The Info List - Anthony Van Dyck

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Sir Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
(Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛi̯k], many variant spellings;[1] 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque
artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy
and the Southern Netherlands. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England
and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. The Van Dyke beard
Van Dyke beard
is named after him.


1 Life and work

1.1 Education 1.2 Italy 1.3 London

2 Portraits and other works 3 Printmaking 4 Studio 5 Influences in other fields 6 Collections 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Life and work[edit]

Self-portrait, 1613–14

Education[edit] Antoon van Dyck (his Flemish name) was born to prosperous parents in Antwerp. His father was Franz van Dyck, a silk merchant, and his mother was Maria, daughter of Dirk Cupers and Catharina Conincx.[2] He was baptised on 23 March 1599 (as Anthonio).[3] His talent was evident very early, and he was studying painting with Hendrick van Balen
Hendrick van Balen
by 1609, and became an independent painter around 1615, setting up a workshop with his even younger friend Jan Brueghel the Younger.[4] By the age of fifteen he was already a highly accomplished artist, as his Self-portrait, 1613–14, shows.[5] He was admitted to the Antwerp painters' Guild of Saint Luke
Guild of Saint Luke
as a free master by February 1618.[6] Within a few years he was to be the chief assistant to the dominant master of Antwerp, and the whole of Northern Europe, Peter Paul Rubens, who made much use of sub-contracted artists as well as his own large workshop. His influence on the young artist was immense; Rubens referred to the nineteen-year-old van Dyck as "the best of my pupils".[7] The origins and exact nature of their relationship are unclear; it has been speculated that van Dyck was a pupil of Rubens from about 1613, as even his early work shows little trace of van Balen's style, but there is no clear evidence for this.[8] At the same time the dominance of Rubens in the relatively small and declining city of Antwerp probably explains why, despite his periodic returns to the city, van Dyck spent most of his career abroad.[8] In 1620, in Rubens's contract for the major commission for the ceiling of the Carolus Borromeuskerk, the Jesuit
church at Antwerp
(lost to fire in 1718), van Dyck is specified as one of the "discipelen" who was to execute the paintings to Rubens' designs.[9] Italy[edit]

Genoan hauteur from the Lomellini family, 1623

In 1620, at the instigation of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, van Dyck went to England
for the first time where he worked for King James I of England, receiving £100.[8] It was in London
in the collection of the Earl of Arundel that he first saw the work of Titian, whose use of colour and subtle modeling of form would prove transformational, offering a new stylistic language that would enrich the compositional lessons learned from Rubens.[10] After about four months, he returned to Flanders, but moved on in late 1621 to Italy, where he remained for 6 years, studying the Italian masters and beginning his career as a successful portraitist. He was already presenting himself as a figure of consequence, annoying the rather bohemian Northern artist's colony in Rome, says Giovan Pietro Bellori, by appearing with "the pomp of Zeuxis
... his behaviour was that of a nobleman rather than an ordinary person, and he shone in rich garments; since he was accustomed in the circle of Rubens to noblemen, and being naturally of elevated mind, and anxious to make himself distinguished, he therefore wore—as well as silks—a hat with feathers and brooches, gold chains across his chest, and was accompanied by servants."[11]

Anthony van Dyck, by Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens

He was mostly based in Genoa, although he also travelled extensively to other cities, and stayed for some time in Palermo
in Sicily. For the Genoese aristocracy, then in a final flush of prosperity, he developed a full-length portrait style, drawing on Veronese and Titian as well as Rubens' style from his own period in Genoa, where extremely tall but graceful figures look down on the viewer with great hauteur. In 1627, he went back to Antwerp
where he remained for five years, painting more affable portraits which still made his Flemish patrons look as stylish as possible. A life-size group portrait of twenty-four City Councillors of Brussels
he painted for the council-chamber was destroyed in 1695.[12] He was evidently very charming to his patrons, and, like Rubens, well able to mix in aristocratic and court circles, which added to his ability to obtain commissions. By 1630, he was described as the court painter of the Habsburg Governor of Flanders, the Archduchess Isabella. In this period he also produced many religious works, including large altarpieces, and began his printmaking (see below). London[edit]

The more intimate, but still elegant style he developed in England, c. 1638

King Charles I was the most passionate and generous collector of art among the Stuart kings, and he saw art as a way of promoting his elevated view of the monarchy. In 1628, he bought the fabulous collection that the Duke of Mantua was forced to sell, and he had been trying since his accession in 1625 to bring leading foreign painters to England. In 1626, he was able to persuade Orazio Gentileschi
Orazio Gentileschi
to settle in England, later to be joined by his daughter Artemisia and some of his sons. Rubens was an especial target, who eventually in 1630 came on a diplomatic mission, which included painting, and he later sent Charles more paintings from Antwerp. Rubens was very well-treated during his nine-month visit, during which he was knighted. Charles's court portraitist, Daniel Mytens, was a somewhat pedestrian Dutchman. Charles was very short, less than 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, and presented challenges to a portrait artist. Van Dyck had remained in touch with the English court and had helped King Charles's agents in their search for pictures. He had also sent back some of his own works, including a portrait (1623) of himself with Endymion Porter, one of Charles's agents, a mythological work, Rinaldo and Armida
(1629, now in the Baltimore Museum of Art), and a religious picture for the Queen. He had also painted Charles's sister, Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, at The Hague
The Hague
in 1632. In April of that year, van Dyck returned to London
and was taken under the wing of the court immediately, being knighted in July and at the same time receiving a pension of £200 a year, in the grant of which he was described as principalle Paynter in ordinary to their majesties. He was well paid for his paintings in addition to this, at least in theory, as King Charles did not actually pay over his pension for five years, and reduced the price of many paintings. He was provided with a house on the River Thames
River Thames
at Blackfriars, then just outside the City, thus avoiding the monopoly of the Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. A suite of rooms in Eltham Palace, no longer used by the royal family, was also put at his disposal as a country retreat. His Blackfriars studio was frequently visited by the King and Queen (later a special causeway was built to ease their access), who hardly sat for another painter while van Dyck lived.[8][12]

Charles I at the Hunt, c. 1635, Louvre

He was an immediate success in England, rapidly painting a large number of portraits of the King and Queen Henrietta Maria, as well as their children. Many portraits were done in several versions, to be sent as diplomatic gifts or given to supporters of the increasingly embattled king. Altogether van Dyck has been estimated to have painted forty portraits of King Charles himself, as well as about thirty of the Queen, nine of the Earl of Strafford, and multiple ones of other courtiers.[13] He painted many of the court, and also himself and his mistress, Margaret Lemon. In England
he developed a version of his style which combined a relaxed elegance and ease with an understated authority in his subjects which was to dominate English portrait-painting to the end of the 18th century. Many of these portraits have a lush landscape background. His portraits of Charles on horseback updated the grandeur of Titian's Emperor Charles V, but even more effective and original is his portrait of Charles dismounted in the Louvre: "Charles is given a totally natural look of instinctive sovereignty, in a deliberately informal setting where he strolls so negligently that he seems at first glance nature's gentleman rather than England's King".[14] Although his portraits have created the classic idea of "Cavalier" style and dress, in fact a majority of his most important patrons in the nobility, such as Lord Wharton and the Earls of Bedford, Northumberland and Pembroke, took the Parliamentarian side in the English Civil War
English Civil War
that broke out soon after his death.[12]

Christ carrying the Cross

The King in Council by letters patent granted Van Dyck denizenship in 1638, and he married Mary, the daughter of Patrick Ruthven, who, although the title was forfeited, styled himself Lord Ruthven.[15] She was a Lady in waiting
Lady in waiting
to the Queen, in 1639-40; this may have been instigated by the King in an attempt to keep him in England.[8] He had spent most of 1634 in Antwerp, returning the following year, and in 1640–41, as the Civil War loomed, spent several months in Flanders and France. In 1640 he accompanied prince John Casimir of Poland
after he was freed from French imprisonment.[16] A letter dated 13 August 1641, from Lady Roxburghe in England
to a correspondent in The Hague, reported that van Dyck was recuperating from a long illness.[17] In November van Dyck's condition worsened, and he returned to England
from Paris, where he had gone to paint Cardinal Richelieu.[17] He died in London
on 9 December 1641. Portraits and other works[edit]

Samson and Delilah, c. 1630, a strenuous history painting in the manner of Rubens; the use of saturated colours reveals van Dyck's study of Titian

With the partial exception of Holbein, van Dyck and his exact contemporary Diego Velázquez
Diego Velázquez
were the first painters of pre-eminent talent to work mainly as Court portraitists. The slightly younger Rembrandt
was also to work mainly as a portraitist for a period. In the contemporary theory of the hierarchy of genres portrait-painting came well below history painting (which covered religious scenes also), and for most major painters portraits were a relatively small part of their output, in terms of the time spent on them (being small, they might be numerous in absolute terms). Rubens for example mostly painted portraits only of his immediate circle, but though he worked for most of the courts of Europe, he avoided exclusive attachment to any of them.

Henrietta Maria
Henrietta Maria
and the dwarf, Sir Jeffrey Hudson, 1633

A variety of factors meant that in the 17th century demand for portraits was stronger than for other types of work. Van Dyck tried to persuade Charles to commission him to do a large-scale series of works on the history of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
for the Banqueting House, Whitehall, for which Rubens had earlier done the huge ceiling paintings (sending them from Antwerp). A sketch for one wall remains, but by 1638 Charles was too short of money to proceed.[8] This was a problem Velázquez did not have, but equally van Dyck's daily life was not encumbered by trivial court duties as Velázquez's was. In his visits to Paris
in his last years van Dyck tried to obtain the commission to paint the Grande Gallerie of the Louvre
without success.[18] A list of history paintings produced by van Dyck in England
survives, compiled by Van Dyck's biographer Bellori, based on information from Sir Kenelm Digby. None of these works appear to remain, except the Eros and Psyche done for the King (below).[8] But many other works, rather more religious than mythological, do survive, and though they are very fine, they do not reach the heights of Velázquez's history paintings. Earlier ones remain very much within the style of Rubens, although some of his Sicilian works are interestingly individual. Van Dyck's portraits certainly flattered more than Velázquez's; when Sophia, later Electoress of Hanover, first met Queen Henrietta Maria, in exile in Holland in 1641, she wrote: "Van Dyck's handsome portraits had given me so fine an idea of the beauty of all English ladies, that I was surprised to find that the Queen, who looked so fine in painting, was a small woman raised up on her chair, with long skinny arms and teeth like defence works projecting from her mouth..."[8]

The Cheeke Sisters, a late double portrait

Some critics have blamed van Dyck for diverting a nascent, tougher English portrait tradition—of painters such as William Dobson, Robert Walker and Isaac Fuller—into what certainly became elegant blandness in the hands of many of van Dyck's successors, like Lely or Kneller.[8] The conventional view has always been more favourable: "When Van Dyck came hither he brought Face- Painting
to us; ever since which time ... England
has excel'd all the World in that great Branch of the Art’ (Jonathan Richardson: An Essay on the Theory of Painting, 1715, 41). Thomas Gainsborough is reported to have said on his deathbed "We are all going to heaven, and Van Dyck is of the Company."[12] A fairly small number of landscape pen and wash drawings or watercolours made in England
played an important part in introducing the Flemish watercolour landscape tradition to England. Some are studies, which reappear in the background of paintings, but many are signed and dated and were probably regarded as finished works to be given as presents. Several of the most detailed are of Rye, a port for ships to the Continent, suggesting that van Dyck did them casually whilst waiting for wind or tide to improve.[19]

Printmaking[edit] Probably during his period in Antwerp
after his return from Italy, van Dyck began his Iconography, eventually a very large series of prints with half-length portraits of eminent contemporaries. Van Dyck produced drawings, and for eighteen of the portraits he himself etched with great brilliance the heads and the main outlines of the figure, for an engraver to work up: "Portrait etching had scarcely had an existence before his time, and in his work it suddenly appears at the highest point ever reached in the art".[20]

Pieter Brueghel the Younger
Pieter Brueghel the Younger
from the Iconography; etching by van Dyck

However, for most of the series he left the whole printmaking work to specialists, who mostly engraved everything after his drawings. His own etched plates appear not to have been published commercially until after his death, and early states are very rare.[21] Most of his plates were printed after only his work had been done; some exist in further states after engraving had been added, sometimes obscuring his etching. He continued to add to the series until at least his departure for England, and presumably added Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
whilst in London. The series was a great success, but was his only venture into printmaking; portraiture probably paid better, and he was constantly in demand. At his death there were eighty plates by others, of which fifty-two were of artists, as well as his own eighteen. The plates were bought by a publisher; with the plates reworked periodically as they wore out they continued to be printed for centuries, and the series added to, so that it reached over two hundred portraits by the late 18th century. In 1851, the plates were bought by the Calcographie du Louvre.[21] The Iconography was highly influential as a commercial model for reproductive printmaking; now forgotten series of portrait prints were enormously popular until the advent of photography: "the importance of this series was enormous, and it provided a repertory of images that were plundered by portrait painters throughout Europe over the next couple of centuries".[12] Van Dyck's brilliant etching style, which depended on open lines and dots, was in marked contrast to that of the other great portraitist in prints of the period, Rembrandt, and had little influence until the 19th century, when it had a great influence on artists such as Whistler in the last major phase of portrait etching.[20] Hyatt Mayor wrote:

Etchers have studied Van Dyck ever since, for they can hope to approximate his brilliant directness, whereas nobody can hope to approach the complexity of Rembrandt's portraits.[22]


His great success compelled van Dyck to maintain a large workshop in London, a studio which was to become "virtually a production line for portraits". According to a visitor to his studio he usually only made a drawing on paper, which was then enlarged onto canvas by an assistant; he then painted the head himself. The costume in which the client wished to be painted was left at the studio and often with the unfinished canvas sent out to artists specialised in rendering such clothing.[12] In his last years these studio collaborations accounted for some decline in the quality of work.[23] In addition many copies untouched by him, or virtually so, were produced by the workshop, as well as by professional copyists and later painters; the number of paintings ascribed to him had by the 19th century become huge, as with Rembrandt, Titian
and others. However, most of his assistants and copyists could not approach the refinement of his manner, so compared to many masters consensus among art historians on attributions to him is usually relatively easy to reach, and museum labelling is now mostly updated (country house attributions may be more dubious in some cases). The relatively few names of his assistants that are known are Dutch or Flemish; he probably preferred to use trained Flemings, as no English equivalent training yet existed.[8] Adriaen Hanneman (1604–71) returned to his native Hague in 1638 to become the leading portraitist there.[24] Van Dyck's enormous influence on English art does not come from a tradition handed down through his pupils; in fact it is not possible to document a connection to his studio for any English painter of any significance.[8] Influences in other fields[edit]

Charles I in Three Positions, a triple portrait of King Charles I, was sent to Rome
for Bernini
to model a bust on

Van Dyck painted many portraits of men, notably Charles I and himself, with the short, pointed beards then in fashion; consequently this particular kind of beard was much later (probably first in America in the 19th century) named a vandyke or Van dyke beard
Van dyke beard
(which is the anglicized version of his name). During the reign of George III, a generic "Cavalier" fancy-dress costume called a Van Dyke was popular; Gainsborough's The Blue Boy
The Blue Boy
is wearing such a Van Dyke outfit. The oil paint pigment Van Dyke brown is named after him, and Van Dyke brown is an early photographic printing process using the same colour.

Collections[edit] The British Royal Collection, which still contains many of his paintings of the royal family and others, has a total of twenty-six paintings.[25] The National Gallery, London
(fourteen works), The Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado
(Spain) (twenty-five works), The Louvre
in Paris (eighteen works), The Alte Pinakothek
Alte Pinakothek
in Munich, the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC
Washington DC
and the Frick Collection
Frick Collection
have examples of his portrait style. Wilton House
Wilton House
still holds the works he did for one of his main patrons, the Earl of Pembroke, including his largest work, a huge family group portrait with ten main figures. Tate Britain
Tate Britain
held the exhibition Van Dyck & Britain in 2009.[26] In 2016 the Frick Collection
Frick Collection
in New York had an exhibition "Van Dyck: The Anatomy of Portraiture", the first major survey of the artist's work in the United States in over two decades.[27] Gallery[edit]

Daedalus and Icarus c. 1615 - 1625

Christ Crowned with Thorns (c. 1620) in the Prado

Self Portrait, c. 1621 Alte Pinakothek

Elena Grimaldi, Genoa

Nicholas Lanier, 1628

The Vision of the Blessed Hermann Joseph
The Vision of the Blessed Hermann Joseph
c. 1629 - 1630

Rest on the Flight into Egypt (around 1630) Alte Pinakothek, Munich

Marie-Louise de Tassis, Antwerp

Queen Henrietta Maria, London

Charles I with M. de St Antoine (1633)

Katherine, Countess of Chesterfield, and Lucy, Countess of Huntingdon, c. 1636 - 40, oil on canvas, The Detroit Institute of Arts

James Stuart, Duke of Richmond, c. 1637

Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, c.1637-8

Cupid and Psyche, 1638

Portrait of Mary Hill, Lady Killigrew,

George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol, ca. 1638–9

Self Portrait at the Rubenshuis
in Antwerp

See also[edit]

school List of Flemish painters Lost artworks Henry Stone (1616–53), English portrait painter and copyist of van Dyck's works. Portrait of Olivia Boteler Porter


^ Originally "van Dijck", with the "IJ" digraph, in Dutch. Anthony is the English for the Dutch Anthonis or Antoon, though Anthonie, Antonio or Anthonio was also used; in French he is often Antoine, in Italian Anthonio or Antonio. In English a capitalised "Van" in Van Dyck was more usual until recent decades (used by Waterhouse for example), and Dyke was often used during his lifetime and later ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Van_Dyck,_Anthony_%28DNB00%29 ^ Antwerp, S.A.A., Parochieregisters, Doopakten, 30/03/1592 - 26/06/1606, fol. 147, 23-03-1599 Anthonio Van Dijck, retrieved by the Jordaens Van Dyck Panel Paintings Project (www.jordaensvandyck.org) on 06/04/2017. ^ Brown, p. 15. ^ Vlieghe, Hans. Flemish Art and Architecture, 1585–1700, Yale University Press, 2004, p. 124. ISBN 0-300-10469-3 ^ Martin, Gregory. The Flemish School, 1600-1900, National Gallery Catalogues, p. 26, 1970, National Gallery, London, ISBN 0-901791-02-4 ^ Brown, p. 17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ellis Waterhouse, Painting
in Britain, 1530-1790, 4th Edn, 1978, pp. 70-77, Penguin Books (now Yale History of Art series) ^ Martin, op and page cit. ^ Brown, page 19. ^ Levey, Michael, Painting
at Court, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1971, pp. 124-5 ^ a b c d e f Cust 1899. ^ Gaunt, William, English Court Painting ^ Levey p. 128 ^ Cokayne, G. E., et al, The Complete Peerage, vol.iv, London, 1916, p. 385n ^ "Portret królewicza". Treasures... (in Polish). Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2008.  ^ a b Michael Jaffé. "Dyck, Anthony van". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. ^ Levey, op cit p. 136 ^ Royalton-Kisch, Martin. The Light of Nature, Landscape Drawings and Watercolours by Van Dyck and his Contemporaries, British Museum Press, 1999, ISBN 0-7141-2621-7 ^ a b Arthur M. Hind, A History of Engraving
and Etching, p. 165, Houghton Mifflin Co. 1923 (in USA), reprinted Dover Publications, 1963 ISBN 0-486-20954-7 ^ a b Becker, D. P., in KL Spangeberg (ed), Six Centuries of Master Prints, Cincinnati Art Museum, 1993, no. 72, ISBN 0-931537-15-0 ^ Mayor, Alpheus Hyatt. Prints and People, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Princeton, 1971, no. 433-35, ISBN 0-691-00326-2 ^ Brown, pp. 84-6. ^ Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot (eds), Dutch Portraits, The Age of Rembrandt
and Frans Hals, Mauritshuis/National Gallery/Waanders Publishers, Zwolle, p. 138 QB, 2007, ISBN 978-1-85709-362-9 ^ Royal Collection
Royal Collection
Paintings by Van Dyck ^ Karen Hearn (ed.), Van Dyck & Britain, Tate Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-1-85437-795-1. ^ "Past Exhibition: Van Dyck - The Frick Collection". www.frick.org. 


Brown, Christopher: Van Dyck 1599-1641. Royal Academy Publications, 1999. ISBN 0-900946-66-0  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Van Dyck, Sir Anthony". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.   Cust, Lionel Henry (1899). "Van Dyck, Anthony". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 58. London: Smith, Elder & Co.   Williamson, George Charles (1909). "Antoon Van Dyck". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Wood, Jeremy. "Dyck, Sir Anthony Van (1599–1641)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28081.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anthony van Dyck.

The Oliver Millar Archive; research papers of Oliver Millar, British art historian and a leading authority on Anthony van Dyck Van Dyck at the National Gallery of Art 583 Painting(s) by or after Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
at the Art UK
Art UK
site Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
Biography, Style and Artworks The National Portrait Gallery: Van Dyck: A masterpiece for everyone The National Gallery: Van Dyck Peter Paul Rubens. "Sir Anthony Van Dyck". Royal Collection
Royal Collection
Trust. Inventory no. 404429.  Vermeer and The Delft School, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which has material on Anthony van Dyck Jordaens Van Dyck Panel Paintings Project

Court offices

Preceded by — Principal Painter in Ordinary
Principal Painter in Ordinary
to the King –1641 Succeeded by Sir Peter Lely

v t e

Paintings by Anthony van Dyck

Religious subjects

The Betrayal of Christ (1618–20) (Bristol ; Madrid ; Minneapolis) Christ Crowned with Thorns (1619–20) Crucifixion (1630) Crucifixion with Saints (1617–19) Deposition / Lamentation over the Dead Christ (1615; 1618; 1619; 1629; 1629–30; 1634; 1635; 1640) Entry of Christ into Jerusalem (1617) Madonna and Child (1621–27) The Mocking of Christ (1628-30) Madonna and Child with Two Donors (1630) Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1630) Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius from Milan Cathedral
Saint Ambrose barring Theodosius from Milan Cathedral
(1619–20) Saint Martin and the Beggar (1618) Saint Rosalie Interceding for the Plague–Stricken of Palermo
(1624) Samson and Delilah (1620 ; 1630) The Vision of the Blessed Hermann Joseph
The Vision of the Blessed Hermann Joseph


Cupid and Psyche (1638–40) Drunken Silenus (1620) Jupiter and Antiope (1620) The Shepherd Paris
(1628) Thetis Receiving the Weapons of Achilles from Hephaestus
Thetis Receiving the Weapons of Achilles from Hephaestus


Charles I (Equestrian ; At the Hunt; Triple Portrait; with M. de St Antoine) Henrietta Maria
Henrietta Maria
(As St Catherine; Triple Portrait) Magistrates of Brussels
(Preparatory sketch) Olivia Boteler Porter


1613–14 1632–33 1635 (with Endymion Porter) 1640

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 17231738 LCCN: n50070302 ISNI: 0000 0001 2122 2452 GND: 118528386 SELIBR: 184242 SUDOC: 035221941 BNF: cb119466223 (data) BPN: 07290806 ULAN: 500115190 NLA: 36315831 NDL: 00459518 NKC: ola2003172400 ICCU: ITICCURAVV21604 BNE: XX1137902 KulturNav: f27aaa3a-e331-4cce-85e6-ad63446f6608 RKD: 25