacres preceding the
First Crusade in 1096, the
Edict of Expulsion
from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish
Jews in 1391, the
persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from Spain in
1492, the Cossack massacres in
Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various
anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the
Dreyfus affair in France, the
Holocaust in German-occupied
Europe, official Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and
Arab and Muslim
involvement in the Jewish exodus from
The root word Semite gives the false impression that antisemitism is
directed against all Semitic people, e.g., including
Assyrians. The compound word antisemite was popularized in
1879 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass
("Jew-hatred"), and that has been its common use
1 Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia
1.4 Evolution of usage
2.1 Cultural antisemitism
2.2 Religious antisemitism
2.3 Economic antisemitism
2.4 Racial antisemitism
2.5 Political antisemitism
2.6 Conspiracy theories
2.7 New antisemitism
3.1 Ancient world
3.2 Persecutions during the Middle Ages
3.3 17th century
3.5 Imperial Russia
3.7 Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century
3.8 Secular or racial antisemitism
3.9 20th century
3.10 21st-century European antisemitism
5 Current situation
5.1.5 South Africa
5.2.5 Palestinian territories
5.2.7 Saudi Arabia
5.3.14 United Kingdom
5.4 North America
5.4.2 United States
5.5 South America
6 See also
8 External links
Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia
1879 statute of the
The origin of "antisemitic" terminologies is found in the responses of
Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein
writes: "The compound anti-Semitism appears to have been used first by
Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his 'anti-Semitic
prejudices' [i.e., his derogation of the "Semites" as a race]."
Avner Falk similarly writes: 'The German word antisemitisch was first
used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider
(1816–1907) in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile (antisemitic
prejudices). Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise the
French philosopher Ernest Renan's false ideas about how "Semitic
races" were inferior to "
Pseudoscientific theories concerning race, civilization, and
"progress" had become quite widespread in
Europe in the second half of
the 19th century, especially as Prussian nationalistic historian
Heinrich von Treitschke
Heinrich von Treitschke did much to promote this form of racism. He
coined the phrase "the
Jews are our misfortune" which would later be
widely used by Nazis. According to Avner Falk, Treitschke uses the
term "Semitic" almost synonymously with "Jewish", in contrast to
Renan's use of it to refer to a whole range of peoples, based
generally on linguistic criteria.
According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally used by its
authors to "stress the radical difference between their own
'antisemitism' and earlier forms of antagonism toward
Cover page of Marr's The Way to Victory of Germanicism over Judaism,
In 1879 German journalist
Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet, Der Sieg
des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen
Standpunkt aus betrachtet (The Victory of the Jewish Spirit over the
Germanic Spirit. Observed from a non-religious perspective) in which
he used the word Semitismus interchangeably with the word Judentum to
denote both "Jewry" (the
Jews as a collective) and "jewishness" (the
quality of being Jewish, or the Jewish spirit).
This use of Semitismus was followed by a coining of "Antisemitismus"
which was used to indicate opposition to the
Jews as a people[citation
needed] and opposition to the Jewish spirit, which Marr interpreted as
infiltrating German culture. His next pamphlet, Der Weg zum Siege des
Germanenthums über das Judenthum (The Way to Victory of the Germanic
Spirit over the Jewish Spirit, 1880), presents a development of Marr's
ideas further and may present the first published use of the German
word Antisemitismus, "antisemitism".
The pamphlet became very popular, and in the same year he founded the
Antisemiten-Liga (League of Antisemites), apparently named to
follow the "Anti-Kanzler-Liga" (Anti-Chancellor League). The
league was the first German organization committed specifically to
combating the alleged threat to
Germany and German culture posed by
Jews and their influence, and advocating their forced removal from
So far as can be ascertained, the word was first widely printed in
1881, when Marr published Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefte, and Wilhelm
Scherer used the term Antisemiten in the January issue of Neue Freie
Jewish Encyclopedia reports, "In February 1881, a correspondent of
Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums
Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums speaks of 'Anti-Semitism' as a
designation which recently came into use ("Allg. Zeit. d. Jud." 1881,
p. 138). On 19 July 1882, the editor says, 'This quite recent
Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old.'"
The related term "philosemitism" was coined around 1885.[citation
From the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special racial
connotations and meant specifically prejudice against Jews. The
term is confusing, for in modern usage 'Semitic' designates a language
group, not a race. In this sense, the term is a misnomer, since there
are many speakers of
Semitic languages (e.g. Arabs, Ethiopians, and
Assyrians) who are not the objects of anti-Semitic prejudices, while
there are many
Jews who do not speak Hebrew, a Semitic language.
Though 'antisemitism' has been used to describe prejudice against
people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such usage
has been questioned.
The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen (antisemitism or
anti-Semitism). Some scholars favor the unhyphenated form because, "If
you use the hyphenated form, you consider the words 'Semitism',
'Semite', 'Semitic' as meaningful" whereas "in antisemitic parlance,
'Semites' really stands for Jews, just that." For
Emil Fackenheim supported the unhyphenated spelling, in order
to "[dispel] the notion that there is an entity 'Semitism' which
'anti-Semitism' opposes." Others endorsing an unhyphenated term
for the same reason include Padraic O'Hare, professor of Religious and
Theological Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of
Muslim Relations at Merrimack College; Yehuda Bauer,
Holocaust studies at the Avraham Harman Institute of
Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University of Jerusalem; and James
Carroll, historian and novelist. According to Carroll, who first cites
O'Hare and Bauer on "the existence of something called 'Semitism'",
"the hyphenated word thus reflects the bipolarity that is at the heart
of the problem of antisemitism".
Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete nature of
the term Semitic as a racial term, have been raised since at least the
Though the general definition of antisemitism is hostility or
prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf Blaschke, has become an
"umbrella term for negative stereotypes about Jews", a number of
authorities have developed more formal definitions.
Holocaust scholar and
City University of New York
City University of New York professor Helen Fein
defines it as "a persisting latent structure of hostile beliefs
Jews as a collective manifested in individuals as attitudes,
and in culture as myth, ideology, folklore and imagery, and in
actions—social or legal discrimination, political mobilization
against the Jews, and collective or state violence—which results in
and/or is designed to distance, displace, or destroy
Jews as Jews."
Elaborating on Fein's definition, Dietz Bering of the University of
Cologne writes that, to antisemites, "
Jews are not only partially but
totally bad by nature, that is, their bad traits are incorrigible.
Because of this bad nature: (1)
Jews have to be seen not as
individuals but as a collective. (2)
Jews remain essentially alien in
the surrounding societies. (3)
Jews bring disaster on their 'host
societies' or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly,
therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial,
bad Jewish character."
For Sonja Weinberg, as distinct from economic and religious
anti-Judaism, antisemitism in its modern form shows conceptual
innovation, a resort to 'science' to defend itself, new functional
forms and organisational differences. It was anti-liberal, racialist
and nationalist. It promoted the myth that
Jews conspired to 'judaise'
the world; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled
dissatisfactions among victims of the capitalist system; and it was
used as a conservative cultural code to fight emancipation and
Caricature by C.Léandre (France, 1898) showing Rothschild with the
world in his hands
Bernard Lewis defines antisemitism as a special case of prejudice,
hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way
different from the rest. According to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by
two distinct features:
Jews are judged according to a standard
different from that applied to others, and they are accused of "cosmic
evil." Thus, "it is perfectly possible to hate and even to persecute
Jews without necessarily being anti-Semitic" unless this hatred or
persecution displays one of the two features specific to
There have been a number of efforts by international and governmental
bodies to define antisemitism formally. The United States Department
of State states that "while there is no universally accepted
definition, there is a generally clear understanding of what the term
encompasses." For the purposes of its 2005 Report on Global
Anti-Semitism, the term was considered to mean "hatred toward
Jews—individually and as a group—that can be attributed to the
Jewish religion and/or ethnicity."
In 2005, the European Monitoring Centre on
Fundamental Rights Agency), then an agency of the European Union,
developed a more detailed working definition, which states:
Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed
as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of
antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals
and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and
religious facilities." It also adds that "such manifestations could
also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity,"
but that "criticism of
Israel similar to that leveled against any
other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic." It provides
contemporary examples of ways in which antisemitism may manifest
itself, including: promoting the harming of
Jews in the name of an
ideology or religion; promoting negative stereotypes of Jews; holding
Jews collectively responsible for the actions of an individual Jewish
person or group; denying the
Holocaust or accusing
exaggerating it; and accusing
Jews of dual loyalty or a greater
Israel than their own country. It also lists ways in
Israel could be antisemitic, and states that denying
the Jewish people their right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming
that the existence of a state of
Israel is a racist endeavor, can be a
manifestation of antisemitism—as can applying double standards by
Israel a behavior not expected or demanded of any other
democratic nation, or holding
Jews collectively responsible for the
actions of the State of Israel. Late in 2013, the definition was
removed from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency. A
spokesperson said that it had never been regarded as official and that
the agency did not intend to develop its own definition. However,
despite its disappearance from the website of the Fundamental Rights
Agency, the definition has gained widespread international use. The
definition has been adopted by the
European Parliament Working Group
on Antisemitism, in 2010 it was adopted by the United States
Department of State, in 2014 it was adopted in the Operational
Hate Crime Guidance of the UK College of Policing and was also
adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism, and in 2016 it was
adopted by the International
Holocaust Remembrance Alliance,
making it the most widely adopted definition of antisemitism around
France elections poster for self-described "candidat
antisémite" Adolphe Willette: "The
Jews are a different race, hostile
to our own... Judaism, there is the enemy!" (see file for complete
Evolution of usage
Wilhelm Marr founded the Antisemiten-Liga (Anti-Semitic
League). Identification with antisemitism and as an antisemite was
politically advantageous in
Europe during the late 19th century. For
example, Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of fin de siècle Vienna,
skillfully exploited antisemitism as a way of channeling public
discontent to his political advantage. In its 1910 obituary of
The New York Times
The New York Times notes that Lueger was "Chairman of the
Christian Social Union of the Parliament and of the Anti-Semitic Union
of the Diet of Lower Austria. In 1895
A. C. Cuza
A. C. Cuza organized the
Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest. In the period before
World War II, when animosity towards
Jews was far more commonplace, it
was not uncommon for a person, an organization, or a political party
to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic.
The early Zionist pioneer Leon Pinsker, a professional physician,
preferred the clinical-sounding term Judeophobia to antisemitism,
which he regarded as a misnomer. The word Judeophobia first appeared
in his pamphlet "Auto-Emancipation", published anonymously in German
in September 1882, where it was described as an irrational fear or
hatred of Jews. According to Pinsker, this irrational fear was an
Judeophobia is a form of demonopathy, with the distinction that the
Jewish ghost has become known to the whole race of mankind, not merely
to certain races.... Judeophobia is a psychic disorder. As a psychic
disorder it is hereditary, and as a disease transmitted for two
thousand years it is incurable.... Thus have
Judaism and Jew-hatred
passed through history for centuries as inseparable companions....
Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy,
peculiar to the human race, and represented Jew-hatred as based upon
an inherited aberration of the human mind, we must draw the important
conclusion, that we must give up contending against these hostile
impulses, just as we give up contending against every other inherited
In the aftermath of the
Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, German
propaganda minister Goebbels announced: "The German people is
anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be
provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race."
After the 1945 victory of the Allies over
Nazi Germany, and
particularly after the full extent of the
Nazi genocide against the
Jews became known, the term "anti-Semitism" acquired pejorative
connotations. This marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era
just decades earlier when "Jew" was used as a pejorative term.
Yehuda Bauer wrote in 1984: "There are no anti-Semites in the
world ... Nobody says, 'I am anti-Semitic.' You cannot, after
Hitler. The word has gone out of fashion."
Jews (identified by the mandatory
Jewish badge and Jewish hat) being
burned during the
Black Death in 1348.
Antisemitism manifests itself in a variety of ways. René König
mentions social antisemitism, economic antisemitism, religious
antisemitism, and political antisemitism as examples. König points
out that these different forms demonstrate that the "origins of
anti-Semitic prejudices are rooted in different historical periods."
König asserts that differences in the chronology of different
antisemitic prejudices and the irregular distribution of such
prejudices over different segments of the population create "serious
difficulties in the definition of the different kinds of
anti-Semitism." These difficulties may contribute to the existence
of different taxonomies that have been developed to categorize the
forms of antisemitism. The forms identified are substantially the
same; it is primarily the number of forms and their definitions that
Bernard Lazare identifies three forms of antisemitism:
Christian antisemitism, economic antisemitism, and ethnologic
antisemitism. William Brustein names four categories: religious,
racial, economic and political. The
Roman Catholic historian
Edward Flannery distinguished four varieties of antisemitism:
political and economic antisemitism, giving as examples Cicero and
theological or religious antisemitism, sometimes known as
nationalistic antisemitism, citing
Voltaire and other Enlightenment
thinkers, who attacked
Jews for supposedly having certain
characteristics, such as greed and arrogance, and for observing
customs such as kashrut and Shabbat;
and racial antisemitism, with its extreme form resulting in the
Holocaust by the Nazis.
Louis Harap separates "economic antisemitism" and merges "political"
and "nationalistic" antisemitism into "ideological antisemitism".
Harap also adds a category of "social antisemitism".
Jew as Christ-killer),
Jew as banker, usurer, money-obsessed),
Jew as social inferior, "pushy," vulgar, therefore excluded
from personal contact),
Jews as an inferior "race"),
Jews regarded as subversive or revolutionary),
Jews regarded as undermining the moral and structural fiber
Gustavo Perednik has argued that what he terms "Judeophobia" has a
number of unique traits which set it apart from other forms of racism,
including permanence, depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance,
ubiquity, and danger. He also wrote in his book The Judeophobia
Jews were accused by the nationalists of being the creators
of Communism; by the Communists of ruling Capitalism. If they live in
non-Jewish countries, they are accused of double-loyalties; if they
live in the Jewish country, of being racists. When they spend their
money, they are reproached for being ostentatious; when they don't
spend their money, of being avaricious. They are called rootless
cosmopolitans or hardened chauvinists. If they assimilate, they are
accused of being fifth-columnists, if they don't, of shutting
Louis Harap defines cultural antisemitism as "that species of
anti-Semitism that charges the
Jews with corrupting a given culture
and attempting to supplant or succeeding in supplanting the preferred
culture with a uniform, crude, "Jewish" culture. Similarly, Eric
Kandel characterizes cultural antisemitism as being based on the idea
of "Jewishness" as a "religious or cultural tradition that is acquired
through learning, through distinctive traditions and education."
According to Kandel, this form of antisemitism views
possessing "unattractive psychological and social characteristics that
are acquired through acculturation." Niewyk and Nicosia
characterize cultural antisemitism as focusing on and condemning "the
Jews' aloofness from the societies in which they live." An
important feature of cultural antisemitism is that it considers the
negative attributes of
Judaism to be redeemable by education or by
See also: Anti-Judaism, Christianity and antisemitism, and
Execution of Mariana de Carabajal (converted Jew), accused of a
relapse into Judaism, Mexico City, 1601
Religious antisemitism, also known as anti-Judaism, is antipathy
Jews because of their perceived religious beliefs. In theory,
antisemitism and attacks against individual
Jews would stop if Jews
Judaism or changed their public faith, especially
by conversion to the official or right religion. However, in some
cases discrimination continues after conversion, as in the case of
Marranos or Iberian
Jews in the late 15th century and
16th century who were suspected of secretly practising
Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian
conflict, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times.
Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, "most scholars ignore the Christian
foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests and invoke
political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial
antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like." William Nichols
draws a distinction between religious antisemitism and modern
antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds: "The dividing line was
the possibility of effective conversion... a
Jew ceased to be a Jew
upon baptism." From the perspective of racial antisemitism, however,
"... the assimilated
Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism.... From
the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines
of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards
Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its
appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards
Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even
before explicitly racist doctrines appear."
The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that
harmful economic activities or that economic activities become harmful
when they are performed by Jews.
Jews and money underpins the most damaging and lasting
Antisemitic canards. Antisemites claim that
Jews control the world
finances, a theory promoted in the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders
of Zion, and later repeated by
Henry Ford and his Dearborn
Independent. In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread in
books such as The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews
published by the Nation of Islam, and on the internet. Derek Penslar
writes that there are two components to the financial canards:
Jews are savages that "are temperamentally incapable of performing
Jews are "leaders of a financial cabal seeking world domination"
Abraham Foxman describes six facets of the financial canards:
Jews are wealthy
Jews are stingy and greedy
Jews control the business world
Jewish religion emphasizes profit and materialism
It is okay for
Jews to cheat non-Jews
Jews use their power to benefit "their own kind"
Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as "[Jews] control the banks, the
money supply, the economy, and businesses—of the community, of the
country, of the world". Krefetz gives, as illustrations, many
slurs and proverbs (in several different languages) which suggest that
Jews are stingy, or greedy, or miserly, or aggressive bargainers.
During the nineteenth century,
Jews were described as "scurrilous,
stupid, and tight-fisted", but after the
Jewish Emancipation and the
Jews to the middle- or upper-class in
Europe were portrayed as
"clever, devious, and manipulative financiers out to dominate [world
Léon Poliakov asserts that economic antisemitism is not a distinct
form of antisemitism, but merely a manifestation of theologic
antisemitism (because, without the theological causes of the economic
antisemitism, there would be no economic antisemitism). In opposition
to this view,
Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the
economic antisemitism is "distinct and nearly constant" but
theological antisemitism is "often subdued".
An academic study by Francesco D’Acunto, Marcel Prokopczuk, and
Michael Weber showed that people who live in areas of
contain the most brutal history of anti-Semitic persecution are more
likely to be distrustful of finance in general. Therefore, they tended
to invest less money in the stock market and make poor financial
decisions. The study concluded "that the persecution of minorities
reduces not only the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the
persecutors as well."
Main article: Racial antisemitism
Jewish Soviet soldier taken prisoner by the German Army, August 1941.
At least 50,000 Jewish soldiers were shot after
Racial antisemitism is prejudice against
Jews as a racial/ethnic
group, rather than
Judaism as a religion.
Racial antisemitism is the idea that the
Jews are a distinct and
inferior race compared to their host nations. In the late 19th century
and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the
eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior. It
more specifically claimed that Northern Europeans, or "Aryans", were
superior. Racial antisemites saw the
Jews as part of a Semitic race
and emphasized their non-European origins and culture. They saw Jews
as beyond redemption even if they converted to the majority
Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of
Judaism with the hatred of
Jews as a group. In the context of the Industrial Revolution,
following the Jewish Emancipation,
Jews rapidly urbanized and
experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing
role of religion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a
combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, and
resentment at the socio-economic success of the
Jews led to the newer,
and more virulent, racist antisemitism.
According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism may be
distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic
grounds. "The dividing line was the possibility of effective
Jew ceased to be a
Jew upon baptism." However, with
racial antisemitism, "Now the assimilated
Jew was still a Jew, even
after baptism.... From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer
possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and
racial forms of hostility towards Jews... Once
Jews have been
emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving
behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term
antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist
In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of
Jews were enacted in Western European countries. The old
laws restricting them to ghettos, as well as the many laws that
limited their property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were
rescinded. Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to
Jews on religious grounds persisted and was supplemented by racial
antisemitism, encouraged by the work of racial theorists such as
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau and particularly his Essay on the Inequality
of the Human Race of 1853–5.
Nationalist agendas based on ethnicity,
known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded the
Jews from the national
community as an alien race. Allied to this were theories of Social
Darwinism, which stressed a putative conflict between higher and lower
races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by northern
Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic
"The whole problem of the
Jews exists only in nation states, for here
their energy and higher intelligence, their accumulated capital of
spirit and will, gathered from generation to generation through a long
schooling in suffering, must become so preponderant as to arouse mass
envy and hatred. In almost all contemporary nations, therefore – in
direct proportion to the degree to which they act up nationalistially
– the literary obscenity of leading the
Jews to slaughter as
scapegoats of every conceivable public and internal misfortune is
— Friedrich Nietzsche, 1886, [MA 1 475]
William Brustein defines political antisemitism as hostility toward
Jews based on the belief that
Jews seek national and/or world power."
Yisrael Gutman characterizes political antisemitism as tending to "lay
responsibility on the
Jews for defeats and political economic crises"
while seeking to "exploit opposition and resistance to Jewish
influence as elements in political party platforms."
According to Viktor Karády, political antisemitism became widespread
after the legal emancipation of the
Jews and sought to reverse some of
the consequences of that emancipation. 
See also: List of conspiracy theories §
Holocaust denial and
Jewish conspiracy theories are also considered
forms of antisemitism.
Zoological conspiracy theories
Zoological conspiracy theories have been propagated by
Arab media and
Arabic language websites, alleging a "Zionist plot" behind the use of
animals to attack civilians or to conduct espionage.
Main article: New antisemitism
Starting in the 1990s, some scholars have advanced the concept of new
antisemitism, coming simultaneously from the left, the right, and
radical Islam, which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a
Jewish homeland in the State of Israel, and they argue that the
language of anti-
Zionism and criticism of
Israel are used to attack
Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept
believe that criticisms of
Zionism are often
disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and they attribute this
to antisemitism. Jewish scholar
Gustavo Perednik posited in 2004 that
Zionism in itself represents a form of discrimination against
Jews, in that it singles out Jewish national aspirations as an
illegitimate and racist endeavor, and "proposes actions that would
result in the death of millions of Jews". It is asserted that the
new antisemitism deploys traditional antisemitic motifs, including
older motifs such as the blood libel.
Critics of the concept view it as trivializing the meaning of
antisemitism, and as exploiting antisemitism in order to silence
debate and to deflect attention from legitimate criticism of the State
of Israel, and, by associating anti-
Zionism with antisemitism, misused
to taint anyone opposed to Israeli actions and policies.
Main article: Indology
German indologists arbitrarily identified "layers" in the Mahabharata
Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism
via the Indo-
Aryan migration theory. This identification required
Brahmins with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahmanism.
Main article: History of antisemitism
The massacre of the Banu Qurayza, a Jewish tribe in Medina, 627
Many authors see the roots of modern antisemitism in both pagan
antiquity and early Christianity. Jerome Chanes identifies six stages
in the historical development of antisemitism:
Judaism in ancient Greece and Rome which was
primarily ethnic in nature
Christian antisemitism in antiquity and the
Middle Ages which was
religious in nature and has extended into modern times
Muslim antisemitism which was—at least, in its classical
form—nuanced in that
Jews were a protected class
Political, social and economic antisemitism of Enlightenment and
Europe which laid the groundwork for racial
Racial antisemitism that arose in the 19th century and culminated in
Nazism in the 20th century
Contemporary antisemitism which has been labeled by some as the New
Chanes suggests that these six stages could be merged into three
categories: "ancient antisemitism, which was primarily ethnic in
nature; Christian antisemitism, which was religious; and the racial
antisemitism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries."
The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced to the
3rd century BCE to Alexandria, the home to the largest Jewish
diaspora community in the world at the time and where the Septuagint,
a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced. Manetho, an
Egyptian priest and historian of that era, wrote scathingly of the
Jews. His themes are repeated in the works of Chaeremon, Lysimachus,
Poseidonius, Apollonius Molon, and in
Apion and Tacitus.
Agatharchides of Cnidus ridiculed the practices of the
Jews and the
"absurdity of their Law", making a mocking reference to how Ptolemy
Lagus was able to invade
Jerusalem in 320 BCE because its inhabitants
were observing the Shabbat. One of the earliest anti-Jewish
edicts, promulgated by
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes in about 170–167 BCE,
sparked a revolt of the
Maccabees in Judea.:238
In view of Manetho's anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism may have
Egypt and been spread by "the Greek retelling of Ancient
Egyptian prejudices". The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of
Alexandria describes an attack on
Alexandria in 38 CE in which
Jews died. The violence in
Alexandria may have
been caused by the
Jews being portrayed as misanthropes.
Tcherikover argues that the reason for hatred of
Jews in the
Hellenistic period was their separateness in the Greek cities, the
poleis. Bohak has argued, however, that early animosity against
Jews cannot be regarded as being anti-Judaic or antisemitic unless
it arose from attitudes that were held against the
Jews alone, and
Greeks showed animosity toward any group they regarded as
barbarians. Statements exhibiting prejudice against
their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman
Edward Flannery writes that it was the Jews' refusal to
accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out.
Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century
BCE, wrote that
Moses "in remembrance of the exile of his people,
instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life."
Manetho, an Egyptian historian, wrote that the
Jews were expelled
Egyptian lepers who had been taught by
Moses "not to adore the gods."
Edward Flannery describes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially
"cultural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played out in
There are examples of
Hellenistic rulers desecrating the Temple and
banning Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision, Shabbat
observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc. Examples may also be
found in anti-Jewish riots in
Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.
Jewish diaspora on the Nile island Elephantine, which was founded
by mercenaries, experienced the destruction of its temple in 410
Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire
were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions.
According to Suetonius, the emperor
Tiberius expelled from Rome Jews
who had gone to live there. The 18th-century English historian Edward
Gibbon identified a more tolerant period in Roman-Jewish relations
beginning in about 160 CE. However, when Christianity became the
state religion of the Roman Empire, the state's attitude towards the
Jews gradually worsened.
James Carroll asserted: "
Jews accounted for 10% of the total
population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors such
as pogroms and conversions had not intervened, there would be 200
Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13
Persecutions during the Middle Ages
Jews in the Middle Ages
Part of a series on
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Conversion to Judaism
Jewish Koine Greek
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Christianity and Judaism
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Jews and Judaism
In the late 6th century CE, the newly Catholicised Visigothic kingdom
in Hispania issued a series of anti-Jewish edicts which forbad Jews
from marrying Christians, practicing circumcision, and observing
Jewish holy days. Continuing throughout the 7th century, both
Visigothic kings and the Church were active in creating social
aggression and towards
Jews with "civic and ecclesiastic
punishments", ranging between forced conversion, slavery, exile
From the 9th century, the medieval Islamic world classified
Christians as dhimmis, and allowed
Jews to practice their religion
more freely than they could do in medieval Christian Europe. Under
Islamic rule, there was a Golden age of
Jewish culture in Spain that
lasted until at least the 11th century. It ended when several
Muslim pogroms against
Jews took place on the Iberian Peninsula,
including those that occurred in Córdoba in 1011 and in Granada in
1066. Several decrees ordering the destruction of
synagogues were also enacted in Egypt, Syria,
Yemen from the
11th century. In addition,
Jews were forced to convert to
face death in some parts of Yemen,
Baghdad several times
between the 12th and 18th centuries. The Almohads, who had taken
control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by
1147, were far more fundamentalist in outlook compared to their
predecessors, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the
choice of either death or conversion, many
Jews and Christians
emigrated. Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled
east to more tolerant
Muslim lands, while some others went
northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.
Middle Ages in
Europe there was persecution against
many places, with blood libels, expulsions, forced conversions and
massacres. A main justification of prejudice against
Jews in Europe
The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades. In the First
Crusade (1096) hundreds or even thousands of
Jews were killed as the
crusaders arrived. This was the first major outbreak of
anti-Jewish violence in Christian
Europe outside Spain and was cited
by Zionists in the 19th century as indicating the need for a state of
Second Crusade (1147) the
Germany were subject to
several massacres. The
Jews were also subjected to attacks by the
Crusades of 1251 and 1320, as well as Rintfleisch knights
in 1298. The
Crusades were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290,
the banishing of all English Jews; in 1394, the expulsion of 100,000
Jews in France; and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from
Austria. Many of the expelled
Jews fled to Poland. In medieval
and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of
antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations
was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the
Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans
(especially Vincent Ferrer), who combed
Europe and promoted
antisemitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals.
Black Death epidemics devastated
Europe in the mid-14th
century, causing the death of a large part of the population, Jews
were used as scapegoats. Rumors spread that they caused the disease by
deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were
destroyed in numerous persecutions. Although
Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI tried to
protect them by issuing two papal bulls in 1348, the first on 6 July
and an additional one several months later, 900
Jews were burned alive
in Strasbourg, where the plague had not yet affected the city.
During the mid-to-late 17th century the Polish–Lithuanian
Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the
Commonwealth lost over a third of its population (over 3 million
people), and Jewish losses were counted in the hundreds of thousands.
The first of these conflicts was the Khmelnytsky Uprising, when Bohdan
Khmelnytsky's supporters massacred tens of thousands of
Jews in the
eastern and southern areas he controlled (today's Ukraine). The
precise number of dead may never be known, but the decrease of the
Jewish population during that period is estimated at 100,000 to
200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and
captivity in the Ottoman Empire, called jasyr.
European immigrants to the United States brought antisemitism to the
country as early as the 17th century. Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch
governor of New Amsterdam, implemented plans to prevent
settling in the city. During the Colonial Era, the American government
limited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not until
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War that
Jews gained legal rights,
including the right to vote. However, even at their peak, the
Jews in the United States were never as stringent as
they had been in Europe.
Zaydi imamate of Yemen,
Jews were also singled out for
discrimination in the 17th century, which culminated in the general
expulsion of all
Jews from places in
Yemen to the arid coastal plain
Tihamah and which became known as the Mawza Exile.
In 1744, Frederick II of
Prussia limited the number of
Jews allowed to
Breslau to only ten so-called "protected" Jewish families and
encouraged a similar practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he
issued the Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die
Judenschaft: the "protected"
Jews had an alternative to "either
abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (quoting Simon Dubnow). In the
same year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa ordered
Jews out of
Bohemia but soon reversed her position, on the condition that
for their readmission every ten years. This extortion was known as
malke-geld (queen's money). In 1752 she introduced the law limiting
each Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph II abolished most of
these persecution practices in his Toleranzpatent, on the condition
Yiddish and Hebrew were eliminated from public records and that
judicial autonomy was annulled.
Moses Mendelssohn wrote that "Such a
tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open
Jews were slaughtered by Cossack Haidamaks in the 1768
massacre of Uman. In 1772, the empress of
Russia Catherine II forced
Jews into the
Pale of Settlement
Pale of Settlement and to stay in their shtetls and
forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the
partition of Poland. From 1804,
Jews were banned from their
villages, and began to stream into the towns. A decree by emperor
Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I of Russia in 1827 conscripted
Jews under 18 years of age
into the cantonist schools for a 25-year military service in order to
promote baptism. Policy towards
Jews was liberalised somewhat
Czar Alexander II
Czar Alexander II (r. 1855–1881). However, his
assassination in 1881 served as a pretext for further repression such
May Laws of 1882. Konstantin Pobedonostsev, nicknamed the
"black czar" and tutor to the czarevitch, later crowned Czar Nicholas
II, declared that "One third of the
Jews must die, one third must
emigrate, and one third be converted to Christianity".
According to Arnold Ages, Voltaire's "Lettres philosophiques,
Dictionnaire philosophique, and Candide, to name but a few of his
better known works, are saturated with comments on
Jews and Judaism
and the vast majority are negative". Paul H. Meyer adds: "There
is no question but that Voltaire, particularly in his latter years,
nursed a violent hatred of the
Jews and it is equally certain that his
animosity...did have a considerable impact on public opinion in
France." Thirty of the 118 articles in Voltaire's Dictionnaire
Jews and described them in consistently
Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century
Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that
the position of
Jews worsened in
Benny Morris writes
that one symbol of Jewish degradation was the phenomenon of
Muslim children. Morris quotes a
19th-century traveler: "I have seen a little fellow of six years old,
with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them]
to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the
greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his
Jewish gaberdine. To all this the
Jew is obliged to submit; it would
be more than his life was worth to offer to strike a Mahommedan."
In the middle of the 19th century,
J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life
of Persian Jews, describing conditions and beliefs that went back to
the 16th century: "…they are obliged to live in a separate part of
town… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated
with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited
by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and
Jerusalem at least, conditions for some
Jews improved. Moses
Montefiore, on his seventh visit in 1875, noted that fine new
buildings had sprung up and; 'surely we're approaching the time to
witness God's hallowed promise unto Zion.'
Muslim and Christian Arabs
Purim and Passover;
Arabs called the Sephardis 'Jews,
sons of Arabs'; the
Ulema and the Rabbis offered joint prayers for
rain in time of drought.
At the time of the Dreyfus trial in France, '
Muslim comments usually
favoured the persecuted
Jew against his Christian persecutors'.
Secular or racial antisemitism
In 1850 the German composer
Richard Wagner – who has been called
"the inventor of modern antisemitism" – published Das Judenthum
in der Musik (roughly "Jewishness in Music") under a pseudonym in
the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. The essay began as an attack on
Jewish composers, particularly Wagner's contemporaries, and rivals,
Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer, but expanded to accuse Jews
of being a harmful and alien element in German culture, who corrupted
morals and were, in fact, parasites incapable of creating truly
"German" art. The crux was the manipulation and control by the
the money economy:
According to the present constitution of this world, the
Jew in truth
is already more than emancipated: he rules, and will rule, so long as
Money remains the power before which all our doings and our dealings
lose their force.
Although originally published anonymously, when the essay was
republished 19 years later, in 1869, the concept of the corrupting Jew
had become so widely held that Wagner's name was affixed to it.
Antisemitism can also be found in many of the
Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales by
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, published from 1812 to 1857. It is mainly
Jews being the villain of a story, such as in "The
Good Bargain" ("Der gute Handel") and "The
Jew Among Thorns" ("Der
Jude im Dorn").
The middle 19th century saw continued official harassment of the Jews,
especially in Eastern
Europe under Czarist influence. For example, in
Jews approached the governor in Warsaw to retain the right to
wear their traditional dress, but were immediately rebuffed by having
their hair and beards forcefully cut, at their own expense.
In America, even such influential figures as Walt Whitman tolerated
bigotry toward the Jews. During his time as editor of the Brooklyn
Eagle (1846–1848), the newspaper published historical sketches
Jews in a bad light.
Dreyfus Affair was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th
century and early 20th century. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish artillery
captain in the French Army, was accused in 1894 of passing secrets to
the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and
sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. The actual spy,
Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar
among the French, with the public choosing sides on the issue of
whether Dreyfus was actually guilty or not.
Émile Zola accused the
army of corrupting the French justice system. However, general
consensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in France
condemned him. This attitude among the majority of the French
population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time
Adolf Stoecker (1835–1909), the
Lutheran court chaplain to Kaiser
Wilhelm I, founded in 1878 an antisemitic, anti-liberal political
party called the Christian Social Party. This party always
remained small, and its support dwindled after Stoecker's death, with
most of its members eventually joining larger conservative groups such
as the German National People's Party.
Some scholars view Karl Marx's essay
On The Jewish Question
On The Jewish Question as
antisemitic, and argue that he often used antisemitic epithets in his
published and private writings. These scholars argue
that Marx equated
Judaism with capitalism in his essay, helping to
spread that idea. Some further argue that the essay influenced
National Socialist, as well as Soviet and Arab
antisemites. Marx himself had Jewish ancestry, and
Albert Lindemann and
Hyam Maccoby have suggested that he was
embarrassed by it. Others argue that Marx consistently
supported Prussian Jewish communities' struggles to achieve equal
political rights. These scholars argue that "On the Jewish Question"
is a critique of Bruno Bauer's arguments that
Jews must convert to
Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a
critique of liberal rights discourses and
capitalism. Iain Hamphsher-Monk wrote that "This
work [On The Jewish Question] has been cited as evidence for Marx's
supposed anti-semitism, but only the most superficial reading of it
could sustain such an interpretation." David McLellan and Francis
Wheen argue that readers should interpret On the Jewish Question in
the deeper context of Marx's debates with Bruno Bauer, author of The
Jewish Question, about
Jewish emancipation in Germany. Wheen says that
"Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of 'Mein Kampf', overlook
one, essential point: in spite of the clumsy phraseology and crude
stereotyping, the essay was actually written as a defense of the Jews.
It was a retort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that
Jews should not be
granted full civic rights and freedoms unless they were baptised as
Christians". According to McLellan, Marx used the word Judentum
colloquially, as meaning commerce, arguing that Germans must be
emancipated from the capitalist mode of production not
Judaism or Jews
in particular. McLellan concludes that readers should interpret the
essay's second half as "an extended pun at Bauer's expense".
Jewish Bolshevism and Racial policy of
The victims of a 1905 pogrom in Yekaterinoslav
Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million
Jews migrated to
America, the bulk from Eastern Europe. Before 1900 American
always amounted to less than 1% of America's total population, but by
Jews formed about 3.5%. This increase, combined with the upward
social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of
antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews
were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and
resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened
quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions in colleges and
universities. The lynching of
Leo Frank by a mob of prominent citizens
Marietta, Georgia in 1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in
the United States. The case was also used to build support for
the renewal of the
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan which had been inactive since
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial in Russia
represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. Christians used
Jews killing Christians as a justification for the
killing of Jews.
Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the interwar period.
The pioneer automobile manufacturer
Henry Ford propagated antisemitic
ideas in his newspaper
The Dearborn Independent
The Dearborn Independent (published by Ford
from 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of
Father Coughlin in the late
1930s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt's
New Deal and promoted the
notion of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians
shared such views: Louis T. McFadden, Chairman of the United States
House Committee on Banking and Currency, blamed
Jews for Roosevelt's
decision to abandon the gold standard, and claimed that "in the United
States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the
the lawful money".
In the early 1940s the aviator
Charles Lindbergh and many prominent
Americans led The
America First Committee
America First Committee in opposing any involvement
in the war against Fascism. During his July 1936 visit to Nazi
Germany, a few weeks before the 1936 Summer Olympics, Lindbergh wrote
letters saying that there was "more intelligent leadership in Germany
than is generally recognized". The
German American Bund
German American Bund held parades
in New York City during the late 1930s, where members wore Nazi
uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas alongside American
Sometimes race riots, as in Detroit in 1943, targeted Jewish
businesses for looting and burning.
A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium at the
recently liberated Buchenwald concentration camp
1941 decree of
Boris III of Bulgaria
Boris III of Bulgaria for approval of the antisemitic
Law for protection of the nation
Adolf Hitler and the
Nazi Party, who came to
power on 30 January 1933 shortly afterwards instituted repressive
legislation which denied the
Jews basic civil rights. In
September 1935, the
Nuremberg Laws prohibited sexual relations and
marriages between "Aryans" and
Rassenschande ("race disgrace")
and stripped all German Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, of their
citizenship, (their official title became "subjects of the
state"). It instituted a pogrom on the night of 9–10 November
1938, dubbed Kristallnacht, in which
Jews were killed, their property
destroyed and their synagogues torched.
agitation and propaganda were extended to
German-occupied Europe in
the wake of conquest, often building on local antisemitic traditions.
In the east the Third Reich forced
Jews into ghettos in Warsaw, in
Kraków, in Lvov, in Lublin and in Radom. After the beginning of
the war between
Nazi Germany and the
Soviet Union in 1941 a campaign
of mass murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen, culminated from 1942
to 1945 in systematic genocide: the Holocaust. Eleven million
Jews were targeted for extermination by the Nazis, and some six
million were eventually killed.
Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for settling personal
conflicts in the Soviet Union, starting with the conflict between
Joseph Stalin and
Leon Trotsky and continuing through numerous
conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda.
Antisemitism in the
USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the campaign against the
"rootless cosmopolitan" (euphemism for "Jew") in which numerous
Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or
arrested. This culminated in the so-called Doctors' Plot
(1952–1953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in
the flight of Polish Jewish survivors from the country.
After the war, the
Kielce pogrom and the "March 1968 events" in
communist Poland represented further incidents of antisemitism in
Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme
of blood libel rumours.
21st-century European antisemitism
Antisemitism in Europe
Antisemitism in Europe § In the 21st
Physical assaults against
Jews in those countries included beatings,
stabbings and other violence, which increased markedly, sometimes
resulting in serious injury and death. A 2015 report by the
US State Department on religious freedom declared that "European
Israel sentiment crossed the line into anti-Semitism."
This rise in antisemitic attacks is associated with both the Muslim
anti-Semitism and the rise of far-right political parties as a result
of the economic crisis of 2008. This rise in the support for far
right ideas in western and eastern
Europe has resulted in the increase
of antisemitic acts, mostly attacks on Jewish memorials, synagogues
and cemeteries but also a number of physical attacks against
Europe the dissolution of the
Soviet Union and the
instability of the new states has brought the rise of nationalist
movements and the accusation against
Jews for the economic crisis,
taking over the local economy and bribing the government alongside
with traditional and religious motives for antisemitism such as blood
libels. Most of the antisemitic incidents are against Jewish
cemeteries and building (community centers and synagogues).
Nevertheless, there were several violent attacks against
Moscow in 2006 when a neo-
Nazi stabbed 9 people at the Bolshaya
Bronnaya Synagogue, the failed bomb attack on the same synagogue
in 1999, the threats against Jewish pilgrims in Uman,
Ukraine and the attack against a menorah by extremist Christian
organization in Moldova in 2009.
Europeans are concerned about antisemitism because, historically,
societies with a large degree of anti-Semitism are
self-destructive. Furthermore, the
Europe have generally
aligned themselves with Europe's democratic elite, a class whose
future is uncertain according to the Economist Intelligence Unit.
Antisemitism in the
Jews arrive in
Israel in 1951 during the Jewish exodus
Robert Bernstein, founder of Human Rights Watch, says that
antisemitism is "deeply ingrained and institutionalized" in "Arab
nations in modern times."
In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center, all of the
Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held few positive
opinions of Jews. In the questionnaire, only 2% of Egyptians, 3% of
Lebanese Muslims, and 2% of Jordanians reported having a positive view
of Jews. Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East similarly
had few who held positive views of Jews, with 4% of Turks and 9% of
According to a 2011 exhibition at the United States
Museum in Washington, United States, some of the dialogue from Middle
East media and commentators about
Jews bear a striking resemblance to
Nazi propaganda. According to Josef Joffe of Newsweek,
"anti-Semitism—the real stuff, not just bad-mouthing particular
Israeli policies—is as much part of
Arab life today as the hijab or
the hookah. Whereas this darkest of creeds is no longer tolerated in
polite society in the West, in the
Jew hatred remains
Muslim clerics in the Middle East have frequently referred to
descendants of apes and pigs, which are conventional epithets for Jews
According to professor Robert Wistrich, director of the Vidal Sassoon
International Center for the Study of
Antisemitism (SICSA), the calls
for the destruction of
Iran or by Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic
Jihad, or the
Muslim Brotherhood, represent a contemporary mode of
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July
Antisemitism has been explained in terms of racism, xenophobia,
projected guilt, displaced aggression, and the search for a
scapegoat. Some explanations assign partial blame to the
perception of Jewish people as unsociable. Such a perception may have
arisen by many
Jews having strictly kept to their own communities,
with their own practices and laws.
It has also been suggested that parts of antisemitism arose from a
perception of Jewish people as greedy (as often used in stereotypes of
Jews), and this perception has probably evolved in
Medieval times where a large portion of money lending was operated by
Jews. Factors contributing to this situation included that Jews
were restricted from other professions, while the Christian
Church declared for their followers that money lending constituted
Main article: Geography of antisemitism
A March 2008 report by the U.S. State Department found that there was
an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and
new expressions of antisemitism persist. A 2012 report by the
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor also noted a
continued global increase in antisemitism, and found that Holocaust
denial and opposition to Israeli policy at times was used to promote
or justify blatant antisemitism.
Antisemitism in Africa
Further information: History of the
Jews in Algeria
Algeria left upon independence in 1962. Algeria's
Jews had French citizenship since 1870 (briefly revoked by
France in 1940), and they mainly went to France, with some going
In Egypt, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford's
antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, complete with distinctly
antisemitic imagery on the cover.
On 5 May 2001, after
Shimon Peres visited Egypt, the Egyptian
al-Akhbar internet paper said that "lies and deceit are not foreign to
Jews[...]. For this reason, Allah changed their shape and made them
into monkeys and pigs."
In July 2012, Egypt's Al Nahar channel fooled actors into thinking
they were on an Israeli television show and filmed their reactions to
being told it was an Israeli television show. In response, some of the
actors launched into antisemitic rants or dialogue, and many became
violent. Actress Mayer El Beblawi said that "Allah did not curse the
worm and moth as much as he cursed the Jews" while actor Mahmoud Abdel
Ghaffar launched into a violent rage and said, "You brought me someone
who looks like a Jew... I hate the
Jews to death" after finding out it
was a prank.
Further information: History of the
Jews in Libya
Libya had once one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world,
dating back to 300 BCE. Despite the repression of
Jews in the late
1930, as a result of the pro-
Nazi Fascist Italian regime,
third of the population of
Libya till 1941. In 1942 the
troops occupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundering shops and
deporting more than 2,000
Jews across the desert. Sent to work in
labor camps, more than one-fifth of this group of
Jews perished. A
series of pogroms started in November 1945, while more than 140 Jews
were killed in
Tripoli and most synagogues in the city looted.
Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community
emigrated from Libya. After the
Suez Crisis in 1956, another series of
pogroms forced all but about 100
Jews to flee. When Muammar al-Gaddafi
came to power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was confiscated
and all debts to
Further information: History of the
Jews in Morocco
Jewish communities, in Islamic times often living in ghettos known as
mellah, have existed in
Morocco for at least 2,000 years. Intermittent
large scale massacres (such as that of 6,000
Jews in Fez in 1033, over
Jews in Fez and
Marrakesh in 1146 and again in
1232) were accompanied by systematic discrimination through
the years. In 1875, 20
Jews were killed by a mob in Demnat, Morocco;
elsewhere in Morocco,
Jews were attacked and killed in the streets in
broad daylight. While the pro-
Nazi Vichy regime during World War
II passed discriminatory laws against Jews, King Muhammad prevented
Jews to death camps (although
Jews with French, as
opposed to Moroccan, citizenship, being directly subject to Vichy law,
were still deported.) In 1948, approximately 265,000
Jews lived in
Morocco. Between 5,000 and 8,000 live there now. In June 1948, soon
Israel was established and in the midst of the first
Arab-Israeli war, riots against
Jews broke out in
Oujda and Djerada,
killing 44 Jews. In 1948-9, 18,000
Jews left the country for Israel.
After this, Jewish emigration continued (to
Israel and elsewhere), but
slowed to a few thousand a year. Through the early fifties, Zionist
organizations encouraged emigration, particularly in the poorer south
of the country, seeing Moroccan
Jews as valuable contributors to the
Jewish State: In 1955,
Morocco attained independence and emigration to
Israel has increased further until 1956 then it was prohibited until
1963, then resumed. By 1967, only 60,000
Jews remained in Morocco.
Six-Day War in 1967 led to increased Arab-Jewish tensions
worldwide, including Morocco. By 1971, the Jewish population was down
to 35,000; however, most of this wave of emigration went to
North America rather than Israel.
Further information: History of the
Jews in South Africa
Antisemitism has been present in history of
South Africa since
Europeans first set foot ashore on the Cape Peninsula. In the years
Jews were not allowed to settle at the Cape. An 1868 Act
would sanction religious discrimination.
Antisemitism reached its
apotheosis in the years leading up to World War II. Inspired by the
rise of national socialism in
Ossewabrandwag (OB) –
whose membership accounted for almost 25% of the 1940 Afrikaner
population – and the National Party faction New Order would champion
a more programmatic solution to the 'Jewish problem'.
Further information: History of the
Jews in Tunisia
Jews have lived in
Tunisia for at least 2300 years. In the 13th
Jews were expelled from their homes in
Kairouan and were
ultimately restricted to ghettos, known as hara. Forced to wear
distinctive clothing, several
Jews earned high positions in the
Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were
Tunisian Jews. From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi laws,
but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at
least until 1869. Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under
Nazi control during World War II, was also the site of racist
antisemitic measures activities such as the yellow star, prison camps,
deportations, and other persecution. In 1948, approximately 105,000
Jews lived in Tunisia. Only about 1,500 remain there today. Following
Tunisia's independence from
France in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish
policies led to emigration, of which half went to
Israel and the other
half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration both to
France accelerated. There were also attacks in 1982, 1985,
and most recently in 2002 when a bomb in
Djerba took 21 lives (most of
them German tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack
claimed by Al-Qaeda.
Holocaust denial in Iran
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, former president of Iran, has frequently been
accused of denying the Holocaust.
In July, the winner of Iran's first annual International Wall Street
Downfall Cartoon Festival, jointly sponsored by the semi-state-run
Iranian media outlet Fars News, was an antisemitic cartoon depicting
Jews praying before the New York Stock Exchange, which is made to look
like the Western Wall. Other cartoons in the contest were antisemitic
as well. The national director of the Anti-
Defamation League, Abraham
Foxman, condemned the cartoon, stating that "Here's the anti-Semitic
Jews and their love for money, the canard that Jews
'control' Wall Street, and a cynical perversion of the Western Wall,
the holiest site in Judaism," and "Once again
Iran takes the prize for
Antisemitism in Japan
The Japanese first learned about antisemitism in 1918, during the
cooperation of the
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army with the
White movement in
Siberia. White Army soldiers had been issued copies of The Protocols
of the Elders of Zion, and "The Protocols continue to be used as
evidence of Jewish conspiracies even though they are widely
acknowledged to be a forgery. During World War II,
encouraged Japan to adopt antisemitic policies. In the post-war
period, extremist groups and ideologues have promoted conspiracy
In 2004, Al-Manar, a media network affiliated with Hezbollah, aired a
drama series, The Diaspora, which observers allege is based on
historical antisemitic allegations.
BBC correspondents who have
watched the program says it quotes extensively from the Protocols of
the Elders of Zion.
See also: History of the
Jews in Malaysia
Malaysia presently has no substantial Jewish population, the
country has reportedly become an example of a phenomenon called
"antisemitism without Jews."
In his treatise on Malay identity, "The Malay Dilemma," which was
published in 1970, former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
Jews are not only hooked-nosed... but understand money
instinctively.... Jewish stinginess and financial wizardry gained them
the economic control of
Europe and provoked antisemitism which waxed
and waned throughout
Europe through the ages."
The Malay-language Utusan
Malaysia daily stated in an editorial that
Malaysians "cannot allow anyone, especially the Jews, to interfere
secretly in this country's business... When the drums are pounded hard
in the name of human rights, the pro-Jewish people will have their
best opportunity to interfere in any Islamic country," the newspaper
said. "We might not realize that the enthusiasm to support actions
such as demonstrations will cause us to help foreign groups succeed in
their mission of controlling this country." Prime Minister Najib
Razak's office subsequently issued a statement late Monday saying
Utusan's claim did "not reflect the views of the
See also: Tomorrow's Pioneers,
Racism in the Palestinian territories,
and Textbooks in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Haj Amin al-Husseini
Haj Amin al-Husseini is a central figure of
Palestinian nationalism in
Mandatory Palestine. He took refuge and collaborated with
during World War II. He met
Adolf Hitler in December 1941. Scholarly
opinion is divided on the Mufti's antisemitsm, with many scholars
viewing him as a staunch antisemite while some deny the
appropriateness of the term, or argue that he became antisemitic.
In March 2011, the Israeli government issued a paper claiming that
Israel and anti-Semitic messages are heard regularly in the
government and private media and in the mosques and are taught in
school books," to the extent that they are "an integral part of the
fabric of life inside the PA." In August 2012, Israeli Strategic
Affairs Ministry director-general Yossi Kuperwasser stated that
Palestinian incitement to antisemitism is "going on all the time" and
that it is "worrying and disturbing." At an institutional level, he
said the PA has been promoting three key messages to the Palestinian
people that constitute incitement: "that the Palestinians would
eventually be the sole sovereign on all the land from the
to the Mediterranean Sea; that Jews, especially those who live in
Israel, were not really human beings but rather 'the scum of mankind';
and that all tools were legitimate in the struggle against
the Jews." In August 2014, the Hamas' spokesman in Doha said on
live television that
Jews use blood to make matzos.
See also: History of the
Antisemitism in Pakistan
The U.S. State Department's first Report on Global Anti-Semitism
mentioned a strong feeling of antisemitism in Pakistan. In
Pakistan, a country without Jewish communities, antisemitic sentiment
fanned by antisemitic articles in the press is widespread.
Jews are often regarded as miserly. After Israel's
independence in 1948, violent incidents occurred against Pakistan's
small Jewish community of about 2,000
Bene Israel Jews. The Magain
Karachi was attacked, as were individual Jews.
The persecution of
Jews resulted in their exodus via
India to Israel
(see Pakistanis in Israel), the UK, Canada and other countries. The
Peshawar Jewish community ceased to exist although a small
community reportedly still exists in Karachi.
A substantial number of people in
Pakistan believe that the September
11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York were a secret Jewish
conspiracy organized by Israel's MOSSAD, as were the 7 July 2005
London bombings, allegedly perpetrated by
Jews in order to discredit
Muslims. Pakistani political commentator
Zaid Hamid claimed that
Jews perpetrated the 2008
Mumbai attacks. Such
allegations echo traditional antisemitic theories. The
Jewish religious movement of
Chabad Lubavich had a mission house in
India that was attacked in the 2008
perpetrated by militants connected to
Pakistan led by Ajmal Kasab, a
Antisemitic intents were evident from
the testimonies of Kasab following his arrest and trial.
Main article: History of the
Jews in Saudi Arabia
Saudi textbooks vilify Jews, call
Jews apes; demand that students
avoid and not befriend Jews; claim that
Jews worship the devil; and
encourage Muslims to engage in
Jihad to vanquish Jews. Saudi
Arabian government officials and state religious leaders often promote
the idea that
Jews are conspiring to take over the entire world; as
proof of their claims they publish and frequently cite The Protocols
of the Elders of Zion as factual.
In 2004, the official Saudi Arabia tourism website said that
holders of Israeli passports would not be issued visas to enter the
country. After an uproar, the restriction against
Jews was removed
from the website although the ban against Israeli passport-holders
remained. In late 2014, a Saudi newspaper reported that foreign
workers of most religions, including Judaism, were welcome in the
kingdom, but Israeli citizens were not.
Antisemitism in Turkey
Antisemitism in Turkey and History of the
In 2003, the Neve Shalom
Synagogue was targeted in a car bombing,
killing 21 Turkish Muslims and 6 Jews.
In June 2011, the Economist suggested that "The best way for Turks to
promote democracy would be to vote against the ruling party". Not long
after, the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, said that
"The International media, as they are supported by Israel, would not
be happy with the continuation of the AKP government". The
Hurriyet Daily News quoted Erdoğan at the time as claiming "The
Economist is part of an Israeli conspiracy that aims to topple the
Turkish government". Moreover, during Erdogan's tenure, Hitler's
Mein Kampf has once again become a best selling book in Turkey.
Prime Minister Erdogan called antisemitism a "crime against humanity."
He also said that "as a minority, they're our citizens. Both their
security and the right to observe their faith are under our
Antisemitism in Europe
Antisemitism in Europe and New antisemitism
According to a 2004 report from the
Jerusalem Center for Public
Affairs, antisemitism had increased significantly in
2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against
vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools,
desecration of synagogues and cemeteries. Germany, France, Britain,
Russia are the countries with the highest rate of antisemitic
incidents in Europe. The
Netherlands and Sweden have also
consistently had high rates of antisemitic attacks since 2000.
Some claim that recent European antisemitic violence can actually be
seen as a spillover from the long running Arab-Israeli conflict since
the majority of the perpetrators are from the large
communities in European cities. However, compared to France, the
United Kingdom and much of the rest of Europe, in
pro-Palestinian groups are involved in only a small percentage of
antisemitic incidents. According to The Stephen Roth
Institute for the Study of Contemporary
Antisemitism and Racism, most
of the more extreme attacks on Jewish sites and physical attacks on
Europe come from militant Islamic and
Muslim groups, and most
Jews tend to be assaulted in countries where groups of young Muslim
On 1 January 2006, Britain's chief rabbi, Lord Jonathan Sacks, warned
that what he called a "tsunami of antisemitism" was spreading
globally. In an interview with
BBC Radio 4, Sacks said: "A number of
my rabbinical colleagues throughout
Europe have been assaulted and
attacked on the streets. We've had synagogues desecrated. We've had
Jewish schools burnt to the ground—not here but in France. People
are attempting to silence and even ban Jewish societies on campuses on
the grounds that
Jews must support the state of Israel, therefore they
should be banned, which is quite extraordinary because... British Jews
see themselves as British citizens. So it's that kind of feeling that
you don't know what's going to happen next that's making... some
European Jewish communities uncomfortable."
Following an escalation in antisemitism in 2012, which included the
deadly shooting of three children at a Jewish school in France, the
European Jewish Congress demanded in July a more proactive response.
EJC President Moshe Kantor explained, "We call on authorities to take
a more proactive approach so there would be no reason for statements
of regret and denunciation. All these smaller attacks remind me of
smaller tremors before a massive earthquake. The Jewish community
cannot afford to be subject to an earthquake and the authorities
cannot say that the writing was not on the wall." He added that
European countries should take legislative efforts to ban any form of
incitement, as well as to equip the authorities with the necessary
tools to confront any attempt to expand terrorist and violent
activities against Jewish communities in Europe.
Antisemitism in contemporary Austria
Antisemitism in 21st-century
France and History of the
Jews in France
France is home to the continent's largest Jewish community (about
600,000). Jewish leaders decry an intensifying antisemitism in
France, mainly among Muslims of
Arab or African heritage, but
also growing among
Caribbean islanders from former French
colonies. Former Interior Minister
Nicolas Sarkozy denounced the
Ilan Halimi on 13 February 2006 as an antisemitic crime.
Jewish philanthropist Baron
Eric de Rothschild
Eric de Rothschild suggests that the
extent of antisemitism in
France has been exaggerated. In an interview
Jerusalem Post he says that "the one thing you can't say is
France is an anti-Semitic country."
In March 2012, Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish school in
Toulouse, killing a teacher and three children. An 8-year-old girl was
shot in the head at point blank range. President
Nicolas Sarkozy said
that it was "obvious" it was an antisemitic attack and that, "I
want to say to all the leaders of the Jewish community, how close we
feel to them. All of
France is by their side." The Israeli Prime
Minister condemned the "despicable anti-Semitic" murders.
After a 32-hour siege and standoff with the police outside his house,
and a French raid, Merah jumped off a balcony and was shot in the head
and killed. Merah told police during the standoff that he
intended to keep on attacking, and he loved death the way the police
loved life. He also claimed connections with al-Qaeda.
4 months later, in July 2012, a French Jewish teenager wearing a
"distinctive religious symbol" was the victim of a violent antisemitic
attack on a train travelling between
Toulouse and Lyon. The teen was
first verbally harassed and later beaten up by two assailants. Richard
Prasquier from the French Jewish umbrella group, CRIF, called the
attack "another development in the worrying trend of anti-Semitism in
Another incident in July 2012 dealt with the vandalism of the
Noisy-le-Grand of the
Seine-Saint-Denis district in
Paris. The synagogue was vandalized three times in a ten-day period.
Prayer books and shawls were thrown on the floor, windows were
shattered, drawers were ransacked, and walls, tables, clocks, and
floors were vandalized. The authorities were alerted of the incidents
by the Bureau National de Vigilance Contre L’Antisémtisme (BNVCA),
a French antisemitism watchdog group, which called for more measures
to be taken to prevent future hate crimes. BNVCA President Sammy
Ghozlan stated that, "Despite the measures taken, things persist, and
I think that we need additional legislation, because the Jewish
community is annoyed."
In August 2012, Abraham Cooper, the dean of the Simon Wiesenthal
Center, met French Interior Minister
Manuel Valls and reported that
antisemitic attacks against French
Jews increased by 40% since Merah's
shooting spree in Toulouse. Cooper pressed Valls to take extra
measures to secure the safety of French Jews, as well as to discuss
strategies to foil an increasing trend of lone-wolf terrorists on the
Further information: History of the
Jews in Germany
Wolfgang Schäuble, the Interior Minister of
Germany in 2006, pointed
out the official policy of Germany: "We will not tolerate any form of
extremism, xenophobia or anti-Semitism." Although the number of
extreme right-wing groups and organisations grew from 141 (2001)
to 182 (2006), especially in the formerly communist East
Germany, Germany's measures against right-wing groups and
antisemitism are effective, despite
Germany having the highest rates
of antisemitic acts in Europe. According to the annual reports of the
Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution the overall
number of far-right extremists in
Germany dropped during the last
years from 49,700 (2001), 45,000 (2002), 41,500 (2003),
40,700 (2004), 39,000 (2005), to 38,600 in 2006.
Germany provided several million euros to fund "nationwide programs
aimed at fighting far-right extremism, including teams of traveling
consultants, and victims' groups."
In July 2012, two women were assaulted in Germany, sprayed with tear
gas, and were shown a "Hitler salute," apparently because of a Star of
David necklace that they wore.
In late August 2012,
Berlin police investigated an attack on a
53-year-old rabbi and his 6-year-old daughter, allegedly by four Arab
teens, after which the rabbi needed treatment for head wounds at a
hospital. The police classified the attack as a hate crime. Jüdische
Allgemeine reported that the rabbi was wearing a kippah and was
approached by one of the teens, who asked the rabbi if he was Jewish.
The teen then attacked the rabbi while yelling antisemitic comments,
and threatened to kill the rabbi's daughter. Berlin’s mayor
condemned the attack, saying that "
Berlin is an international city in
which intolerance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are not being
tolerated. Police will undertake all efforts to find and arrest the
In October 2012, various historians, including Dr. Julius H. Schoeps,
a prominent German-Jewish historian and a member of the German
Interior Ministry’s commission to combat antisemitism, charged the
Bundestag deputies with failing to understand antisemitism
and the imperativeness of periodic legislative reports on German
antisemitism. Schoeps cited various antisemitic statements by German
parliament members as well. The report in question determined that 15%
of Germans are antisemitic while over 20% espouse "latent
anti-Semitism," but the report has been criticized for downplaying the
sharpness of antisemitism in Germany, as well as for failing to
Israel media coverage in Germany.
Antisemitism in Greece
Antisemitism in Greece
Antisemitism in Greece manifests itself in religious, political and
media discourse. The recent
Greek government-debt crisis
Greek government-debt crisis has
facilitated the rise of far right groups in Greece, most notably the
formerly obscure Golden Dawn.
Jews have lived in Greece since
antiquity, but the largest community of around 20,000 Sephardic Jews
Thessalonica after an invitation from the
Ottoman Sultan in
the 15th century. After
Thessalonica was annexed to Greece in 1913,
the Greek government recognized
Jews as Greek citizens with full
rights and attributed
Judaism the status of a recognized and protected
religion. Currently in Greece, Jewish communities representing the
Jews are legal entities under public law. According to the
Defamation League) report of 2015, the "ADL Global 100", a
report of the status of antisemitism in 100 countries around the
world, 69% of the adult population in Greece harbor antisemitic
attitudes and 85% think that "
Jews have too much power in the business
world". In March 2015, a survey about the Greeks' perceptions of
the holocaust was published. Its findings showed that less than 60
percent of the respondents think that holocaust teaching should be
included in the curriculum.
Antisemitism in contemporary Hungary
In the 21st century, antisemitism in Hungary has evolved and received
an institutional framework, while verbal and physical aggression
Jews has escalated, creating a great difference between its
earlier manifestations in the 1990s and recent developments. One of
the major representatives of this institutionalized antisemitic
ideology is the popular Hungarian party Jobbik, which received 17
percent of the vote in the April 2010 national election. The far-right
subculture, which ranges from nationalist shops to radical-nationalist
Nazi festivals and events, plays a major role in the
institutionalization of Hungarian antisemitism in the 21st century.
The contemporary antisemitic rhetoric has been updated and expanded,
but is still based on the old antisemitic notions. The traditional
accusations and motifs include such phrases as Jewish occupation,
international Jewish conspiracy, Jewish responsibility for the Treaty
of Trianon, Judeo-Bolshevism, as well as blood libels against Jews.
Nevertheless, the past few years have seen the reemergence of the
blood libel and an increase in
Holocaust relativization and denial,
while the monetary crisis has revived references to the "Jewish banker
Antisemitism in 21st-century Italy
The ongoing political conflict between
Israel and Palestine has played
an important role in the development and expression of antisemitism in
the 21st century, and in Italy as well. The Second Intifada, which
began in late September 2000, has set in motion unexpected mechanisms,
whereby traditional anti-Jewish prejudices were mixed with politically
based stereotypes. In this belief system, Israeli
charged with full responsibility for the fate of the peace process and
with the conflict presented as embodying the struggle between good
(the Palestinians) and evil (the Israeli Jews).
Further information: History of the
Jews in the Netherlands
Netherlands has the second highest incidence of antisemitic
incidents in the European Union. However, it is difficult to obtain
exact figures because the specific groups against whom attacks are
made are not specifically identified in police reports, and analyses
of police data for antisemitism therefore relies on key-word searches,
e.g. "Jew" or "Israel". According to Centre for Information and
Israel (CIDI), a pro-
Israel lobby group in the
Netherlands, the number of antisemitic incidents reported in the
whole of the
Netherlands was 108 in 2008, 93 in 2009, and 124 in 2010.
Some two thirds of this are acts of aggression. There are
approximately 52 000 Dutch Jews. According to the NRC Handelsblad
newspaper, the number of antisemitic incidents in
Amsterdam was 14 in
2008 and 30 in 2009. In 2010, Raphaël Evers, an orthodox rabbi
in Amsterdam, told the Norwegian newspaper
no longer be safe in the city anymore due to the risk of violent
Jews no longer feel at home here in the Netherlands.
Many people talk about moving to Israel," he said.
According to the Anne Frank Foundation, antisemitism in the
Netherlands in 2011 was roughly at the same level as in 2010.
Actual antisemitic incidents increased from 19 in 2010 to 30 in 2011.
Verbal antisemitic incidents dropped slightly from 1173 in 2010 to
1098 in 2011. This accounts for 75%–80% of all verbal racist
incidents in the Netherlands.
Antisemitism is more prevalent in the
age group 23–27 years, which is a younger group than that of racist
incidents in general.
Antisemitism in Norway
In 2010, the
Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after one year of
research, revealed that antisemitism was common among some 8th, 9th,
and 10th graders in Oslo's schools. Teachers at schools with large
numbers of Muslims revealed that
Muslim students often "praise or
Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews", that "Jew-hate is
legitimate within vast groups of
Muslim students" and that "Muslims
laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the
Holocaust". Additionally, "while some students might protest when some
express support for terrorism, none object when students express hate
of Jews", saying that it says in "the
Quran that you shall kill Jews,
all true Muslims hate Jews". Most of these students were said to be
born and raised in Norway. One Jewish father also stated that his
child had been taken by a
Muslim mob after school (though the child
managed to escape), reportedly "to be taken out to the forest and hung
because he was a Jew".
Norwegian Education Minister Kristin Halvorsen referred to the
antisemitism reported in this study as being "completely
unacceptable." The head of a local Islamic council joined Jewish
leaders and Halvorsen in denouncing such antisemitism.
In October 2012, the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in
Europe issued a report regarding antisemitism in Norway, criticizing
Norway for an increase in antisemitism in the country and blaming
Norwegian officials for failing to address antisemitism."
The University of Warsaw’s study in 2016 found that 37% of surveyed
Poles expressed negative attitudes towards
Jews (up from 32% in 2015);
56% said that they wouldn't accept a
Jew in their family (up from
46%); and 32% wouldn't want Jewish neighbors (up from 27%).
In November 2015, following Antoni Macierewicz’s (Law and Justice
party) designation as Minister of National Defence, he faced
allegations of antisemitism and protests by the Anti Defamation
Antisemitism in Russia
Antisemitism in Russia
Antisemitism in Russia refers to acts of hostility against
Russia and the promotion of antisemitic views in the country since the
end of the Soviet Union.
Antisemitism in Spain
Antisemitism in Spain and Anti-Semitism in
Antisemitism in Sweden
Germany and Austria, Sweden has the highest rate of antisemitic
incidents in Europe, though the
Netherlands has reported a higher rate
of antisemitism in some years. A government study in 2006
estimated that 15% of Swedes agree with the statement: "The
too much influence in the world today". 5% of the total adult
population and 39% of adult Muslims "harbour systematic antisemitic
views". The former prime minister
Göran Persson described these
results as "surprising and terrifying". However, the rabbi of
Stockholm's Orthodox Jewish community, Meir Horden, said that "It's
not true to say that the Swedes are anti-Semitic. Some of them are
Israel because they support the weak side, which they
perceive the Palestinians to be."
In 2009, a synagogue that served the Jewish community in
set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers
were abused while returning home from prayer, and masked men mockingly
chanted "Hitler" in the streets. As a result of security concerns,
Malmö's synagogue has guards and rocket-proof glass in the windows,
and the Jewish kindergarten can only be reached through thick steel
In early 2010, the Swedish publication The Local published series of
articles about the growing antisemitism in Malmö, Sweden. In
Malmö police received reports of 79 antisemitic incidents,
which was twice the number of the previous year (2008). Fredrik
Sieradzki, spokesman for the
Malmö Jewish community, estimated that
the already small Jewish population is shrinking by 5% a year. "Malmö
is a place to move away from," he said, citing antisemitism as the
primary reason. In March 2010, Fredrik Sieradzk told Die Presse,
an Austrian Internet publication, that
Jews are being "harassed and
physically attacked" by "people from the Middle East," although he
added that only a small number of Malmö's 40,000 Muslims "exhibit
hatred of Jews." In October 2010, The Forward reported on the
current state of
Jews and the level of antisemitism in Sweden. Henrik
Bachner, a writer and professor of history at the University of Lund,
claimed that members of the Swedish Parliament have attended
Israel rallies where the Israeli flag was burned while the flags
Hezbollah were waved, and the rhetoric was often
antisemitic—not just anti-Israel. Judith Popinski, an
Holocaust survivor, stated that she is no longer invited
to schools that have a large
Muslim presence to tell her story of
surviving the Holocaust. In December 2010, the Jewish human
Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center issued a travel advisory
concerning Sweden, advising
Jews to express "extreme caution" when
visiting the southern parts of the country due to an alleged increase
in verbal and physical harassment of Jewish citizens in the city of
Malmö. Ilmar Reepalu, the mayor of
Malmö for over 15 years, has
been accused of failing to protect the Jewish community in Malmö,
causing 30 Jewish families to leave the city in 2010, and more
preparing to leave, which has left the possibility that Malmö's
Jewish community will disappear soon. Critics of Reepalu say that his
statements, such as antisemitism in
Malmö actually being an
"understandable" consequence of Israeli policy in the Middle East,
have encouraged young Muslims to abuse and harass the Jewish
community. In an interview with the Sunday Telegraph in February
2010, Reepalu said, "There haven't been any attacks on Jewish people,
Jews from the city want to move to
Israel that is not a matter
for Malmö," which renewed concerns about Reepalu.
Antisemitism in Ukraine
Antisemithic graffiti in Lviv;
Yids will not reside in Lviv, 2007
Oleh Tyahnybok, the leader of the far-right Svoboda party, whose
members hold senior positions in Ukraine's government, urged his party
to fight "the Moscow-Jewish mafia ruling Ukraine." The Algemeiner
Journal reported: "Svoboda supporters include among their heroes
leaders of pro-
World War II
World War II organizations known for their
Jews and Poles, such as the Organization of
Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and
the 14th Waffen-SS Galicia Division."
According to The
Simon Wiesenthal Center
Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January 2011) "Ukraine
has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single
investigation of a local
Nazi war criminal, let alone prosecuted a
According to Der Spiegel, Dmytro Yarosh, leader of the far-right Right
Sector, wrote: "I wonder how it came to pass that most of the
Ukraine are Jews?" Late February 2014 Yarosh
pledged during a meeting with Israel’s ambassador in
Kiev to fight
all forms of racism. Right Sector's leader for West Ukraine,
Oleksandr Muzychko, has talked about fighting "communists,
Russians for as long as blood flows in my veins." Muzychko was
shot dead on 24 March 2014. An official inquiry concluded he had
shot himself in the heart at the end of a chase with the Ukrainian
In April 2014,
Rabbi Pinchas Vishedski said that
"Anti-Semitic incidents in the Russian-speaking east were rare, unlike
Kiev and western Ukraine." In an April 2014 article about
anti-Jewish violence in
Haaretz no incidents outside this
"Russian-speaking east" were mentioned.
According to the Israel's Ambassador to Ukraine, the antisemitism
occurs here much less frequently than in other European countries, and
has more a hooligan's nature rather than a system.
Antisemitism in the United Kingdom
Antisemitism in the United Kingdom and British Jews
In 2017 an
Institute for Jewish Policy Research
Institute for Jewish Policy Research survey found that the
levels of anti-Semitism in Great Britain were among the lowest in the
world, with 2.4% expressing multiple anti-Semitic attitudes, and about
70% having a favourable opinion of Jews. However, only 17% had a
favourable opinion of Israel, with 33% holding an unfavourable
In 2017, a report by the Campaign Against
Antisemitism (CAA) found
that the previous year, 2016, had been the worst on record for
antisemitic hate crime in the UK. Prior to that, 2015 had been
the worst year on record, and 2014 was the worst year on record before
that. The report found that in 2016, antisemitic crime rose by 15%
compared to 2015, or 45% compared to 2014. It also found that 1 in 10
antisemitic crimes was violent. Despite rising levels of antisemitic
crime, the report said there had been a decrease in the charging of
antisemitic crime. In the report's foreword, the CAA's Chairman wrote:
"Britain has the political will to fight antisemitism and strong laws
with which to do it, but those responsible for tackling the rapidly
growing racist targeting of British
Jews are failing to enforce the
law. There is a very real danger of Jewish citizens emigrating, as has
happened elsewhere in
Europe unless there is radical change."
Every year since 2015, the CAA has commissioned polling by YouGov
concerning the attitude of the British public toward British Jews. In
2017, their polling found that 36% of British adults believed at least
one of the antisemitic statements pollsters had shown them to be true,
a reduction from 39% in 2016 and 45% in 2015. Additionally, the
polling revealed widespread fear amongst British Jews, with almost 1
in 3 saying that they had considered emigrating in the last two years
due to antisemitism, and 37% saying that they concealed their Judaism
in public. The report gave various indications as to the cause of the
fears, with British
Jews identifying Islamist antisemitism, far-left
antisemitism and far-right antisemitism as their main concerns, in
that order. 78% of British
Jews saying that they had witnessed
antisemitism disguised as a political comment about Israel, 76%
thoughts that political developments were contributing antisemitism,
and 52% felt that the
Crown Prosecution Service
Crown Prosecution Service was not doing
In 2016, the
Home Affairs Select Committee held an inquiry into the
rise of antisemitism in the UK. The inquiry called David Cameron,
Tim Farron, Angus Robertson, Jeremy Corbyn, Ken
Livingstone and others to give evidence. In 2005, a group of
British Members of Parliament set up an inquiry into antisemitism,
which published its findings in 2006. Its report stated that "until
recently, the prevailing opinion both within the Jewish community and
beyond [had been] that antisemitism had receded to the point that it
existed only on the margins of society." It found a reversal of this
progress since 2000. The inquiry was reconstituted following a surge
in antisemitic incidents in Britain during the summer of 2014, and the
new inquiry published its report in 2015, making recommendations for
Antisemitism in Canada
Although antisemitism in Canada is less prevalent than in many other
countries, there have been recent incidents. For example, a 2004 study
identified 24 incidents of antisemitism between 14 March and 14 July
2004 in Newfoundland, Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa, the Greater
Toronto Area (GTA), and some smaller Ontario communities. The
incidents included vandalism and other attacks on four synagogues, six
cemeteries, four schools, and a number of businesses and private
Antisemitism in the United States
History of antisemitism
History of antisemitism in the United States
In November 2005, the
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights examined
antisemitism on college campuses. It reported that "incidents of
threatened bodily injury, physical intimidation or property damage are
now rare", but antisemitism still occurs on many campuses and is a
"serious problem." The Commission recommended that the U.S. Department
Office for Civil Rights
Office for Civil Rights protect college students from
antisemitism through vigorous enforcement of Title VI of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 and further recommended that Congress clarify that
Title VI applies to discrimination against Jewish students.
On 19 September 2006,
Yale University founded the Yale Initiative for
the Interdisciplinary Study of Anti-Semitism (YIISA), the first North
American university-based center for study of the subject, as part of
its Institution for Social and Policy Studies. Director Charles Small
of the Center cited the increase in antisemitism worldwide in recent
years as generating a "need to understand the current manifestation of
this disease". In June 2011, Yale voted to close this initiative.
After carrying out a routine review, the faculty review committee said
that the initiative had not met its research and teaching standards.
Donald Green, then head of Yale’s Institution for Social and Policy
Studies, the body under whose aegis the antisemitism initiative was
run, said that it had not had many papers published in the relevant
leading journals or attracted many students. As with other programs
that had been in a similar situation, the initiative had therefore
been cancelled. This decision has been criticized by figures
such as former
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights Staff Director Kenneth
L. Marcus, who is now the director of the Initiative to Combat
Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israelism in America’s Educational Systems at
the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, and Deborah Lipstadt,
who described the decision as "weird" and "strange." Antony
Lerman has supported Yale's decision, describing the YIISA as a
politicized initiative that was devoted to the promotion of Israel
rather than to serious research on antisemitism.
A 2007 survey by the
Anti-Defamation League (ADL) concluded that 15%
of Americans hold antisemitic views, which was in-line with the
average of the previous ten years, but a decline from the 29% of the
early sixties. The survey concluded that education was a strong
predictor, "with most educated Americans being remarkably free of
prejudicial views." The belief that
Jews have too much power was
considered a common antisemitic view by the ADL. Other views
indicating antisemitism, according to the survey, include the view
Jews are more loyal to
Israel than America, and that they are
responsible for the death of
Jesus of Nazareth. The survey found that
antisemitic Americans are likely to be intolerant generally, e.g.
regarding immigration and free-speech. The 2007 survey also found that
29% of foreign-born Hispanics and 32% of African-Americans hold strong
antisemitic beliefs, three times more than the 10% for whites.
A 2009 study published in
Boston Review found that nearly 25% of
non-Jewish Americans blamed
Jews for the financial crisis of
2008–2009, with a higher percentage among Democrats than
Republicans. 32% of Democrats blamed
Jews for the financial crisis,
versus 18% for Republicans.
In August 2012, the
California state assembly
California state assembly approved a non-binding
resolution that "encourages university leaders to combat a wide array
of anti-Jewish and anti-
Israel actions," although the resolution "is
purely symbolic and does not carry policy implications."
In April 2017,
Politico Magazine published an article purporting to
show links between U.S. President Donald Trump, Russian President
Vladimir Putin and the Jewish outreach organization Chabad-Lubavitch.
The article was widely condemned, with the head of the Anti-Defamation
Jonathan Greenblatt saying that it "evokes age-old myths about
In November 2017, Jonathan Greenblatt, national director and CEO of
Defamation League, stated in an interview, “While
anti-Semitic attitudes have remained consistent at 14%... anti-Semitic
incidents have been on the rise. In 2016 we saw a 34% increase over
the prior year in acts of harassment, vandalism, or violence directed
at Jewish individuals and institutions. During the first three
quarters of 2017, there was a 67% increase over the same period in
2016. We’ve seen double the number of incidents in K-12 schools, and
almost a 60% increase on college campuses." 
Antisemitic graffiti in Venezuela, alongside a hammer and sickle
Antisemitism in Venezuela
Antisemitism in Venezuela and History of the Jews
In a 2009 news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E. Schoen wrote, "In
an infamous Christmas Eve speech several years ago, Chávez said the
Jews killed Christ and have been gobbling up wealth and causing
poverty and injustice worldwide ever since."
Hugo Chávez stated
that "[t]he world is for all of us, then, but it so happens that a
minority, the descendants of the same ones that crucified Christ, the
descendants of the same ones that kicked Bolívar out of here and also
crucified him in their own way over there in Santa Marta, in Colombia.
A minority has taken possession of all of the wealth of the
In February 2012, opposition candidate for the 2012 Venezuelan
Henrique Capriles was subject to what foreign
journalists characterized as vicious attacks by state-run media
Wall Street Journal said that Capriles "was
vilified in a campaign in Venezuela's state-run media, which
insinuated he was, among other things, a homosexual and a Zionist
agent". A 13 February 2012 opinion article in the state-owned
Radio Nacional de Venezuela, titled "The Enemy is Zionism"
attacked Capriles' Jewish ancestry and linked him with Jewish national
groups because of a meeting he had held with local Jewish
leaders, saying, "This is our enemy, the
Capriles today represents... Zionism, along with capitalism, are
responsible for 90% of world poverty and imperialist wars."
1968 Polish political crisis
Antisemitism around the world
Antisemitism in the anti-globalization movement
Antisemitism in the
Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944–1946
Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946
Criticism of Judaism
Jacob Barnet affair
Anti-Semite and Jew
Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory
Persecution of Jews
Timeline of antisemitism
^ Definition from the Oxford dictionary
^ a b anti-Semitism – Definition and More from the Merriam-Webster
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^ See, for example:
"Anti-Semitism", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006.
Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews, HarperPerennial 1988, p 133 ff.
Lewis, Bernard. "The New Anti-Semitism", The American Scholar, Volume
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Brandeis University on March 24, 2004.
United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly Session 53 Resolution 133.
Measures to combat contemporary forms of racism, racial
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^ Rattansi 2007, p. 4–5.
^ Roth 2003, p. 30.
^ Johnston 1983, p. 27.
^ Laqueur (2006). p. 21.
^ Johnson 1987, p. 133.
^ a b Lewis, Bernard. "Semites and Antisemites" Archived 14 May 2011
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Events in the Middle East, The Library Press, 1973.
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Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990, p. 594.
^ Falk (2008), p. 21
^ Poliakov, Léon The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol. 3: From Voltaire
to Wagner, University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003, p. 404
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Contemporary Hatred. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 21.
^ Brustein, William I. (2003). Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism in Europe
before the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 118.
^ Jonathan M. Hess, Johann David Michaelis and the Colonial Imaginary:
Orientalism and the Emergence of Racial
Eighteenth-Century Germany, Jewish Social Studies, Volume 6, Number 2,
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Germany in the
late 1870s, those who used it did so in order to stress the radical
difference between their own "antisemitism" and earlier forms of
Jews and Judaism."
^ Jaspal, Rusi (2014).
Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism: Representation,
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^ Marr, Wilhelm. Der Sieg des Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom
nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet. Rudolph Costenoble.
1879, 8th edition/printing. Archive.org. Marr uses the word
"Semitismus" (Semitism) on pages 7, 11, 14, 30, 32, and 46; for
example, one finds in the conclusion the following passage: "Ja, ich
bin überzeutgt, ich habe ausgesprochen, was Millionen Juden im
Stillen denken: Dem Semitismus gehört die Weltherrschaft!" (Yes, I am
convinced that I have articulated what millions of
Jews are quietly
thinking: World domination belongs to Semitism!) (p. 46).
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term “anti-Semitism” was unsuitable from the beginning for the
real essence of Jew-hatred, which remained anchored, more or less, in
the Christian tradition even when it moved via the natural sciences,
into racism. It is doubtful whether the term which was first
publicizes in an institutional context (the Anti-Semitic League) would
have appeared at all if the “Anti-Chancellor League," which fought
Bismarck’s policy, had not been in existence since 1875. The
founders of the new Organization adopted the elements of “anti”
and “league," and searched for the proper term: Marr exchanged the
term “Jew” for “Semite” which he already favored. It is
possible that the shortened form “Sem” is used with such frequency
and ease by Marr (and in his writings) due to its literary advantage
and because it reminded Marr of Sem Biedermann, his Jewish employer
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Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are
Judaism Timeline 1618–1770, CBS News. Retrieved 13 May
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Jews were murdered throughout the
Bogdan Chmielnicki's soldiers on the rampage." Martin Gilbert.
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that far from the
Nazi program's twenty-four point: "combat[ing] the
Jewish-materialist spirit within us and without us" in order "that our
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^ see also Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service
(7 April 1933)
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Germany and the Jews. London, Phoenix
Wolfgang Benz in Dimension des Volksmords: Die Zahl der Jüdischen
Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Munich: Deutscher Taschebuch Verlag,
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Jews as responsible for the two world wars). On the other hand, a
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worldview. … Taken together, his writings after 1945 do not show him
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Antisemitism in modern Ukraine
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