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Antiochus I
Antiochus I
Soter (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 324/3 – 261 BC), was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He succeeded his father Seleucus I Nicator in 281 BC and reigned until his death in 261 BC.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Relations with India 3 Neoclassical art 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

Biography[edit] Antiochus I
Antiochus I
was half Sogdian,[1][2] his mother Apama, daughter of Spitamenes, being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC.[3] In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father Seleucus I, Antiochus married his stepmother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of love sickness. Stratonice bore five children to Antiochus: Seleucus (he was executed for rebellion), Laodice, Apama II, Stratonice of Macedon and Antiochus II Theos, who succeeded his father as king. On the assassination of his father in 281 BC, the task of holding together the empire was a formidable one. A revolt in Syria
Syria
broke out almost immediately. Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace with his father's murderer, Ptolemy Keraunos, apparently abandoning Macedonia and Thrace. In Anatolia
Anatolia
he was unable to reduce Bithynia
Bithynia
or the Persian dynasties that ruled in Cappadocia.[3] In 278 BC the Gauls broke into Anatolia, and a victory that Antiochus won over these Gauls by using Indian war elephants (275 BC) is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Greek for "saviour").[3] At the end of 275 BC the question of Coele-Syria, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301 BC, led to hostilities (the First Syrian War). It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim. War did not materially change the outlines of the two kingdoms, though frontier cities like Damascus
Damascus
and the coast districts of Asia Minor might change hands.[3] In 268 BC Antiochus I
Antiochus I
laid the foundation for the Ezida Temple in Borsippa.[4] His eldest son Seleucus had ruled in the east as viceroy from c. 275 BC until 268/267 BC; Antiochus put his son to death in the latter year on the charge of rebellion. Around 262 BC Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum
Pergamum
by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis
Sardis
and died soon afterwards.[3] He was succeeded in 261 BC by his second son Antiochus II Theos.[5] Relations with India[edit] Antiochus may be the Greek king mentioned[6] in the Edicts of Ashoka, as one of the recipients of the Indian Emperor Ashoka's Buddhist proselytism:

Antiochos I coin. Antioch
Antioch
mint. Macedonian shield with Seleucid anchor in central boss. Elephant walking right.

Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka
Ashoka
(260–218 BCE), according to the Edicts of Ashoka.

"And even this conquest [preaching Buddhism] has been won by the Beloved of the Gods here and in all the borderlands, as far as six hundred yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where Antiochus, king of the Yavanas [Greeks] rules, and beyond this Antiochus four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule."[7]

Ashoka
Ashoka
also claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine, for men and animals, in the territories of the Hellenistic kings:

"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparni
Tamraparni
and where the Greek king Antiochus rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals."[8]

Alternatively, the Greek king mentioned in the Edict of Ashoka
Ashoka
could also be Antiochus's son and successor, Antiochus II Theos, although the proximity of Antiochus I
Antiochus I
with the East may makes him a better candidate.[6] Neoclassical art[edit]

Antiochus and Stratonica (1774), Jacques-Louis David, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts.

Antiochus und Stratonike, Theodoor van Thulden
Theodoor van Thulden
(1669).

The love between Antiochus and his stepmother Stratonice was often depicted in Neoclassical art, as in a painting by Jacques-Louis David. References[edit]

^ Magill, Frank N. et al. (1998), The Ancient World: Dictionary of World Biography, Volume 1, Pasadena, Chicago, London,: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Salem Press, p. 1010, ISBN 0-89356-313-7. ^ Holt, Frank L. (1989), Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Bactria: the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia, Leiden, New York, Copenhagen, Cologne: E. J. Brill, pp 64–65 (see footnote #63 for a discussion on Spitamenes and Apama), ISBN 90-04-08612-9. ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Seleucid Dynasty
Dynasty
s.v. Antiochus I. Soter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 604.  ^ Oelsner, Joachim (2000). "Hellenization of the Babylonian Culture?" (PDF). The Melammu Project. Retrieved 6 June 2017.  ^ Smith, Andrew. "Johannes Malalas - translation". www.attalus.org. Retrieved 2017-06-06.  ^ a b Jarl Charpentier, "Antiochus, King of the Yavanas" Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 6.2 (1931: 303–321) argues that the Antiochus mentioned was unlikely to be Antiochus II, during whose time relations with India were broken by the Parthian intrusion and the independence of Diodotus in Bactria, and suggests instead the half-Iranian Antiochus I, with stronger connections in the East. ^ Translation of Jarl Charpentier 1931:303–321. ^ Edicts of Ashoka, 2nd Rock Edict.

Bibliography[edit]

Mookerji, Radha Kumud (1988) [first published in 1966], Chandragupta Maurya and his times (4th ed.), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0433-3  Traver, Andrew G. (2002). From Polis to Empire, the Ancient World, c. 800 B.C.-A.D. 500: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313309427. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Antiochus I
Antiochus I
at Wikimedia Commons Appianus' Syriaka Antiochus I
Antiochus I
Soter: fact sheet at Livius.org Babylonian Chronicles of the Hellenistic Period Antiochus I
Antiochus I
Soter entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Hellenization of the Babylonian Culture? Coins of Antiochus I

Antiochus I
Antiochus I
Soter Seleucid dynasty Born: 324 BC Died: 261 BC

Preceded by Seleucus I Nicator Seleucid ruler 281–261 BC Succeeded by Antiochus II Theos

v t e

Hellenistic rulers

Argeads

Philip II Alexander III the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Antigonids

Antigonus I Monophthalmus Demetrius I Poliorcetes Antigonus II Gonatas Demetrius II Aetolicus Antigonus III Doson Philip V Perseus Philip VI (pretender)

Ptolemies

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy Keraunos Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Cleopatra I Syra
Cleopatra I Syra
(regent) Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Cleopatra
Cleopatra
II Philometor Soter Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra
Cleopatra
III Ptolemy IX Lathyros Ptolemy X Alexander Berenice III Ptolemy XI Alexander Ptolemy XII Auletes Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VI Tryphaena Berenice IV Epiphanea Ptolemy XIII Ptolemy XIV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
VII Philopator Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Kings of Cyrene

Magas Demetrius the Fair Ptolemy VIII Physcon Ptolemy Apion

Seleucids

Seleucus I Nicator Antiochus I
Antiochus I
Soter Antiochus II Theos Seleucus II Callinicus Seleucus III Ceraunus Antiochus III the Great Seleucus IV Philopator Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Demetrius I Soter Alexander I Balas Demetrius II Nicator Antiochus VI Dionysus Diodotus Tryphon Antiochus VII Sidetes Alexander II Zabinas Seleucus V Philometor Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Seleucus VI Epiphanes Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Demetrius III Eucaerus Philip I Philadelphus Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Philip II Philoromaeus

Lysimachids

Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos

Antipatrids

Cassander Philip IV Alexander V Antipater II Antipater Etesias Sosthenes

Attalids

Philetaerus Eumenes I Attalus I Eumenes II Attalus II Attalus III Eumenes III

Greco-Bactrians

Diodotus I Diodotus II Euthydemus I Demetrius I Euthydemus II Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Demetrius II Eucratides I Plato Eucratides II Heliocles I

Indo-Greeks

Demetrius I Antimachus I Pantaleon Agathocles Apollodotus I Demetrius II Antimachus II Menander I Zoilos I Agathokleia Lysias Strato I Antialcidas Heliokles II Polyxenos Demetrius III Philoxenus Diomedes Amyntas Epander Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso Nicias Menander II Artemidoros Hermaeus Archebius Telephos Apollodotus II Hippostratos Dionysios Zoilos II Apollophanes Strato II Strato III

Kings of Bithynia

Boteiras Bas Zipoetes I Nicomedes I Zipoetes II Etazeta (regent) Ziaelas Prusias I Prusias II Nicomedes II Nicomedes III Nicomedes IV Socrates Chrestus

Kings of Pontus

Mithridates I Ctistes Ariobarzanes Mithridates II Mithridates III Pharnaces I Mithridates IV Philopator Philadephos Mithridates V Euergetes Mithridates VI Eupator Pharnaces II Darius Arsaces Polemon I Pythodorida Polemon II

Kings of Commagene

Ptolemaeus Sames II Mithridates I Antiochus I Mithridates II Antiochus II Mithridates III Antiochus III Antiochus IV

Kings of Cappadocia

Ariarathes I Ariarathes II Ariamnes II Ariarathes III Ariarathes IV Ariarathes V Orophernes Ariarathes VI Ariarathes VII Ariarathes VIII Ariarathes IX Ariobarzanes I Ariobarzanes II Ariobarzanes III Ariarathes X Archelaus

Kings of the Cimmerian Bosporus

Paerisades I Satyros II Prytanis Eumelos Spartokos III Hygiainon (regent) Paerisades II Spartokos IV Leukon II Spartokos V Paerisades III Paerisades IV Paerisades V Mithridates I Pharnaces Asander with Dynamis Mithridates II Asander with Dynamis Scribonius’ attempted rule with Dynamis Dynamis with Polemon Polemon with Pythodorida Aspurgus Mithridates III with Gepaepyris Mithridates III Cotys I

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13100715 LCCN: n83206

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