Spanish victory 
Commanders and leaders
Philip IV of Spain Count-Duke of Olivares Ambrosio Spinola Fadrique de Toledo Antonio de Oquendo Duke of Medina Sidonia James I of England Charles I of England Duke of Buckingham Edward Cecil Robert Devereux Horace Vere Maurice of Nassau William of Nassau Ernst von Mansfeld
v t e
Anglo-Spanish War 1625–1630
Breda Cádiz St. Kitts and Nevis
v t e
1585–1604 1625–30 1654–60 1701–13 1718–20 1727–29 1739–48 1762–63 1779–83 1796–1802 1803–08 1833–40
The Anglo–Spanish War was a war fought by
1 Background 2 Siege of Breda 3 Cádiz Expedition 4 1627–1628 5 St. Kitts and Nevis 6 Aftermath 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links
In 1622, Philip IV reigned in Spain, with Gaspar de Guzmán,
Count-Duke of Olivares as his favourite. The War of Flanders had
reignited after the Twelve Years' Truce, and Spain's finances flowed
from its imports of silver from its American colonies. James I was
King of England, Scotland and Ireland, with his son Charles, Prince of
Wales, as his heir. At this time the
Kingdom of England
The Duke of Buckingham by Peter Paul Rubens
By October 1625, approximately 100 ships and a total of 15,000 seamen
and soldiers were readied for the Cádiz Expedition. An alliance with
the Dutch had also been forged, and the new allies agreed to dispatch
an additional 15 warships commanded by William of Nassau, to assist in
The planned expedition involved several elements: overtaking Spanish
treasure ships returning from the Americas loaded with valuables; and
assaulting Spanish towns, with the intention of assailing the Spanish
economy by weakening the Spanish supply chain and consequently
relieving the military pressure on the Electorate of the Palatinate.
The entire expedition descended into farce. The English forces wasted
time in capturing an old fort of little importance, giving Cádiz the
time to fully mobilise behind its defences and allowing merchant ships
in the bay to make good their escape. The city's modernised defences,
a vast improvement on those of Tudor times, proved effective.
Meanwhile, a body of English forces landed further down the coast to
march on the city also became side-tracked because of poor discipline.
Eventually, Sir Edward Cecil, the commander of the English forces,
faced with dwindling supplies, decided there was no alternative but to
return to England, having captured few goods and having had no impact
on Spain. And thus in December, a battered fleet returned home.
Charles I of England, to protect his own dignity and Buckingham, who
had failed to ensure the invasion fleet was well supplied, made no
effort to inquire as to the cause of the failure of the Cadiz
Expedition. Charles turned a blind eye to the debacle, instead
preoccupying himself with the plight of the French Huguenots of La
Rochelle. But the House of Commons proved less forgiving. The
parliament of 1626 initiated the process of impeachment against the
Duke of Buckingham, prompting Charles I to choose to dissolve
parliament rather than risk a successful impeachment.
The failure of the attack had severe consequences for England. In
addition to the economic and human loss, it damaged the reputation of
the English Crown, creating a serious political and financial crisis
in the country.
The Duke of Buckingham then negotiated with the French regent,
Cardinal Richelieu, for English ships to aid Richelieu in his fight
against the French Huguenots, in exchange for French aid against the
Spanish occupying the Electorate of the Palatinate, but the Parliament
Charles I of England
In 1629, a Spanish naval expedition, commanded by Admiral Don Fadrique
de Toledo, was sent to deal with the recently established Anglo-French
colonies on the Caribbean islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis. The
territories were regarded by the Spanish Empire as its own since the
islands were discovered by the Spanish in 1498 and the English and
French colonies had grown sufficiently to be considered a threat to
the Spanish West Indies. In the Battle of St. Kitts, the heavily armed
settlements on both islands were destroyed and the Spanish seized the
Following these defeats,
^ Frances Gardiner Davenport, European treaties bearing on the history of the United States and its Dependencies, Washington D.C. 1917 p. 305. ^ Frances Gardiner Davenport, European treaties p. 306. ^ Frances Gardiner Davenport, European treaties p. 307.
Davenport, Francis Gardiner. Ed.. European treaties bearing on the
history of the United States and its Dependencies, Washington D.C.
Roger Manning. An Apprenticeship in Arms: The Origins of the British
Army 1585-1702. Oxford (2008).
Duffy, Christopher (1996). Siege Warfare: The fortress in the early
modern world, 1494-1660. New York, USA: Routledge.
Manning, por Roger Burrow (2006). An apprenticeship in arms: the
origins of the British Army 1585-1702. London, UK: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926149-9.
Robert L. Brenner. Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change,
Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653, Verso
(2003) ISBN 1-85984-333-6
John H. Elliot. Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and
European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United ..., Issue 254,Volume 2, Frances Gardin