The Info List - Antioch

on the Orontes (/ˈæntiˌɒk/; Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, also Syrian Antioch)[note 1] was an ancient Greco-Roman
city[1] on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey, and lends the modern city its name. Antioch
was founded near the end of the 4th century
4th century
BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. The city's geographical, military, and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Persian Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria
as the chief city of the Near East. It was also the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period. Most of the urban development of Antioch
was done during the Roman Empire, when the city was one of the most important in the eastern Mediterranean
area of Rome's dominions. Antioch
was called "the cradle of Christianity" as a result of its longevity and the pivotal role that it played in the emergence of both Hellenistic Judaism
Hellenistic Judaism
and early Christianity.[2] The Christian
New Testament asserts that the name "Christian" first emerged in Antioch.[3] It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, and its residents were known as Antiochenes. The city was a metropolis of half a million people during Augustan times, but it declined to relative insignificance during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
because of warfare, repeated earthquakes, and a change in trade routes, which no longer passed through Antioch
from the far east following the Mongol conquests.


1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Foundation by Seleucus I 2.3 Hellenistic age 2.4 Roman period

2.4.1 Age of Julian and Valens 2.4.2 Christianity

2.5 Late antiquity

2.5.1 Theodosius and after 2.5.2 Arab
conquest and Byzantine reconquest

2.6 Crusader era

2.6.1 Second Crusade 2.6.2 After the Second Crusade 2.6.3 Third Crusade 2.6.4 Battles for sovereignty 2.6.5 Fifth Crusade and afterwards 2.6.6 Fall of Antioch

3 Archaeology 4 Notable people 5 See also 6 References and sources 7 External links

Geography[edit] Two routes from the Mediterranean, lying through the Orontes gorge and the Beilan Pass, converge in the plain of the Antioch
Lake (Balük Geut or El Bahr) and are met there by

the road from the Amanian Gate
Amanian Gate
(Baghche Pass) and western Commagene, which descends the valley of the Karasu River
to the Afrin River, the roads from eastern Commagene
and the Euphratean crossings at Samosata
(Samsat) and Apamea Zeugma (Birejik), which descend the valleys of the Afrin and the Quweiq
rivers, and the road from the Euphratean ford at Thapsacus, which skirts the fringe of the Syrian steppe. A single route proceeds south in the Orontes valley.[4]

History[edit] Prehistory[edit] The settlement of Meroe pre-dated Antioch. A shrine of the Semitic goddess Anat, called by Herodotus
the "Persian Artemis", was located here. This site was included in the eastern suburbs of Antioch. There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Io, or Iopolis. This name was always adduced as evidence by Antiochenes (e.g. Libanius) anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians—an eagerness which is illustrated by the Athenian types used on the city's coins. Io may have been a small early colony of trading Greeks
(Javan). John Malalas also mentions an archaic village, Bottia, in the plain by the river.[4] Foundation by Seleucus I[edit] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
is said to have camped on the site of Antioch, and dedicated an altar to Zeus
Bottiaeus; it lay in the northwest of the future city.[4] This account is found[5] only in the writings of Libanius, a 4th-century orator from Antioch, and may be legend intended to enhance Antioch's status. But the story is not unlikely in itself.[6] After Alexander's death in 323 BC, his generals divided up the territory he had conquered. After the Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
in 301 BC, Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four "sister cities" in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch, a city named in honor of his father Antiochus;[7] according to Suda, it might be named after his son Antiochus.[8] He is reputed to have built sixteen Antiochs.[9] Seleucus founded Antioch
on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering. Seleucus did this on the 22nd day of the month of Artemisios in the twelfth year of his reign (equivalent to May 300 BC).[10] Antioch
soon rose above Seleucia Pieria
Seleucia Pieria
to become the Syrian capital. Hellenistic age[edit] The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandria
by the architect Xenarius. Libanius
describes the first building and arrangement of this city (i. p. 300. 17). The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on the low ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out, probably on the east and by Antiochus I, which, from an expression of Strabo, appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own.[4] In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus
began a third walled "city", which was finished by Antiochus III. A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175–164 BC); thenceforth Antioch
was known as Tetrapolis. From west to east the whole was about 6 kilometres (4 miles) in diameter and a little less from north to south. This area included many large gardens.[4] The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers that Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia, Macedonians, and Jews
(who were given full status from the beginning). The total free population of Antioch
at its foundation has been estimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers.[6] During the late Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
and Early Roman period, Antioch's population reached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants (estimates vary from 400,000 to 600,000) and was the third largest city in the world after Rome
and Alexandria. About 6 kilometres (4 miles) west and beyond the suburb Heraclea lay the paradise of Daphne, a park of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great temple to the Pythian Apollo, also founded by Seleucus I and enriched with a cult-statue of the god, as Musagetes, by Bryaxis. A companion sanctuary of Hecate was constructed underground by Diocletian. The beauty and the lax morals of Daphne were celebrated all over the western world; and indeed Antioch
as a whole shared in both these titles to fame.[11] Antioch
became the capital and court-city of the western Seleucid empire under Antiochus I, its counterpart in the east being Seleucia on the Tigris; but its paramount importance dates from the battle of Ancyra (240 BC), which shifted the Seleucid centre of gravity from Asia Minor, and led indirectly to the rise of Pergamum.[12] The Seleucids reigned from Antioch.[citation needed] We know little of it in the Hellenistic period, apart from Syria, all our information coming from authors of the late Roman time. Among its great Greek buildings we hear only of the theatre, of which substructures still remain on the flank of Silpius, and of the royal palace, probably situated on the island. It enjoyed a reputation for being "a populous city, full of most erudite men and rich in the most liberal studies",[13] but the only names of distinction in these pursuits during the Seleucid period that have come down to us are Apollophanes, the Stoic, and one Phoebus, a writer on dreams. The nicknames which they gave to their later kings were Aramaic; and, except Apollo
and Daphne, the great divinities of north Syria
seem to have remained essentially native, such as the "Persian Artemis" of Meroe and Atargatis
of Hierapolis
Bambyce.[12] The epithet "Golden" suggests that the external appearance of Antioch was impressive, but the city needed constant restoration owing to the seismic disturbances to which the district has always been subjected. The first great earthquake in recorded history was related by the native chronicler John Malalas. It occurred in 148 BC and did immense damage.[12][14] Local politics were turbulent. In the many dissensions of the Seleucid house the population took sides, and frequently rose in rebellion, for example against Alexander Balas
Alexander Balas
in 147 BC, and Demetrius II in 129 BC. The latter, enlisting a body of Jews, punished his capital with fire and sword. In the last struggles of the Seleucid house, Antioch
turned against its feeble rulers, invited Tigranes of Armenia to occupy the city in 83 BC, tried to unseat Antiochus XIII in 65 BC, and petitioned Rome
against his restoration in the following year. Antioch's wish prevailed, and it passed with Syria
to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 64 BC, but remained a civitas libera.[12] Roman period[edit]

Ancient Roman road
Roman road
located in Syria
which connected Antioch
and Chalcis.

This argenteus was struck in the Antioch
mint, under Constantius Chlorus.

Rare Domitian Tetradrachm struck in the Antioch
Mint. Only 23 known examples. Note the realist portrait, typical of the Antioch

A Greek rider seizes a mounted Amazonian warrior (armed with a double-headed axe) by her Phrygian cap; Roman mosaic
Roman mosaic
emblema (marble and limestone), 2nd half of the 4th century
4th century
AD; from Daphne, a suburb of Antioch-on-the-Orontes
(now Antakya
in Turkey)

The Roman emperors favoured the city from the first moments, seeing it as a more suitable capital for the eastern part of the empire than Alexandria
could be, because of the isolated position of Egypt. To a certain extent they tried to make it an eastern Rome. Julius Caesar visited it in 47 BC, and confirmed its freedom. A great temple to Jupiter Capitolinus rose on Silpius, probably at the insistence of Octavian, whose cause the city had espoused. A forum of Roman type was laid out. Tiberius
built two long colonnades on the south towards Silpius.[12] Agrippa and Tiberius
enlarged the theatre, and Trajan
finished their work. Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius
paved the great east to west artery with granite. A circus, other colonnades and great numbers of baths were built, and new aqueducts to supply them bore the names of Caesars, the finest being the work of Hadrian. The Roman client, King Herod (most likely the great builder Herod the Great), erected a long stoa on the east, and Agrippa (c. 63 BC – 12 BC) encouraged the growth of a new suburb south of this.[12] One of the most famous urban additions to Antioch, done by the Romans probably under Augustus
when the city had more than half a million inhabitants, was the Circus of Antioch: it was a Roman hippodrome. Used for chariot racing, it was modelled on the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
in Rome and other circus buildings throughout the empire. Measuring more than 490 metres (1,610 feet) in length and 30 metres (98 feet) of width,[15] the Circus could house up to 80,000 spectators. Zarmanochegas
(Zarmarus) a monk of the Sramana
tradition of India, according to Strabo
and Dio Cassius, met Nicholas of Damascus in Antioch
around 13 AD as part of a Mission to Augustus.[16][17] At Antioch
died in 19 AD, and his body was burnt in the forum.[12] An earthquake that shook Antioch
in AD 37 caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another quake followed in the next reign.[12] Titus
set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates.[12] In 115 AD, during Trajan's travel there during his war against Parthia, the whole site was convulsed by a huge earthquake. The landscape altered, and the emperor himself was forced to take shelter in the circus for several days.[12] He and his successor restored the city, but the population was reduced to less than 400,000 inhabitants and many sections of the city were abandoned. Commodus
had Olympic games
Olympic games
celebrated at Antioch.[12]

The Antioch
Chalice, first half of 6th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In 256 AD, the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre.[12] Age of Julian and Valens[edit] When the emperor Julian visited in 362 on a detour to Persia, he had high hopes for Antioch, regarding it as a rival to the imperial capital of Constantinople. Antioch
had a mixed pagan and Christian population, which Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
implies lived quite harmoniously together. However Julian's visit began ominously as it coincided with a lament for Adonis, the doomed lover of Aphrodite. Thus, Ammianus
wrote, the emperor and his soldiers entered the city not to the sound of cheers but to wailing and screaming. After being advised that the bones of 3rd-century martyred bishop Babylas were suppressing the oracle of Apollo
at Daphne,[18] he made a public-relations mistake in ordering the removal of the bones from the vicinity of the temple. The result was a massive Christian
procession. Shortly after that, when the temple was destroyed by fire, Julian suspected the Christians and ordered stricter investigations than usual. He also shut up the chief Christian
church of the city, before the investigations proved that the fire was the result of an accident.[19][20] Julian found much else about which to criticize the Antiochene; Julian had wanted the empire's cities to be more self-managing, as they had been some 200 years before. However Antioch's city councilmen showed themselves unwilling to shore up Antioch's food shortage with their own resources, so dependent were they on the emperor. Ammianus wrote that the councilmen shirked their duties by bribing unwitting men in the marketplace to do the job for them. The city's impiety to the old religion was clear to Julian when he attended the city's annual feast of Apollo. To his surprise and dismay the only Antiochene present was an old priest clutching a chicken. The Antiochenes in turn hated Julian for worsening the food shortage with the burden of his billeted troops, wrote Ammianus. The soldiers were often to be found gorged on sacrificial meat, making a drunken nuisance of themselves on the streets while Antioch's hungry citizens looked on in disgust. The Christian
Antiochenes and Julian's pagan Gallic soldiers also never quite saw eye to eye. Even Julian's piety was distasteful to the Antiochenes retaining the old faith. Julian's brand of paganism was very much unique to himself, with little support outside the most educated Neoplatonist circles. The irony of Julian's enthusiasm for large scale animal sacrifice could not have escaped the hungry Antiochenes. Julian gained no admiration for his personal involvement in the sacrifices, only the nickname axeman, wrote Ammianus. The emperor's high-handed, severe methods and his rigid administration prompted Antiochene lampoons about, among other things, Julian's unfashionably pointed beard.[21] Julian's successor, Valens, who endowed Antioch
with a new forum, including a statue of Valentinian on a central column, reopened the great church of Constantine, which stood till the Persian sack in 538, by Chosroes.[12] Christianity[edit] Antioch
was a chief center of early Christianity during Roman times. The city had a large population of Jewish origin in a quarter called the Kerateion, and so attracted the earliest missionaries.[22] Evangelized, among others, by Peter himself, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy,[23] and certainly later[24] by Barnabas
and Paul during Paul's first missionary journey. Its converts were the first to be called Christians.[25] This is not to be confused with Antioch
in Pisidia, to which the early missionaries later travelled.[26] Surrounding the city were a number of Greek, Syrian, Armenian, and Latin

A bronze coin from Antioch
depicting the emperor Julian. Note the pointed beard.

The Christian
population was estimated by Chrysostom
at about 100,000 people at the time of Theodosius I. Between 252 and 300 AD, ten assemblies of the church were held at Antioch
and it became the seat of one of the five original patriarchates,[12] along with Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Rome
(see Pentarchy). One of the canonical Eastern Orthodox churches is still called the Antiochian Orthodox Church, although it moved its headquarters from Antioch
to Damascus, Syria, several centuries ago (see list of Patriarchs of Antioch), and its prime bishop retains the title "Patriarch of Antioch", somewhat analogous to the manner in which several Popes, heads of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
remained "Bishop of Rome" even while residing in Avignon, France in the 14th century. Late antiquity[edit] Theodosius and after[edit] In 387 AD, there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius I, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status.[12] He divided the Roman Empire, and since then Antioch
was under Constantinople's rule.

The Peutinger Map showing Antioch
and Seleucia
in the 4th century.

and its port, Seleucia
Pieria, were severely damaged by the great earthquake of 526. Seleucia
Pieria, which was already fighting a losing battle against continual silting, never recovered.[28] Justinian I
Justinian I
renamed Antioch
Theopolis ("City of God") and restored many of its public buildings, but the destructive work was completed by the Persian king, Khosrau I, twelve years later, who deported the population to a newly built city in Persian Mesopotamia, Weh Antiok Khosrow. Antioch
lost as many as 300,000 people. Justinian I
Justinian I
made an effort to revive it, and Procopius
describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.[12] During the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628 the Emperor Heraclius confronted the invading Persian army of Khosrow II
Khosrow II
outside Antioch
in 613. The Byzantines were defeated by forces under the generals Shahrbaraz
and Shahin Vahmanzadegan
Shahin Vahmanzadegan
at the Battle of Antioch, after which the city fell to the Sassanians, together with much of Syria
and eastern Anatolia. Antioch
gave its name to a certain school of Christian
thought, distinguished by literal interpretation of the Scriptures and insistence on the human limitations of Jesus. Diodorus of Tarsus
Diodorus of Tarsus
and Theodore of Mopsuestia
Theodore of Mopsuestia
were the leaders of this school. The principal local saint was Simeon Stylites, who lived an extremely ascetic life atop a pillar for 40 years some 65 kilometres (40 miles) east of Antioch. His body was brought to the city and buried in a building erected under the emperor Leo.[12] Arab
conquest and Byzantine reconquest[edit]

Recapture of Antioch
in 969

The ramparts of Antioch
climbing Mons Silpius during the Crusades (lower left on the map, above left)

In 637, during the reign of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, Antioch was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
during the Battle of the Iron Bridge. The city became known in Arabic
as أنطاكيّة (Antākiyyah). Since the Umayyad
dynasty was unable to penetrate the Anatolian plateau, Antioch
found itself on the frontline of the conflicts between two hostile empires during the next 350 years, so that the city went into a precipitous decline. In 969, the city was recovered for the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
Nikephoros II Phokas by Michael Bourtzes
Michael Bourtzes
and the stratopedarches Peter. It soon became the seat of a doux, the civil governor of the homonymous theme, but also the seat of the somewhat more important Domestic of the Schools of the Orient, the supreme military commander of the imperial forces on the eastern frontier. Sometimes both offices were held by the same person, usually military officers such as Nikephoros Ouranos, or Philaretos Brachamios, who managed to retain the integrity of the eastern borderline after the Seljuk conquest of Anatolia. As the empire disintegrated rapidly before the Komnenian restoration, Dux
of Antioch
& Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools
of the East Philaretos Brachamios held the city until the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
captured it from him in 1084. The Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
held it only fourteen years before the Crusaders arrived. Crusader era[edit] Main article: Principality of Antioch

The Capture of Antioch
by Bohemund of Taranto in June 1098.


The Crusaders' Siege of Antioch
Siege of Antioch
conquered the city in 1098. At this time, the bulk of far eastern trade traveled through Egypt, but in the second half of the 12th century Nur ed-Din and later Saladin
brought order to Muslim
Syria, opening up long distance trade routes, including to Antioch
and on to its new port, St Symeon, which had replaced Seleucia
Pieria. However, the Mongol conquests
Mongol conquests
of the 13th century altered the main trade routes from the far east, as they encouraged merchants to take the overland route through Mongol territory to the Black Sea, reducing the prosperity of Antioch.[29] In 1100, Tancred became the regent of Antioch
after his uncle and predecessor Bohemond I of Antioch
Bohemond I of Antioch
was taken prisoner for three years (1100–03) by Gazi Gümüshtigin of the Danishmends
at the Battle of Melitene. Tancred expanded the territory of Antioch
by conquering Byzantine Cilicia, Tarsus, and Adana
in 1101 and founding the principality, Byzantine Latakia, in 1103. In 1107 Bohemond enraged by an earlier defeat when he, allianced with Edessa, attacked Aleppo, and Baldwin of Bourcq
Baldwin of Bourcq
and Joscelin of Courtenay (Bourcq's most powerful vassal) were briefly captured, as well as the Byzantines recapturing of Cilicia
and the harbour and lower town of Lattakieh, he renamed Tancred as the regent of Antioch
and sailed for Europe with the intent of gaining support for an attack against the Greeks.[30][31] In 1107-8 Bohemond led a 'crusade' against Byzantium, with the Latins crossing the Adriatic in October 1107 and laying siege to the city of Durazzo (in modern Albania), which is often regarded as the western gate of the Greek empire. Bohemond was outwitted by Alexius, who deployed his forces to cut the invaders' supply lines whilst avoiding direct confrontation. The Latins were weakened by hunger and proved unable to break Durazzo's defenses. Bohemond capitulated in September 1108 and was forced to accede to a peace accord, the Treaty of Devol. The terms of this agreement stipulated that Bohemond was to hold Antioch
for the remainder of his life as the emperor's subject and the Greek patriarch was to be restored to power in the city. However Tancred refused to honour the Treaty of Devol
Treaty of Devol
in which Bohemond swore an oath, and it is not until 1158 that it truly became a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire.[32][33] Six months after the Treaty of Devol Bohemond died, and Tancred remained regent of Antioch
until his death during a typhoid epidemic in 1112. After the death of Tancred, the principality passed to Roger of Salerno, who helped rebuild Antioch
after an earthquake destroyed its foundations in 1114. With the defeat of Roger's crusading army and his death at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis
Battle of Ager Sanguinis
in 1119 the role of regent was assumed by Baldwin II of Jerusalem, lasting until 1126, with the exception from 1123 to 1124 when he was briefly captured by the Artuqids
and held captive alongside Joscelin of Courtenay. In 1126 Bohemond II arrived from Apulia in order to gain regency over Antioch. In February 1130 Bohemond was lured into an ambush by Leo I, Prince of Armenia who allied with the Danishmend
Gazi Gümüshtigin, and was killed in the subsequent battle, his head was then embalmed, placed in a silver box, and sent as a gift to the Abbasid
caliph in Baghdad.[34][35] Antioch
was again ruled by a regency, firstly being Baldwin II, after his daughter and Bohemond II's wife, Alice of Antioch attempted to block Baldwin from entering Antioch, but failed when Antiochene nobles such as Fulk of Jerusalem
(Alice's brother-in-law) opened up the gates for representatives of Baldwin II. Alice was then expelled from Antioch. With the death of Balwin in 1131, Alice briefly took control of Antioch
and allied herself with Pons of Tripoli
Pons of Tripoli
and Joscelin II of Edessa
in an attempt to prevent Fulk, King of Jerusalem
from marching north in 1132, however this attempt failed and Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again. In 1133 the king chose Raymond of Poitiers
Raymond of Poitiers
as a groom for Constance of Antioch, daughter of Bohemund II of Antioch
Bohemund II of Antioch
and Alice, princess of Jerusalem.[36] The marriage took place in 1136 between the 21-year-old Raymond and the 9-year-old Constance. Immediately after assuming control, Raymond was involved in conflicts with the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
John II Comnenus
John II Comnenus
who had come south to recover Cilicia
from Leo of Armenia, and to reassert his rights over Antioch. The engagement lasted until 1137 when emperor John II arrived with an army before the walls of Antioch. Though the basileus did not enter the city, his banner was raised atop the citadel and Raymond was compelled to do homage. Raymond agreed with the emperor that if he was capable of capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, and Homs, he would exchange Antioch
for them.[37] John went on to attack Aleppo
with the aid of Antioch
and Edessa, and failed to capture it, with the Franks withdrawing their support when he moved on to capture Shaizar. John returned to Antioch
ahead of his army and entered Antioch, only to be forced to leave when Joscelin II, Count of Edessa
rallied the citizens to oust him. In 1142 John then returned but Raymond refused to submit and John was forced to return to Cilicia
again due to the coming winter, to plan an attack the following season. However the emperor died on April 8, 1143.[37] Second Crusade[edit] The following year after the death of John II Comnenus, Imad ad-Din Zengi lay siege to Edessa, the crusader capital, and with the death of Imad ad-Din Zengi in 1146, he was succeeded by his son, Nur ad-Din Zangi. Zangi attacked Antioch
in both 1147 and 1148 and succeeded during the second venture in occupying most of the territory east of the Orontes including Artah, Kafar Latha, Basarfut, and Balat, but failing to capture Antioch
itself. With the Second Crusades army previously nearly entirely defeated by the Turks and by sickness, Louis VII of France
Louis VII of France
arrived in Antioch
on March 19, 1148 after being delayed by storms. Louis was welcomed by the uncle of his spouse Eleanor of Aquitaine, Raymond of Poitiers. Louis refused to help Antioch
defend against the Turks and to lead an expedition against Aleppo, and instead decided to finish his pilgrimage to Jerusalem
rather than focus on the military aspect of the Crusades. With Louis quickly leaving Antioch
again and the Crusades returning home in 1149,[38] Zangi launched an offensive against the territories which were dominated by the Castle of Harim, situated on the eastern bank of the Orontes, after which Zangi besieged the castle of Inag. Raymond of Poitiers
Raymond of Poitiers
quickly came to the aid of the citadel, where he was defeated and killed at the Battle of Inab, Raymond's head was then cut off and sent to Zangi, who sent it to the caliph in Baghdad. However, Zangi did not attack Antioch
itself and was content with capturing all of Antiochene territory that lay east of the Orontes.[39][40] After the Second Crusade[edit] With Raymond dead and Bohemond III
Bohemond III
only five years of age, the principality came under the control of Raymond's widow Constance of Antioch, however real control lay with Aimery of Limoges. In 1152 Baldwin III of Jerusalem
came of age, but from 1150 he had proposed three different but respectable suitors for Constance's hand in marriage, all of whom she rejected. In 1153 however, she chose Raynald of Châtillon and married him in secret without consulting her first cousin and liege lord, Baldwin III, and neither Baldwin nor Aimery of Limoges approved of her choice.[41] In 1156 Raynald claimed that the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus had reneged on his promises to pay Raynald a sum of money, and vowed to attack the island of Cyprus
in revenge. However Aimery refused to finance Raynald's expedition, so in turn Raynald had the Patriarch seized, beaten, stripped naked, covered in honey, and had him left in the burning sun on top of the citadel to be attacked by insects. When the Patriarch was released, he collapsed in exhaustion and agreed to finance Raynald's expedition.[42] In the meantime, Raynald had allied himself with the Armenian prince, Thoros II. In 1156 Raynald's forces attacked Cyprus, ravaging the island over a three-week period, with rapine, killing, and plundering its citizens. After which, Manuel I Comnenus
Manuel I Comnenus
raised an army and began their march towards Syria, as a result Raynald threw himself to the mercy of the emperor who insisted on the installation of a Greek Patriarch and the surrender of the citadel in Antioch. The following spring, Manuel made a triumphant entry into the city and established himself as the unquestioned suzerain of Antioch. In 1160 Raynald was captured by Muslims during a plundering raid against the Syrian and Armenian peasants of the neighbourhood of Marash. He was held captive for sixteen years, and as the stepfather of the Empress Maria, he was ransomed by Manuel for 120,000 gold dinars in 1176 (about 500 kg of gold, worth approximately £16 million or US$26 million as of October 2010). With Raynald disposed of for a long time, the patriarch Aimery became the new regent, chosen by Baldwin III. To further consolidate his own claim over Antioch, Manuel chose Maria of Antioch
Maria of Antioch
as his bride, daughter of Constance of Antioch and Raymond of Poitiers. But the government of Antioch
remained in crisis up until 1163, when Constance asked the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
to help maintain her rule, as a result the citizens of Antioch exiled her and installed her son Bohemond III
Bohemond III
and now brother-in-law to the emperor, as regent.[43] One year later, Nur ad-Din Zangi
Nur ad-Din Zangi
captured Bohemond III
Bohemond III
when he defeated a joint Antiochene-Tripolitan army. Bohemond III
Bohemond III
was soon released, however Harem, Syria
which Raynald had recaptured in 1158, was lost again and the frontier of Antioch
was permanently placed west of the Orontes. Byzantine influence remained in Antioch
and in 1165, Bohemond III
Bohemond III
married a niece of the emperor, Maria of Antioch, and installed a Greek patriarch in the city, Athanasius II, Patriarch of Antioch, who remained in his position until he died in an earthquake five years later.[44][45] Third Crusade[edit] On October 29, 1187, Pope Gregory VIII
Pope Gregory VIII
issued the papal bull Audita tremendi, his call for the Third Crusade.[46] Frederick I Barbarossa, Richard I of England, and Philip II of France
Philip II of France
answered the summons. With Richard and Philip deciding to take a sea route, Frederick lacked the necessary ships and took a land route where he pushed on through Anatolia, defeating the Turks in the Battle of Iconium, however upon reaching Christian
territory in Lesser Armenia
Lesser Armenia
(Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia) the emperor drowned in the river Saleph. The emperor was buried at Antioch
and the Germans became an insignificant contingent during the crusade. Throughout the Third Crusade Antioch
remained neutral, however with the end of the Third Crusade (1192), they were included in the Treaty of Ramla between Richard and Saladin.[47][48][49][50] Battles for sovereignty[edit] With no heir after the death of Raymond III, Count of Tripoli in the Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin
he left his godson, Raymond IV, Count of Tripoli, the eldest son of Bohemond III. However Bohemond installed his younger, the future prince Bohemond IV of Antioch, as count of Tripoli. Shortly after the end of the Third Crusade, Raymond IV, Count of Tripoli married Alice of Armenia, the niece of Leo II, or Leo I, King of Armenia, and a vassal to Antioch. Alice bore Raymond IV
Raymond IV
a son in 1199, Raymond-Roupen, after which Raymond IV
Raymond IV
died in the coming months. In 1194 Leo II tricked Bohemond III
Bohemond III
making him believe that the new born prince had been captured by the Roupenians. Leo made a failed attempt at capturing Antioch
believing the city would be weakened with the absence of Bohemond. Henry II, Count of Champagne
Henry II, Count of Champagne
nephew to both Richard I and Philip II, travelled to Lesser Armenia
Lesser Armenia
and managed to persuade Leo that in exchange for Antioch, renouncing its overlordship to Lesser Armenia and to release Bohemond, who in 1201 died. With the death of Bohemond III there followed a 15-year struggle for power of Antioch, between Tripoli and Lesser Armenia. According to the rules of primogeniture Leo's great nephew Raymond-Roupen
was the rightful heir of Antioch, and Leo's position was supported by the pope. However, on the other hand, the city commune of Antioch
supported Bohemond IV of Antioch, on the grounds that he was the closest blood relative to the last ruling prince, Bohemond III. In 1207 Bohemond IV installed a Greek patriarch in Antioch, despite the East-West Schism, under the help of Aleppo, Bohemond IV drove Leo out of Antioch.[51][52] Fifth Crusade and afterwards[edit] See also: Armeno-Mongol relations In 1213 Pope Innocent III's papal bull Quia maior called for all of Christendom to lead a new (Fifth) crusade. This strengthened the support of sultan al-Adil I (العادل), an Ayyubid-Egyptian general who supported Raymond-Roupen's claims in Antioch. In 1216 Leo installed Raymond-Roupen
as prince of Antioch, and ending all military aspect of the struggle between Tripoli and Lesser Armenia, but the citizens again revolted against Raymond-Roupen
in c. 1219 and Bohemond of Tripoli was recognised as the fourth prince of that name. Bohemond IV and his son Bohemond V remained neutral in the struggles of the Guelphs and Ghibellines
to the south which arose when Frederich II married Isabella II, and in 1233 Bohemond IV died. From 1233 onwards Antioch
declined and appeared rarely in records for 30 years, and in 1254 the altercations of the past between Antioch
and Armenia were laid to rest when Bohemond VI of Antioch married the then 17‑year‑old Sibylla of Armenia, and Bohemond VI became a vassal of the Armenian kingdom. Effectively, the Armenian kings ruled Antioch
while the prince of Antioch
resided in Tripoli. The Armenians
drew up a treaty with the Mongols, who were now ravaging Muslim
lands, and under protection they extended their territory into the lands of the Seljuq dynasty
Seljuq dynasty
in the north and the Aleppo
territory to the south. Antioch
was part of this Armeno-Mongol alliance. Bohemond VI managed to retake Lattakieh
and reestablished the land bridge between Antioch
and Tripoli, while the Mongols insisted he install the Greek patriarch there rather than a Latin
one, due to the Mongols attempting to strengthen ties with the Byzantine Empire. This earned Bohemond the enmity of the Latins of Acre, and Bohemond was excommunicated by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Pope Urban IV,[53] which was later suspended.[54][55] Fall of Antioch[edit] See also: Siege of Antioch
Siege of Antioch
(1268) In 1259 the Mongols captured the Syrian city of Damascus, and eventually in 1260, Aleppo. The Mamluk
sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz
Saif ad-Din Qutuz
looked to ally with the Franks, who declined. In September 1260, the Mamluks defeated the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut, shortly after Qutuz was assassinated at Al-Salihiyya, and according to various sources his successor Baibars
was involved in his murder.[56][57] ( Baibars
"came to power with [the] regicide [of Qutuz] on his conscience" according to Tschanz.) Despite this, Baibars
was named sultan, and in 1263 sacked Nazareth, threatened Antioch
with invasion, and appeared before the walls of Acre. In January 1265 Baibars
launched an offensive against the Latins, starting with Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but was unable to take it, but defeated the Crusaders in many other battles in Arsuf, Athlith, Haifa, etc. And in 1268 Baibars
besieged Antioch, capturing the city on May 18. Baibars promised to spare the lives of the inhabitants, but broke his promise and razed the city, killing or enslaving nearly the entire population upon their surrender.[58] Antioch's ruler, Prince Bohemond VI was then left with no territories except the County of Tripoli. Without any southern fortifications and with Antioch
isolated it could not withstand the onslaught of resurgent Muslim
forces, and with the fall of the city, the remainder of northern Syria
eventually capitulated, and ended the Latin
presence in Syria.[59] The Mamluk
armies killed or enslaved every Christian
in Antioch.[60] In 1355 it still had a considerable population, but by 1432 there were only about 300 inhabited houses within its walls, mostly occupied by Turcomans.[61] Archaeology[edit]

The Týkhē (Fortune) of Antioch, Galleria dei Candelabri, the Vatican Museums.

Few traces of the once great Roman city are visible today aside from the massive fortification walls that snake up the mountains to the east of the modern city, several aqueducts, and the Church of St Peter (St Peter's Cave Church, Cave-Church of St. Peter), said to be a meeting place of an Early Christian
Early Christian
community.[62] The majority of the Roman city lies buried beneath deep sediments from the Orontes River, or has been obscured by recent construction. Between 1932 and 1939, archaeological excavations of Antioch
were undertaken under the direction of the "Committee for the Excavation of Antioch
and Its Vicinity", which was made up of representatives from the Louvre Museum, the Baltimore Museum of Art, the Worcester Art Museum, Princeton University, Wellesley College, and later (1936) also the Fogg Art Museum
Fogg Art Museum
at Harvard University
Harvard University
and its affiliate Dumbarton Oaks. The excavation team failed to find the major buildings they hoped to unearth, including Constantine's Great Octagonal Church or the imperial palace. However, a great accomplishment of the expedition was the discovery of high-quality Roman mosaics from villas and baths in Antioch, Daphne
and Seleucia
Pieria. The principal excavations of Mosaics at Antioch
led by Princeton University in March 1932 recovered nearly 300 mosaics. Many of these mosaics were originally displayed as floor mosaics in private homes during the 2nd through 6th centuries A.D., while others were displayed in baths and other public buildings. The majority of the Antioch mosaics are from the fourth and fifth centuries, Antioch's golden age, though others from earlier times have survived as well .[63] The mosaics depict a variety of images including animals, plants, and mythological beings, as well as scenes from the daily lives of people living in the area at the time. Each mosaic is bordered by intricate designs and contains bold, vibrant colors.[64] One mosaic includes a border that depicts a walk from Antioch
to Daphne, showing many ancient buildings along the way. The mosaics are now displayed in the Hatay Archaeology Museum
Hatay Archaeology Museum
in Antakya. A collection of mosaics on both secular and sacred subjects which were once in churches, private homes, and other public spaces now hang in the Princeton University
Princeton University
Art Museum[65] and museums of other sponsoring institutions. A statue in the Vatican and a number of figurines and statuettes perpetuate the type of its great patron goddess and civic symbol, the Tyche
(Fortune) of Antioch – a majestic seated figure, crowned with the ramparts of Antioch's walls and holding wheat stalks in her right hand, with the river Orontes as a youth swimming under her feet. According to William Robertson Smith the Tyche
of Antioch
was originally a young virgin sacrificed at the time of the founding of the city to ensure its continued prosperity and good fortune.[citation needed] The northern edge of Antakya
has been growing rapidly over recent years, and this construction has begun to expose large portions of the ancient city, which are frequently bulldozed and rarely protected by the local museum. On April 2016, archaeologists discovered a Greek mosaic shown a skeleton lying down with a wine pitcher and loaf of bread alongside a text that reads: "Be cheerful, enjoy your life", it is reportedly from the 3rd century B.C. Described as the "reckless skeleton" or "skeleton mosaic", the mosaic is once thought to have belonged in the dining room of an upper class home.[66][67][68] Notable people[edit]

Saint Barnabas Saint Domnius, Bishop of Salona and patron saint of Split George of Antioch Ignatius of Antioch, Patriarch of Antioch John Chrysostom
(349–407) Patriarch of Constantinople Libanius, 4th century
4th century
AD, pagan sophist and confidant of Emperor Julian Saint Luke, 1st century AD, Christian
evangelist and author of the Gospel of St. Luke
Gospel of St. Luke
and Acts of the Apostles Severus of Antioch

See also[edit]

Hatay Archaeology Museum Antiochene Rite List of Greek place names Other cities of the ancient world named Antiochia Theophilus of Antioch The Martyr of Antioch Monty Python's Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch

References and sources[edit]


^ Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, " Antioch
on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, " Antioch
the Great"; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem; Armenian: Անտիոք Antiok; Syriac: ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ‎ Anṭiokia; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; Persian: انطاکیه‎; Turkish: Antakya.


^ Sacks, David; Oswyn Murray (2005). Lisa R. Brody, ed. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
World (Facts on File
Library of World History). Facts on File
Inc. p. 32. ISBN 978-0816057221.  ^ "The mixture of Roman, Greek, and Jewish elements admirably adapted Antioch
for the great part it played in the early history of Christianity. The city was the cradle of the church." — "Antioch," Encyclopaedia Biblica, Vol. I, p. 186 (p. 125 of 612 in online .pdf file. Warning: Takes several minutes to download). ^ " Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
11:26".  ^ a b c d e Rockwell 1911, p. 130. ^ Libanius
(2000). Antioch
as a Centre of Hellenic Culture as Observed by Libanius. Translated with an introduction by A.F. Norman. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-85323-595-3.  ^ a b Glanville Downey, Ancient Antioch
(Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1963). Available as PDF[permanent dead link] ^ "Syrian Antioch
and Pisidian Antioch". Bible Wise. Retrieved 22 September 2017.  ^ "s.v. Ἀντιόχεια". Suda.  At the Suda
On Line project of the Stoa
Consortium. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary
Easton's Bible Dictionary
(New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.  ^ John Malalas, Book 8, pp.199–202 ^ Rockwell 1911, pp. 130-131. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Rockwell 1911, p. 131. ^ Cicero
Pro Archia, 4 ^ John Malalas, Book 8, pp.207–208 ^ John Humphrey (13 February 1986). Roman Circuses: Arenas for Charioteers. University of California Press. pp. 446–. ISBN 978-0-520-04921-5. Retrieved 25 August 2012.  ^ Strabo, xv, 1, on the immolation of the Sramana
in Athens
(Paragraph 73). ^ Dio Cassius, liv, 9. ^ St John Chrysostom's homily on Saint Babylas ^ Ammianus
Marcellinus, Res Gestae, 22.12.8 – 22.13.3 ^ Socrates
of Constantinople, Historia ecclesiastica, 3.18 ^ Ridebatur enim ut Cercops...barbam prae se ferens hircinam. Ammianus XXII 14. ^ Acts 11:19 ^ Acts 11 ^ Acts 11:22 ^ Acts 11:26 ^ Acts 13:14–50 ^ Byzantine Religious Culture: Studies in Honor of Alice-Mary Talbot, Alice-Mary Maffry Talbot, Denis Sullivan, Elizabeth A. Fisher, Stratis Papaioannou, p.281 ^ Seleucia
in Pieria, Ancient Warfare Magazine ^ Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades, Cambridge University Press, 1955, pp. 326, 354–359 ^ "A short history of Antioch, 300 B.C.-A.D. 1268". Archive.org. Retrieved 2013-03-25.  ^ Antioch
(International Internet Preservation Consortium) ^ The Crusades The War For The Holy Land by Thomas Asbridge page 114 (p.3) to page 115 ^ Ibn al-Athir vol. 2, p. 320; Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic perspectives, pp. 175–85 ^ A History of the Crusades – Volume II.: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East: 1100–1187. ^ The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia
during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians
with the Latins (1080–1393). ^ Usmah Ibn Munqidh (1095–1188): Autobiography: Excerpts on the Franks, c. 1175 CE. ^ a b Annales Herbipolenses, s.a. 1147: A Hostile View of the Crusade ^ The Crusades: A Documentary Survey Brundage ^ Studies in the History of Relations between Orient and Occident in the Middle Ages. Cairo 2003 ^ Islamic Imperialism: A History By Efraim Karsh ^ Les Familles d'Outremer ^ od's War: A New History of the Crusade ^ Religious and Military Crusader Orders in Syria
in the 12th and 13th Centuries. Amman 2003. ^ Seeing Islam as Others Saw Athanasius II ^ Earthquakes in Syria
during the Crusades. Cairo 1996. ^ J. N. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, New York: Oxford UP, 1986, 183. ^ Axelrod, Alan and Charles L. Phillips, editors. "Encyclopedia of Historical Treaties and Alliances, Vol. 1". Zenda Inc., New York, 2001 ^ Wolff p.113 ^ Konstam, Historical Atlas of the Crusades, 162 ^ Comyn, pg. 267 ^ A short history of Antioch, 300 B.C.-A.D. 1268 (1921) ^ Riley-Smith, Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades ^ Runciman, pp. 306–307. "To the Latins at Acre Bohemond's subservience seemed disgraceful, especially as it involved the humiliation of the Latin
Church at Antioch...Bohemond was excommunicated by the Pope for this alliance (Urban IV, Registres, 26 May 1263) ^ Jean Richard, The Crusades: c. 1071 – c. 1291, pp 423–426 ^ "Ghazan resumed his plans against Egypt
in 1297: the Franco-Mongol cooperation had thus survived, in spite of the loss of Acre by the Franks, and the conversion of the Persian Mongols to Islam. It was to remain one of the political factors of the policy of the Crusades, until the peace treaty with the Mumluks, which was only signed in 1322 by the khan Abu Said", Jean Richard, p.468 ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 519/vol. 1. ^ See Perry (p. 150), Riley-Smith (p. 237, Baybars ... murdered Qutuz"), Amitai-Preiss (p. 47, "a conspiracy of amirs, which included Baybars and was probably under his leadership"), Holt et al. ^ Zahiriyya Madrasa and Mausoleum of Sultan
al-Zahir Baybars Archived 2009-01-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ New scourge from Egypt, A History of Armenia by Vahan M. Kurkjian ^ Michaud, The History of the Crusades, Vol. 3, p. 18 ; available in full at Google Books. Note that in a footnote Michaud claims reliance on "the chronicle of Ibn Ferat" (Michaud, Vol.3, p.22) for much of the information he has concerning the Mussulmans. ^ Runciman, op. cit., p. 326. ^ "Sacred Destinations". Retrieved 2008-07-01.  ^ Downey, Glanville (1938). "Personifications of Abstract Ideas in the Antioch
Mosaics". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 6: 349–363. Retrieved 30 October 2017.  ^ Fant, Clyde E.; Reddish, Mitchell G. (2003). A Guide to Biblical Sites in Greece and Turkey. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-19-513918-6.  ^ Jones, Frances F (1981). " Antioch
Mosaics in Princeton". Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University. 40 (2): 2–26. Retrieved 30 October 2017.  ^ Archaeologists discover ancient mosaic with message: 'Be cheerful, enjoy your life' ^ New mosaic discovery in Hatay, ancient Antioch. Reclining skeleton with the message "Be cheerful - enjoy your life" ^ 2,400 year-old mosaic found in southern Turkey
says ‘be cheerful, enjoy your life’


Karl Otfried Müller, Antiquitates Antiochenae (1839) Albin Freund, Beiträge zur antiochenischen und zur konstantinopolitanischen Stadtchronik (1882) R. Forster, in Jahrbuch of Berlin Arch. Institute, xii. (1897) Ulrich Wickert. "Antioch." In The Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, 81–82. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999. ISBN 0802824137  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rockwell, William Walker (1911). "Antioch". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–132. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antioch.

The Ancient City of Antioch
Map Richard Stillwell, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976: " Antioch
on the Orontes (Antaky), Turkey" Antioch
(Antakya) Includes timeline, maps, and photo galleries of Antioch's mosaics and artifacts Antakya
Museum Many photos of the collection in Antakya's museum, in particular Roman mosaics Antiochepedia Blog News and information about ancient Antioch Hatay Archaeology Museum
Hatay Archaeology Museum
website (mosaics from Antioch)

v t e

Ancient Greece

Outline Timeline

History Geography


Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece


Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek

City states Politics Military

City states

Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes


Boeotarch Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League


Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphē paranómōn Heliaia Ostracism


Apella Ephor Gerousia Harmost


Synedrion Koinon


Wars Athenian military Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston


List of ancient Greeks


Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse


Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno


Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon


Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles


Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants

By culture

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians

Society Culture


Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine

Arts and science


Greek Revival architecture

Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music

Musical system

Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre


Funeral and burial practices Mythology

mythological figures

Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld

Sacred places

Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia


Athenian Treasury Lion
Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos


Aphaea Artemis Athena Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia


Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects

Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian



Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals



in Epirus

People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal

v t e

Hellenistic/Macedonian colonies


Alexandria Ptolemais Hermiou


Alexandretta Antioch Apamea Alexandria
Arachosia Alexandria
Eschate Alexandria
on the Caucasus Alexandria
on the Indus Alexandria
on the Oxus Attalia Edessa Laodicea Paralos Nicaea Philadelphia Seleucia Seleucia
Pieria Serraepolis


Antigonia (Paeonia)

v t e

Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome

Outline Timeline


Foundation Kingdom




Pax Romana Principate Dominate Western Empire

fall historiography of the fall

Byzantine Empire

decline fall


History Kingdom Republic Empire Late Empire Senate Legislative assemblies

Curiate Centuriate Tribal Plebeian

Executive magistrates SPQR


Curia Forum Cursus honorum Collegiality Emperor Legatus Dux Officium Prefect Vicarius Vigintisexviri Lictor Magister militum Imperator Princeps senatus Pontifex Maximus Augustus Caesar Tetrarch Optimates Populares Province



Consul Censor Praetor Tribune Tribune
of the Plebs Military tribune Quaestor Aedile Promagistrate Governor


Rex Interrex Dictator Magister Equitum Decemviri Consular Tribune Triumvir


Twelve Tables Mos maiorum Citizenship Auctoritas Imperium Status Litigation


Borders Establishment Structure Campaigns Political control Strategy Engineering Frontiers and fortifications


Technology Army

Legion Infantry tactics Personal equipment Siege engines

Navy Auxiliaries Decorations and punishments Hippika gymnasia


Agriculture Deforestation Commerce Finance Currency Republican currency Imperial currency


Abacus Numerals Civil engineering Military engineering Military technology Aqueducts Bridges Circus Concrete Domes Forum Metallurgy Roads Sanitation Thermae


Architecture Art Bathing Calendar Clothing Cosmetics Cuisine Hairstyles Education Literature Music Mythology Religion Romanization Sexuality Theatre Wine


Patricians Plebs Conflict of the Orders Secessio plebis Equites Gens Tribes Naming conventions Demography Women Marriage Adoption Slavery Bagaudae


History Alphabet Versions

Old Classical Vulgar Late Medieval Renaissance New Contemporary Ecclesiastical

Romance languages



Marcellinus Appian Appuleius Asconius Pedianus Augustine Aurelius Victor Ausonius Boëthius Caesar Catullus Cassiodorus Censorinus Cicero Claudian Columella Ennius Eutropius Fabius Pictor Festus Florus Frontinus Fulgentius Gellius Horace Jerome Juvenal Livy Lucan Lucretius Macrobius Marcus Aurelius Martial Orosius Ovid Petronius Phaedrus Plautus Pliny the Elder Pliny the Younger Priscian Propertius Quintilian Quintus Curtius Rufus Sallust Seneca the Elder Seneca the Younger Servius Sidonius Apollinaris Statius Suetonius Symmachus Tacitus Terence Tertullian Tibullus Valerius Antias Valerius Maximus Varro Velleius Paterculus Verrius Flaccus Virgil Vitruvius


Arrian Cassius Dio Diodorus Siculus Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dioscorides Eusebius of Caesaria Galen Herodian Josephus Pausanias Philostratus Phlegon of Tralles Photius Plutarch Polybius Porphyrius Procopius Strabo Zonaras Zosimus

Major cities

Alexandria Antioch Aquileia Berytus Bononia Carthage Constantinopolis Eboracum Leptis Magna Londinium Lutetia Mediolanum Pompeii Ravenna Roma Smyrna Vindobona Volubilis

Lists and other topics

Cities and towns Climate Consuls Distinguished women Emperors Generals Gentes Geographers Institutions Laws Legacy Legions Nomina Tribunes Wars and battles

Fiction Films

v t e

Roman colonies
Roman colonies
in ancient Levant

Colonies of legion veterans

Berytus Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
2 Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
1 3 Ptolemais 1

Colonies of late Empire

Laodicea Antioch Seleucia Emesa Heliopolis 1 Palmyra
1 3 Damascus
1 3 Arca Caesarea Sidon Tyrus 1 Sebaste Bostra
1 3 Petra
1 Neapolis Philippopolis Dura-Europos

Possible colonial status

Gaza Ascalon Gerasa Gadara Emmaus Nicopolis Neronias

Locations with modern names


Jerusalem: Aelia Capitolina Acre: Ptolemais Caesarea: Caesarea
Maritima Imwas: Emmaus Nicopolis Banias: Neronias


Petra: Petra Umm Qais: Gadara Jerash: Gerasa


Arqa: Arca Caesarea Beirut: Berytus Baalbek: Heliopolis Saida: Sidon Tyre: Tyrus


Bosra: Bostra Damascus: Damascus Dura-Europos: Dura-Europus Homs: Emesa Latakia: Laodicea Shahba: Philippopolis Tadmur: Palmyra


Antakya: Antioch Samandağ: Seleucia

Related articles

Colonia (Roman) Legacy of the Roman Empire

1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites; 2 Proposed; 3 in Danger

v t e

Ancient settlements in Turkey


Aegae Aizanoi Alabanda Alinda Allianoi Amorium Amyzon Antioch
on the Maeander Apamea in Phrygia Aphrodisias Apollonia in Mysia Apollonos Hieron Atarneus Aulai Bargylia Beycesultan Blaundus Caloe Caryanda Celaenae Ceramus Colophon Claros Cyme Didyma Dios Hieron Docimium Ephesus Erythrae Eucarpia Euromus Gambrion Gryneion Halicarnassus Hierapolis Iasos Karmylissos Kaunos Klazomenai Knidos Labraunda Laodicea on the Lycus Latmus Lebedus Leucae Limantepe Magnesia ad Sipylus Magnesia on the Maeander Metropolis Miletus Myndus Myriandrus Myrina Myus Notion Nysa on the Maeander Oenoanda Pepuza Pergamon Perperene Phocaea Pinara Pitane Priene Sardis Smyrna Stratonicea in Lydia Stratonicea in Caria Temnos Teos Tymion

Black Sea

Alaca Höyük Comana in the Pontus Euchaita Hattusa Heraclea Pontica Hüseyindede Tepe Ibora Laodicea Pontica Nerik Nicopolis Pompeiopolis Salatiwara Samuha Sapinuwa Tripolis Yazılıkaya Zaliche

Central Anatolia

Alişar Hüyük Binbirkilise Çatalhöyük Cotenna Derbe Dorylaeum Eudocia (Cappadocia) Eudocia (Phrygia) Gordium Heraclea Cybistra Irenopolis Kaman-Kalehöyük Kerkenes Kültepe
(Kanesh) Laodicea Combusta Meloë Mokissos Nyssa Pessinus Purushanda Tavium Tyana

Eastern Anatolia

Altıntepe Ani Cafer Höyük Melid Sugunia Tushpa


Achilleion Aegospotami Ainos Alexandria
Troas Apamea Myrlea Apollonia on the Rhyndax Apros Assos Byzantium Cardia Cebrene Chalcedon Charax Cius Cyzicus Drizipara/Drusipara Faustinopolis Germanicopolis Lamponeia Lampsacus Lygos Lysimachia Marpessos Neandreia Nicomedia Orestias Perinthos Sestos Sigeion Skepsis Troy


Acalissus Acarassus Alalakh Amelas Anazarbus Andriaca Antigonia Antioch
on the Orontes Antioch
of Pisidia Antiochia Lamotis Antioch
on the Cragus Antioch
on the Pyramis Antiphellus Aperlae Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Araxa Ariassos Arneae Arsinoe Arycanda Aspendos Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing Balbura Bubon Calynda Carallia Carmylessus Casae Castabala Cestrus Choma Cibyra Mikra Comama Comana in Cappadocia Comba Coracesium Corycus
(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia
in Pamphylia Seleucia
Pieria Seleucia
Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

in the Taurus Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia
at the Zeugma Sultantepe Tille Tushhan Zeugma

v t e

People and things in the Quran



Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr



The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah


Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')


‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)




Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)



Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)


Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)


People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier


Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad



Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
who helped Muhammad and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad
Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi



Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
and Lot



Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)


(Hell) Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:


Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor




Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)



Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm


Al-Injîl (The Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)


Mā’ ( Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)


Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār


Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

First Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Antioch 2. Seleucia 3. Cyprus 3a. Salamis 3b. Paphos 4. Perga 5. Antioch
of Pisidia

6. Konya
(Iconium) 7. Derbe 8. Lystra 9. Antalya 10. Antioch
(returns to beginning of journey)

v t e

Second Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Cilicia 2. Derbe 3. Lystra 4. Phrygia 5. Galatia 6. Mysia
( Alexandria
Troas) 7. Samothrace 8. Neapolis 9. Philippi 9. Amphipolis 10. Apollonia 11. Thessalonica 12. Beroea 13. Athens 14. Corinth 15. Cenchreae 16. Ephesus 17. Syria 18. Caesarea 19. Jerusalem 20. Antioch

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240814297 GN