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Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
(November 14, 1820 – February 23, 1870) was an American lawyer, legislator, and diplomat.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Burlingame vs. Preston Brooks 4 Minister to China and Chinese envoy to Washington 5 Family 6 Legacy 7 References

7.1 Citations 7.2 Bibliography

8 External links

Early life[edit] Burlingame was born in New Berlin, Chenango County, New York. In 1823 his parents (Joel Burlingame and Freelove Angell) took him to Ohio, and about ten years afterwards to Michigan. Between 1838 and 1841 he studied at the Detroit branch of the University of Michigan, and in 1846 graduated from Harvard Law School. On June 3, 1847 he married Jane Cornelia Livermore. They had sons Edward Livermore Burlingame (born 1848) and Walter Angell Burlingame (born 1852), as well as a daughter Gertrude Burlingame (born 1856). Early career[edit] Burlingame practiced law in Boston, Massachusetts, and won a wide reputation by his speeches for the Free Soil Party in 1848. He was a member of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
constitutional convention in 1853, of the state senate from 1853 to 1854, and of the United States House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861, being elected for the first term as a Know Nothing and afterwards as a member of the new Republican Party, which he helped to organize in Massachusetts. He was a brother of the Delta Kappa Epsilon
Delta Kappa Epsilon
fraternity (Sigma chapter). Burlingame vs. Preston Brooks[edit] In May 1856, Senator Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
delivered a vituperative denunciation of President Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
and Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Bleeding Kansas. In particular, Sumner lambasted Senator Andrew Butler, a cousin of Congressman Preston Brooks
Preston Brooks
of South Carolina. Three days later, Congressman Brooks advanced upon Sumner while he worked at his desk in the Senate chamber. Using his cane, Brooks beat Sumner into unconsciousness, with Sumner ripping his bolted-down desk from the floor as he attempted to escape. Brooks received no official censure from the House of Representatives, and was instead hailed as a hero in much of the pro-slavery South.[1] Shortly afterwards, Burlingame delivered what The New York Times referred to as "the most celebrated speech"[2] of his career: a scathing denunciation of Brooks' assault on Sumner, branding him as "the vilest sort of coward" on the House floor. In response, Brooks challenged Burlingame to a duel, stating he would gladly face him "in any Yankee mudsill of his choosing". Burlingame eagerly accepted; as the challenged party, he had his choice of weapons and location. A well-known marksman, he selected rifles as the weapons and the Navy Yard on the Canadian side of the U.S. border in Niagara Falls as the location (in order to circumvent the U.S. ban on dueling). Brooks, reportedly dismayed by both Burlingame's unexpectedly enthusiastic acceptance and his reputation as a crack shot, neglected to show up, instead citing unspecified risks to his safety if he was to cross "hostile country" (the northern U.S. states) in order to reach Canada.[3] Burlingame's solid defense of a fellow Bostonian greatly raised his stature throughout the North.[4] Minister to China and Chinese envoy to Washington[edit]

Burlingame was given this Daimyo Oak
Daimyo Oak
bonsai when he passed through Japan during his return to the U.S. It is on display at the Gardens of Lake Merritt, Oakland, California.[5]

On March 22, 1861, after Burlingame lost his bid for re-election, President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
appointed Burlingame as Minister to the Austrian Empire, but Burlingame, who had championed the Hungarian Lajos Kossuth
Lajos Kossuth
and his drive for independence from the Austrian Empire, was not acceptable and did not serve.[6] On June 14, 1861 Lincoln instead appointed Burlingame as minister to the Qing Empire. Burlingame worked for a cooperative policy rather than the imperialistic policies of force which had been used during the First and Second Opium Wars and developed relations with the reform elements of the court. As he put it, the "cooperative policy... substituted for the old doctrine of violence one of fair diplomatic action," and the representatives of the Western powers agreed that they would not interfere in the internal affairs of China. Burlingame reported that he had used his diplomacy to get the European powers to agree that they would "give to the treaties a fair and Christian construction; that they ... never would menace the territorial integrity of China.” [7] The success of this diplomacy was not lost on Qing dynasty court officials. On November 16, 1867, when he was set to retire and return to his political career at home, the Chinese government appointed Burlingame envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to head a Chinese diplomatic mission to the United States and the principal European nations. The mission, which included two Chinese ministers, an English and a French secretary, six students from Peking, and a considerable retinue, arrived in the United States in March 1868. Burlingame used his personal relations with the Republican administration to negotiate a relatively quick and favorable treaty. In a series of speeches across the country, he displayed eloquent oratory to advocate equal treatment of China and a welcoming stance toward Chinese immigrants. On July 28, 1868 the mission concluded at Washington, D.C. a series of articles, supplementary to the Reed Treaty of 1858, and later known as the Burlingame Treaty. The treaty provided that Chinese subjects in the United States should enjoy the same rights as citizens of the most favored nation, a legal strategy which up until that point had only been used to expand foreign privileges in China. Burlingame worked successfully to include a clause permitting Chinese to become citizens, which was barred by American law. This treaty was the first equal treaty between China and a western power after the Opium War.[8] Subsequently, Burlingame also negotiated treaties with Denmark, Sweden, Holland, and Prussia.[9] He died suddenly at Saint Petersburg on February 23, 1870, while negotiating terms for a treaty with Russia. He was buried in Boston. Family[edit] His son Edward L. Burlingame
Edward L. Burlingame
was founding editor of Scribner's Magazine. Legacy[edit] After Burlingame's death, the spirit and many of the specific provisions of the treaty bearing his name were reversed. Foreign powers continued to encroach upon China, and Congress passed strict laws against Chinese immigration. The success of the Communist Revolution of 1949 led to animosity between the two countries and Burlingame's reputation was as a naive and euphoric advocate of China. After warming of relations in the 1980s, Burlingame's reputation began to rise again, however.[10] Burlingame, California, Burlingame, Kansas, and Anson, Wisconsin
Anson, Wisconsin
are all named after Anson Burlingame.[11] The ranch which Burlingame purchased in San Mateo on the San Francisco Bay retained his name and was eventually developed after his death.[12] References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ John Schrecker, "'For the Equality of Men -- for the Equality of Nations': Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
and China's First Embassy to the United States, 1868," Journal of American-East Asian Relations
Journal of American-East Asian Relations
17.1 (2010): 10. ^ The New York Times, February 24, 1870, pg.5 ^ "The Beginnings of the Burlingame Mission", Walsh, Warren B., The Far Eastern Quarterly, Vol. 4.3 (May 1945): 274-277 ^ Schrecker, "'For the Equality of Men -- for the Equality of Nations'": 10. ^ [1] ^ Williams, Anson Burlingame, ^ Schrecker, "'For the Equality of Men -- for the Equality of Nations'," 11. ^ Schrecker, "'For the Equality of Men -- for the Equality of Nations'," 29-30. ^  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Burlingame, Anson". New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia
(1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.  ^ Schrecker, "'For the Equality of Men -- for the Equality of Nations'," 33-34. ^ John Rydjord, Kansas Place Names (University of Oklahoma Press, 1981), 357. ^ Burlingame Family Papers, Library of Congress

Bibliography[edit]

Frederick Wells Williams, Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
and the First Chinese Mission to Foreign Powers (New York: Scribner's, 1912).

United States Congress. " Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
(id: B001112)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  John Schrecker, ""For the Equality of Men -- for the Equality of Nations": Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
and China's First Embassy to the United States, 1868," Journal of American-East Asian Relations
Journal of American-East Asian Relations
17.1 (2010): 9-34.  Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Burlingame, Anson". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. 

External links[edit]

Works by or about Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
at Internet Archive Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame
and the Daimyo Oak

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by William Appleton Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 5th congressional district March 4, 1855 – March 3, 1861 Succeeded by William Appleton

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by J. Glancy Jones U.S. Minister to the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(did not serve) 1861 Succeeded by J. Lothrop Motley

Preceded by John E. Ward U.S. Minister to China 1861-67 Succeeded by Ross Browne

v t e

United States Ambassadors to China

Envoys to the Qing Empire 1843–1858

Caleb Cushing Alexander Hill Everett John Wesley Davis Humphrey Marshall Robert Milligan McLane Peter Parker

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plentipotentiary to the Qing Empire 1858–1913

William Bradford Reed John Elliott Ward Anson Burlingame John Ross Browne Frederick Low Benjamin Avery George Seward James Burrill Angell John Russell Young Charles Harvey Denby Edwin H. Conger William Woodville Rockhill William James Calhoun

Envoy to the Republic of China 1913–1929

Paul Samuel Reinsch Charles Richard Crane Jacob Gould Schurman John Van Antwerp MacMurray

Ambassador to the Republic of China 1929–1949

Nelson T. Johnson Clarence E. Gauss Patrick J. Hurley John Leighton Stuart American Institute in Taiwan

Chiefs of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing 1973–79

David K. E. Bruce George H. W. Bush Thomas S. Gates Jr. Leonard Woodcock

Ambassador to the People's Republic of China 1979–present

Leonard Woodcock Arthur W. Hummel Jr. Winston Lord James R. Lilley J. Stapleton Roy Jim Sasser Joseph Prueher Clark T. Randt Jr. Jon Huntsman Jr. Gary Locke Max Baucus Terry Branstad

v t e

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts

1st district

F. Ames Dexter Goodhue Holten Sedgwick Skinner Sedgwick J. Bacon Eustis Quincy Ward Jr. Mason Gorham Webster Gorham N. Appleton Gorham A. Lawrence Fletcher A. Lawrence Winthrop N. Appleton Winthrop S. Eliot W. Appleton Scudder T. D. Eliot Hall T. D. Eliot Buffington Crapo R. Davis Randall Wright G. Lawrence Treadway Heselton Conte Olver Neal

2nd district

Goodhue Foster W. Lyman Sedgwick Ward Sr. W. Lyman Shepard J. Crowninshield Story Pickman W. Reed Pickering Silsbee Barstow B. Crowninshield Choate Phillips Saltonstall D. King Rantoul Fay Crocker Buffington O. Ames Harris Long E. Morse Gillett Churchill Bowles Kaynor Granfield Clason Furcolo Boland Neal McGovern

3rd district

Gerry Bourne Coffin Lyman Mattoon Cutler Nelson Livermore White Pickering Nelson Varnum Nelson Osgood Cushing A. Abbott Duncan Edmands Damrell C. Adams Thomas A. Rice Twichell Whiting I Pierce Field B. Dean Field Ranney L. Morse J. Andrew Walker J. R. Thayer R. Hoar C. Washburn J. A. Thayer Wilder Paige F. Foss Casey Philbin Drinan Donohue Early Blute McGovern N. Tsongas

4th district

Sedgwick Dearborn G. Thatcher Wadsworth Foster L. Lincoln Sr. Hastings Varnum W. Richardson Dana Stearns Fuller E. Everett Sa. Hoar Parmenter Thompson Palfrey Thompson Sabine Walley Comins A. Rice Hooper Frost J. Abbott L. Morse Collins O'Neil Apsley Weymouth Tirrell Mitchell Wilder Winslow Stobbs P. Holmes Donohue Drinan Frank Kennedy III

5th district

Partridge Bourne Freeman L. Williams T. Dwight Ely Mills Lathrop Sibley J. Davis L. Lincoln Jr. Hudson C. Allen W. Appleton Burlingame W. Appleton Hooper Alley Butler Gooch Banks Bowman L. Morse Hayden Banks Sh. Hoar Stevens Knox B. Ames J. Rogers E. Rogers B. Morse Cronin P. Tsongas Shannon Atkins Meehan N. Tsongas Markey Clark

6th district

G. Thatcher Leonard J. Reed Sr. J. Smith Taggart S. Allen Locke Kendall Grennell Alvord Baker Ashmun G. Davis Upham T. Davis Alley Gooch Banks Butler Thompson Loring Stone Lovering Lodge Cogswell Moody Gardner Lufkin A. Andrew G. Bates W. Bates Harrington Mavroules Torkildsen Tierney Moulton

7th district

Leonard Ward Sr. Leonard Bullock Bishop Mitchell Barker Baylies Turner Baylies Hulbert Shaw H. Dwight S. Allen Grennell Briggs J. Rockwell Goodrich Banks Gooch Boutwell Brooks Esty E. Hoar Tarbox Butler W. Russell Stone Cogswell W. Everett Barrett Roberts Phelan Maloney W. Connery L. Connery Lane Macdonald Markey Capuano

8th district

Grout G. Thatcher F. Ames Otis Eustis L. Williams Green Gardner Green J. Reed Jr. Baylies Sampson Hobart Lathrop Bates Calhoun J. Adams Mann Wentworth Knapp Train Baldwin G. Hoar J. M. S. Williams Warren Claflin Candler W Russell C. H. Allen Greenhalge Stevens McCall Deitrick Dallinger H. Thayer Dallinger Healey Goodwin Macdonald O'Neill Kennedy II Capuano Lynch

9th district

Varnum Bishop J. Dean Wheaton J. Reed Jr. Folger J. Reed Jr. H. Dwight Briggs Jackson Hastings H. Williams Hale Fowler Little De Witt E. Thayer Bailey A. Walker W. Washburn Crocker G. Hoar W. Rice T. Lyman Ely Burnett Candler G. Williams O'Neil Fitzgerald Conry Keliher Murray Roberts Fuller Underhill Luce R. Russell Luce T. H. Eliot Gifford Nicholson Keith McCormack Hicks Moakley Lynch Keating

10th district

Goodhue Sewall Read Hastings Upham J. Allen Brigham Wheaton Morton F Baylies Bailey H. A. S. Dearborn W. Baylies Borden H. Williams Borden Burnell Grinnell Scudder Dickinson Chaffee Delano Dawes Crocker Stevens Seelye Norcross W. Rice J. E. Russell J. Walker McEttrick Atwood Barrows Naphen McNary O'Connell Curley Murray Tague Fitzgerald Tague Douglass Tinkham Herter Curtis Martin Heckler Studds Delahunt Keating

11th district

Bradbury Bartlett Cutler Stedman A. Bigelow Brigham B. Adams J. Russell Hobart J. Richardson J. Adams J. Reed Jr. Burnell Goodrich Trafton Dawes Chapin Robinson Whiting II Wallace Coolidge Draper Sprague Powers Sullivan Peters Tinkham Douglass Higgins Flaherty Curley Kennedy O'Neill Burke Donnelly

12th district

H. Dearborn I. Parker Lee S. Thatcher Skinner Larned Bidwell Bacon Dewey Hulbert Strong Kendall L. Bigelow Baylies Hodges J. Adams Robinson F. Rockwell Crosby E. Morse Lovering Powers Weeks Curley Gallivan McCormack Keith Studds

13th district

Wadsworth Seaver Ruggles Dowse Eustis J. Reed Jr. Randall Simpkins Greene Weeks Mitchell Carter Luce Wigglesworth Burke

14th district

G. Thatcher Cutts C. King J. Holmes Lovering E. Foss Harris Gilmore Olney Frothingham Wigglesworth Martin

15th district

Wadsworth Ilsley Whitman Widgery Bradbury Whitman Greene Leach Martin Gifford

16th district

S. Thatcher Cook Tallman S. Davis Brown Orr Hill Thacher Walsh Gifford

17th district

Bruce Chandler Gannett F. Carr Wood J. Carr Wilson Kinsley

18th district

Wilson T. Rice J. Parker

19th district

J. Parker Conner Gage Cushman

20th district

Hubbard Parris E. Lincoln

At-large

Cobb

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 25406532 LCCN: n92104055 ISNI: 0000 0000 3295 2111 GND: 119159651 US Congress: B001112 SN

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