The Info List - Anti-war

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term can also refer to pacifism, which is the opposition to all use of military force during conflicts. Many activists distinguish between anti-war movements and peace movements. Anti-war
activists work through protest and other grassroots means to attempt to pressure a government (or governments) to put an end to a particular war or conflict.

Antiwar rally of schoolchildren in Pilathara, India


1 History of modern movements

1.1 American Revolutionary War 1.2 Antebellum Era United States 1.3 American Civil War 1.4 Second Boer War 1.5 World War I 1.6 Between the World Wars 1.7 World War II 1.8 Vietnam War 1.9 South African Border War 1.10 2001 Afghanistan War 1.11 Iraq
War 1.12 Possible war against Iran 1.13 War in Donbass 1.14 Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen

2 Arts and culture 3 Anti-war
intellectual and scientist-activists and their work

3.1 Philosophical possibility of avoiding war 3.2 Leading scientists and intellectuals 3.3 Manifestos and statements by scientist and intellectual activists

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History of modern movements[edit] American Revolutionary War[edit] Substantial opposition to British war intervention in America led the British House of Commons on 27 February 1782 to vote against further war in America, paving the way for the Second Rockingham ministry
Second Rockingham ministry
and the Peace
of Paris. Antebellum Era United States[edit] Substantial anti-war sentiment developed in the United States during the period roughly falling between the end of the War of 1812
War of 1812
and the commencement of the Civil War, or what is called the antebellum era (A similar movement developed in England
during the same period). The movement reflected both strict pacifist and more moderate non-interventionist positions. Many prominent intellectuals of the time, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
(see Civil Disobedience) and William Ellery Channing
William Ellery Channing
contributed literary works against war. Other names associated with the movement include William Ladd, Noah Worcester, Thomas Cogswell Upham and Asa Mahan. Many peace societies were formed throughout the United States, the most prominent of which being the American Peace
Society. Numerous periodicals (e.g., The Advocate of Peace) and books were also produced. The Book of Peace, an anthology produced by the American Peace Society
American Peace Society
in 1845, must surely rank as one of the most remarkable works of anti-war literature ever produced.[1] A recurring theme in this movement was the call for the establishment of an international court which would adjudicate disputes between nations. Another distinct feature of antebellum anti-war literature was the emphasis on how war contributed to a moral decline and brutalization of society in general. American Civil War[edit]

Rioters attack federal troops.

Further information: Opposition to the American Civil War A key event in the early history of the modern anti-war stance in literature and society was the American Civil War, where it culminated in the candidacy of George McClellan for President of the United States as a " Peace
Democrat" against incumbent President Abraham Lincoln. The outlines of the anti-war stance are seen: the argument that the costs of maintaining the present conflict are not worth the gains which can be made, the appeal to end the horrors of war, and the argument that war is being waged for the profit of particular interests. During the war, the New York Draft Riots
New York Draft Riots
were started as violent protests against Abraham Lincoln's Enrollment Act of Conscription
plan to draft men to fight in the war. The outrage over conscription was augmented by the ability to "buy" your way out; the amount of which could only be afforded by the wealthy. After the war, The Red Badge of Courage
The Red Badge of Courage
described the chaos and sense of death which resulted from the changing style of combat: away from the set engagement, and towards two armies engaging in continuous battle over a wide area. Second Boer War[edit] Further information: Opposition to the Second Boer War William Thomas Stead
William Thomas Stead
formed an organization against the Second Boer War: the Stop the War Committee. World War I[edit]

The Deserter by Boardman Robinson, The Masses, 1916.

Further information: Opposition to World War I In Britain, in 1914, the Public Schools Officers' Training Corps annual camp was held at Tidworth Pennings, near Salisbury Plain. Head of the British Army Lord Kitchener was to review the cadets, but the immenence of the war prevented him. General Horace Smith-Dorrien
Horace Smith-Dorrien
was sent instead. He surprised the two-or-three thousand cadets by declaring (in the words of Donald Christopher Smith, a Bermudian cadet who was present) that war should be avoided at almost any cost, that war would solve nothing, that the whole of Europe and more besides would be reduced to ruin, and that the loss of life would be so large that whole populations would be decimated. In our ignorance I, and many of us, felt almost ashamed of a British General who uttered such depressing and unpatriotic sentiments, but during the next four years, those of us who survived the holocaust-probably not more than one-quarter of us - learned how right the General's prognosis was and how courageous he had been to utter it. [2] Having voiced these sentiments did not hinder Smith-Dorrien's career, or prevent him from carrying out his duty in the First World War to the best of his abilities. With the increasing mechanization of war, opposition to its horrors grew, particularly in the wake of the First World War. European avant-garde cultural movements such as Dada
were explicitly anti-war. The Espionage Act of 1917
Espionage Act of 1917
and the Sedition Act of 1918
Sedition Act of 1918
gave the American authorities the right to close newspapers and jailed individuals for having anti-war views. On June 16, 1918, Eugene V. Debs
Eugene V. Debs
made an anti-war speech and was arrested under the Espionage Act of 1917. He was convicted, sentenced to serve ten years in prison, but President Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
commuted his sentence on December 25, 1921. Between the World Wars[edit] In 1924 Ernst Friedrich published Krieg dem Krieg! (War Against War!): an album of photographs drawn from German military and medical archives from the first world war. In On the pain of others Sontag describes the book as 'photography as shock therapy' that was designed to 'horrify and demoralize'. It was in the 1930s that the Western anti-war movement took shape, to which the political and organizational roots of most of the existing movement can be traced. Characteristics of the anti-war movement included opposition to the corporate interests perceived as benefiting from war, to the status quo which was trading the lives of the young for the comforts of those who are older, the concept that those who were drafted were from poor families and would be fighting a war in place of privileged individuals who were able to avoid the draft and military service, and to the lack of input in decision making that those who would die in the conflict would have in deciding to engage in it. In 1933, the Oxford Union
Oxford Union
resolved in its Oxford Pledge, "That this House will in no circumstances fight for its King and Country." Many war veterans, including US General Smedley Butler, spoke out against wars and war profiteering on their return to civilian life. Veterans were still extremely cynical about the motivations for entering World War I, but many were willing to fight later in the Spanish Civil War, indicating that pacifism was not always the motivation. These trends were depicted in novels such as All Quiet on the Western Front, For Whom the Bell Tolls
For Whom the Bell Tolls
and Johnny Got His Gun. World War II[edit]

Protest at the White House by the American Peace

Further information: Opposition to World War II Opposition to World War II
Opposition to World War II
was most vocal during its early period, and stronger still before it started while appeasement and isolationism were considered viable diplomatic options. Communist-led organizations, including veterans of the Spanish Civil War,[3] opposed the war during the period of the Hitler-Stalin pact
Hitler-Stalin pact
but then turned into hawks after Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The war seemed, for a time, to set anti-war movements at a distinct social disadvantage; very few, mostly ardent pacifists, continued to argue against the war and its results at the time. However, the Cold War followed with the post-war realignment, and the opposition resumed. The grim realities of modern combat, and the nature of mechanized society ensured that the anti-war viewpoint found presentation in Catch-22, Slaughterhouse-Five and The Tin Drum. This sentiment grew in strength as the Cold War
Cold War
seemed to present the situation of an unending series of conflicts, which were fought at terrible cost to the younger generations. Vietnam War[edit] Further information: Opposition to the Vietnam War

U.S. Marshals arresting a Vietnam War
Vietnam War
protester in Washington, D.C., 1967

Organized opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and quickly as the war grew deadlier. In 1967 a coalition of antiwar activists formed the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam which organized several large anti-war demonstrations between the late-1960s and 1972. Counter-cultural songs, organizations, plays and other literary works encouraged a spirit of nonconformism, peace, and anti-establishmentarianism. This anti-war sentiment developed during a time of unprecedented student activism and right on the heels of the Civil Rights Movement, and was reinforced in numbers by the demographically significant baby boomers. It quickly grew to include a wide and varied cross-section of Americans from all walks of life. The anti-Vietnam war movement is often considered to have been a major factor affecting America's involvement in the war itself. Many Vietnam veterans, including the former Secretary of State and former U.S. Senator John Kerry
John Kerry
and disabled veteran Ron Kovic, spoke out against the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
on their return to the United States. South African Border War[edit] Main article: South African resistance to war Opposition to the South African Border War
South African Border War
spread to a general resistance to the apartheid military. Organizations such as the End Conscription
Campaign and Committee on South African War Resisters, were set up. Many opposed the war at this time. 2001 Afghanistan War[edit] Further information: Opposition to the 2001 Afghanistan War There was initially little opposition to the 2001 Afghanistan War in the United States and the United Kingdom, which was seen as a response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and was supported by a majority of the American public. Most vocal opposition came from pacifist groups and groups promoting a leftist political agenda; in the United States, the group A.N.S.W.E.R.
was one of the most visible organizers of anti-war protests, although that group faced considerable controversy over allegations it was a front for the extremist Stalinist Workers World Party. Over time, opposition to the war in Afghanistan has grown more widespread, partly as a result of weariness with the length of the conflict, and partly as a result of a conflating of the conflict with the unpopular war in Iraq.[4] Iraq
War[edit] Further information: Opposition to the Iraq

rally in Washington, D.C., March 15, 2003

Thomas on the White House Peace

The anti-war position gained renewed support and attention in the buildup to the 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
by the U.S. and its allies. Millions of people staged mass protests across the world in the immediate prelude to the invasion, and demonstrations and other forms of anti-war activism have continued throughout the occupation. The primary opposition within the U.S. to the continued occupation of Iraq has come from the grassroots. Opposition to the conflict, how it had been fought, and complications during the aftermath period divided public sentiment in the U.S., resulting in majority public opinion turning against the war for the first time in the spring of 2004, a turn which has held since.[5] Many American writers against the war, like Naomi Wolf, were labeled conspiratorial due to their opposition, with others choosing to post their anti-war writings anonymously, such as the anonymous conspiracy author Sorcha Faal. The financial website Zero Hedge offered its anti-war writers the protection of the anonymous pseudonym Tyler Durden for those exposing war profiteering. The American country music band Dixie Chicks
Dixie Chicks
opposition to the war caused many radio stations to stop playing their records, but who were supported in their anti-war stance by the equally anti-war country music legend Merle Haggard, who in the summer of 2003 released a song critical of US media coverage of the Iraq
War. Anti-war
groups protested during both the Democratic National Convention and 2008 Republican National Convention protests held in St. Paul, Minnesota
in September 2008. Possible war against Iran[edit] Further information: Opposition to war against Iran Organised opposition to a possible future military attack against Iran by the United States is known to have started during 2005-2006. Beginning in early 2005, journalists, activists and academics such as Seymour Hersh,[6][7] Scott Ritter,[8] Joseph Cirincione[9] and Jorge E. Hirsch[10] began publishing claims that United States' concerns over the alleged threat posed by the possibility that Iran
may have a nuclear weapons program might lead the US government to take military action against that country in the future. These reports, and the concurrent escalation of tensions between Iran
and some Western governments, prompted the formation of grassroots organisations, including Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran in the US and the United Kingdom, to advocate against potential military strikes on Iran. Additionally, several individuals, grassroots organisations and international governmental organisations, including the Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei,[11] a former United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq, Scott Ritter,[8] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners including Shirin Ebadi, Mairead Corrigan-Maguire and Betty Williams, Harold Pinter and Jody Williams,[12] Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament,[12] Code Pink,[13] the Non-Aligned Movement[14] of 118 states, and the Arab League, have publicly stated their opposition to a would-be attack on Iran. War in Donbass[edit] Main article: 2014 anti-war protests in Russia

Anti-war/Putin demonstration in Moscow, 21 September 2014

Anti-war/Putin demonstrations took place in Moscow
"opposing the War in Donbass", i.e., in the Eastern Ukraine.[citation needed] Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen[edit] Main article: Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen

Protest against U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, New York City, 2017

Arts and culture[edit] See also: List of books with anti-war themes English poet Robert Southey's 1796 poem After Blenheim
After Blenheim
is an early modern example of anti-war literature — it was written generations after the Battle of Blenheim, but at a time when England
was again at war with France. World War I
World War I
produced a generation of poets and writers influenced by their experiences in the war. The work of poets including Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon
Siegfried Sassoon
exposed the contrast between the realities of life in the trenches and how the war was seen by the British public at the time, as well as the earlier patriotic verse penned by Rupert Brooke. German writer Erich Maria Remarque
Erich Maria Remarque
penned All Quiet on the Western Front, which, having been adapted for several mediums, has become of the most often cited pieces of anti-war media. Pablo Picasso's 1937 painting Guernica, on the other hand, used abstraction rather than realism to generate an emotional response to the loss of life from the fascist bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War. American author Kurt Vonnegut
Kurt Vonnegut
used science fiction themes in his 1969 novel Slaughterhouse-Five, depicting the bombing of Dresden in World War II
World War II
(which Vonnegut witnessed). The second half of the 20th century also witnessed a strong anti-war presence in other art forms, including anti-war music such as "Eve of Destruction" and One Tin Soldier
One Tin Soldier
and films such as M*A*S*H and Die Brücke, opposing the Cold War
Cold War
in general, or specific conflicts such as the Vietnam War. The current American war in Iraq
has also generated significant artistic anti-war works, including filmmaker Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9/11, which holds the box-office record for documentary films, and Canadian musician Neil Young's 2006 album Living with War. Anti-war
intellectual and scientist-activists and their work[edit] Various people have discussed the philosophical question of whether war is inevitable, and how much it can be avoided, as well as how this can be achieved i.e. what are the necessities of peace. Various people have discussed it from an intellectual and philosophical point of view. Various intellectuals not only have discussed in public but have participated or led anti-war campaigns despite it is different to their main areas of expertise. They went out of their professional comfort zone to warn against or fight against wars. Philosophical possibility of avoiding war[edit]

Immanuel Kant: In (1795) "Perpetual Peace"[15][16] ("Zum ewigen Frieden").[17] Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
booklet on "Perpetual Peace" in 1795. Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
suggests, war can never be ruled out, as one can never know when or if one will occur. However, A peaceful revolution is also possible according to Hegel when the changes required to solve the crisis are ascertained by thoughtful insight and when this insight spreads throughout the body politic. (See Hegelianism) Some people claim that Hegel glorified war, this is disputed heavily. This claim has always been based on interpretations only. Hegel's views are often mistaken with the characters of his books, who are the subjects in history.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Leading scientists and intellectuals[edit] Here is a list of people who outside this field have authority and used their influence and intellectual rigor favour of in the cause of enlightening against the warmongers.

Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for his peace activism (his second nobel prize). circulated multiple petitions among scientists. Sigmond Freud
Sigmond Freud
and Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
had correspondences on violence, peace, and human nature.[citation needed] Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
mostly was a prominent anti-war activist; he championed anti-imperialism.[25][26] Occasionally, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the atomic monopoly is gone, and "welcomed with enthusiasm" world government.[27] He went to prison for his pacifism during World War I.[28] Later, he campaigned against Adolf Hitler, then criticised Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War, and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament.[29] In 1950 Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought".[30][31]

Manifestos and statements by scientist and intellectual activists[edit]

Einstein, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and eight other leading scientists and intellectuals signed the Russell- Einstein
Manifesto issued July 9, 1955.[32] The Mainau Declaration
Mainau Declaration
of July 15, 1955 was signed by 52 Nobel Prize laureates.[33] The Dubrovnik-Philadelphia Statement of 1974/1976.[34] was signed by Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and others.

See also[edit]

Ahimsa Anti-war
film Anti-militarism Bed-in Civilian-based defense Conscientious objector Die-in List of anti-war organizations List of anti-war songs List of peace activists Nonkilling Nonviolence Nonviolent resistance Nuclear-free zone Peace Peace
movement Pro-war Raging Grannies Swords to ploughshares Tax resistance Teach-in War Against War War Is a Racket War resister Women Against War


^ Beckwith, George (ed), The Book of Peace. American Peace
Society, 1845. ^ Merely For the Record: The Memoirs of Donald Christopher Smith 1894-1980. By Donald Christopher Smith. Edited by John William Cox, Jr. Bermuda. ^ Volunteer for Liberty Archived 2006-12-06 at the Wayback Machine., newsletter of the Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Brigade, February 1941, Volume III, No. 2 ^ "CNN Poll: Support for Afghanistan war at all time low". cnn.com.  ^ "Iraq". pollingreport.com.  ^ Seymour M. Hersh
Seymour M. Hersh
(January 24, 2005). "Annals of National Security: The Coming Wars". The New Yorker.  ^ The Iran
plans, Seymour Hersh, The New Yorker
The New Yorker
Mag., April 8, 2006 ^ a b Sleepwalking To Disaster In Iran
Archived 2007-03-17 at the Wayback Machine., April 1, 2005, Scott Ritter ^ Fool Me Twice, March 27, 2006, Joseph Cirincione, Foreign Policy ^ Hirsch, Jorge (2005-11-01). "The Real Reason for Nuking Iran: Why a nuclear attack is on the neocon agenda". antiwar.com.  ^ Heinrich, Mark; Karin Strohecker (2007-06-14). "IAEA urges Iran compromise to avert conflict". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-06-21.  ^ a b "For a Middle East free of all Weapons of Mass Destruction". Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran. 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2007-11-03.  ^ Knowlton, Brian (2007-09-21). "Kouchner, French foreign minister, draws antiwar protesters in Washington". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-01.  ^ Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(2006-05-30). "NAM Coordinating Bureau's statement on Iran's nuclear issue". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2006-10-23.  ^ "Immanuel Kant, "Perpetual Peace"". Mtholyoke.edu. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Immanuel Kant. Perpetual Peace. English translation. Jonathan Bennett. 2010–2015 [1] ^ "Immanuel Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden, 12.02.2004 (Friedensratschlag)". Uni-kassel.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Hegel's Views on War H. G. ten Bruggencate The Philosophical Quarterly (1950-) Vol. 1, No. 1 (Oct., 1950), pp. 58-60 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2216499?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents ^ https://www.jstor.org/stable/2708234?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Hegel on War Constance I. Smith Journal of the History of Ideas Vol. 26, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1965), pp. 282-285 ^ Browning, Gary (2012). "Hegel on War, Recognition and Justice". Hegel and Global Justice. Studies in Global Justice. 10. pp. 193–209. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8996-0_10. ISBN 978-90-481-8995-3.  ^ http://www.historyofethics.org/022006/022006Fiala.shtml The Vanity of Temporal Things: Hegel and the Ethics of War Andrew Fiala (California State University, Fresno) (Published February, 2006) ^ Smith, Steven B. (2014). "Hegel's Views on War, the State, and International Relations". American Political Science Review. 77 (3): 624–32. doi:10.2307/1957263. JSTOR 1957263.  ^ WAR AND PERPETUAL PEACE: HEGEL, KANT AND CONTEMPORARY WARS MARIA DE LOURDES ALVES BORGES Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brazil) https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/ethic/article/viewFile/17306/15874 ^ Tyler, Colin (2004). "Hegel, war and the tragedy of imperialism". History of European Ideas. 30 (4): 403–31. doi:10.1016/j.histeuroideas.2003.11.017.  ^ Richard Rempel (1979). "From Imperialism to Free Trade: Couturat, Halevy and Russell's First Crusade". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 40 (3): 423–443. doi:10.2307/2709246. JSTOR 2709246.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1988) [1917]. Political Ideals. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10907-8.  ^ Russell, Bertrand. "Atomic Weapon and the Prevention of War". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 2/7-8, (October 1, 1946). p. 20.  ^ Samoiloff, Louise Cripps. C .L. R. James: Memories and Commentaries, p. 19. Associated University Presses, 1997. ISBN 0-8453-4865-5 ^ "The Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
oGallery". Russell.mcmaster.ca. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
1950 — Bertrand Russell: The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
1950 was awarded to Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". Retrieved on 22 March 2013. ^ "British Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Winners (1950)". YouTube. 13 April 2014.  ^ Hager, Thomas (November 29, 2007). "Russell/Einstein". Oregon State University Libraries Special
Collections. Retrieved December 13, 2007.  ^ Hermann, Armin (1979). The new physics : the route into the atomic age : in memory of Albert Einstein, Max von Laue, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner. Bonn-Bad Godesberg: Inter Nationes. p. 130.  ^ "The Dubrovnik-Philadelphia Statement /1974–1976/ (short version)". International League of Humanists. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Farrar Jr, Lancelot L. Divide and Conquer: German Efforts to Conclude a Separate Peace, 1914–1918 (London: East European Quarterly, 1978). Jarausch, Konrad H. "Armageddon Revisited: Peace
Research Perspectives on World War One." Peace
& Change 7.1‐2 (1981): 109-118. Patler, Nicholas. Norman's Triumph: the Transcendent Language of Self-Immolation Quaker History, Fall 2105, 18-39. Patterson, David S. The Search for Negotiated Peace: Women's Activism and Citizen Diplomacy in World War I
World War I
(Routledge. 2008)

External links[edit]

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