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In Islam, angels (Arabic: ملك malak; plural: ملاًئِكة malā'ikah)[1] are believed to be heavenly beings, created from a luminous origin by God. They have different roles, including their praise of God, interacting with humans ordinary life, and carrying laws of nature. Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both as anthropomorphic (to a degree) and abstract.[2] Belief in angels is one of the main articles of faith in Islam.[3] The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels, but more extensive features of angels appear in hadiths, Mi'raj literature, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy.[4] The angels differ from other spiritual creatures in their attitude as creatures of virtue in contrast to impure demons and morally ambivalent jinn.[5]

Corporeal angels

Creation

Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind, commonly dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are generally considered as the first creation of God.[citation needed] According to Tabari, the angels had been created on Wednesday,[6] while other creatures on the following days. Although not mentioned in the Quran,[7] angels are believed to be created from a luminous substance, repeatedly described as a form of light. What is probably the most famous hadith regarding their origin is reported in Sahih Muslim: "The Angels were created out of light and the Jann was created out of a mixture of fire and Adam was created out of what characterizes you."[8][9] Nur, the term used for the light from which the angels are created from, usually corresponds to the cold light of night or the light of the moon,[10] contrasted to nar, which corresponds to fire or the diurnal and solar light from which the angels of punishment are said to be created of.[11] Dividing angels into two groups created from different types of light is also attested by Tabari,[12] Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi,[13] Al-Jili[14] and Al-Suyuti.[15] Suyuti distinguishes in his work Al-Hay’a as-samya fi l-hay’a as-sunmya angels as created from "fire that eats, but does not drink" in opposition to devils created from "fire that drinks, but does not eat" which is also identified with the fire of the sun.[16] Scholars also argued that there is no distinction between nur and nar at all. Although not his conclusion, Tabari argued that both can be seen as the same substance, since both pass into each other but refer to the same thing on different degrees.[17] Asserting that both fire and light are actually the same but on different degrees can also be found by Qazwini and Ibishi.[18][19] The lack of distinction between fire and light might be explained by the fact that both are closely related morphologically and phonetically.[20] Al-Baydawi argued that light serves only as a proverb, but fire and light refers actually to the same substance.[21] Apart from light, other traditions also mention exceptions about angels created from fire, ice or water.[22]

Characteristics

One of the Islamic major characteristic is their lack of bodily desires; they never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.[23] As with other monotheistic religions, angels are characteristics of their purity and obedience to God.[24] However, their constant loyalty, towards God (Ismah), emphasized by some Quranic verses such as 16:49, does not necessarily imply impeccability,[25] and the motif of erring angels is also known to Islam.[26] Infallability (Ismah), applied to both angels and prophets, does not mean, they won't err, only they have no desire to sin on their own. Circumstances may affect angels (as known from hadiths, like smell), causing them to err. However, the angels will, as soon as they perceive their mistake, turns back to God immediately.[27] Some scholars on the other hand, among Hasan of Basra as one of the first,[28] extend their loyalty towards God to assume general impeccability. Those who accept the possibility of erring angels, advocate that actually only the messengers among the angels are infallible,[29] since the Quran also describes angels as being tested.[30] Al-Baydawi argued, that angels only remain impeccable if they do not fall. Ibn Arabi stated that angels may err in opposing Adam as a vice-regent and fixing on their way of worshipping God to the exclusion of other creatures.[31][32]

Angels are usually described in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size, wearing heavenly clothes and great beauty.[33] Some angels are identified with specific colors, often with white, but some special angels have a distinct color, such as Gabriel being associated with the color green.[34]

The Quran says that the angels were considered to be daughters of God and worshipped in Pre-Islamic Arabia,[35] while newborn girls were often killed, which is condemned in Islam.[36] This is also mentioned concerning Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manāt.[37] The notion that God created the angels as females and fathered daughters is rejected in the Quran.[38]

Scholars debated whether human or angels rank higher. The prostration of angels before Adam is often seen as evidence for humans' supremacy over angels. Nevertheless, other hold angels to be superior, as being free from material deficits, such as anger and lust, Angels are free from such inferior urges and therefore superior, a position especially found among Mu'tazilites and some Asharites.[25] A similar opinion was asserted by Hasan of Basri, who argued that angels are superior to humans due to their infallibility, originally opposed by both Sunnis and Shias.[39] This view is based on the assumption of superiority of pure spirit against body and flesh. Contrarily argued, humans rank above angels, since for a human it is harder to be obedient and to worship God, hassling with bodily temptations, in contrast to angels, whose life is much easier and therefore their obedience is rather insignificant. Islam acknowledges a famous story about competing angels and humans in the tale of Harut and Marut, who were tested to determine, whether or not, angels would do better than humans under the same circumstances,[40] a tradition opposed by later scholars, such as ibn Taimiyya, but still accepted by earlier scholars, such as ibn Hanbal.[41] Some Sufi traditions argue that a human generally ranks below angels, but developed to Al-Insān al-Kāmil, he ranks above angels.[42] Comparable to another major opinion, that prophets and messengers among humans rank above angels, but the ordinary human below an angel, while the messengers among angels rank higher than prophets.[25] Maturidism generally holds that angels' and prophets' superiority and obedience derive from their virtues and insights to God's action, but not as their original purity.[43]

Purity

Angels believed to be engaged in human affairs are closely related to Islamic purity and modesty rituals. Many hadiths, including Muwatta Imam Malik from one of the Kutub al-Sittah, talk about angels being repelled by humans' state of impurity.[44] Such angels keep a distance from humans, who polluted themselves by certain actions (such as sexual intercourse). However, angels might return to an individual as soon as the person (ritually) purified himself or herself. The absence of angels may cause several problems for the person. If driven away by ritual impurity, the Kiraman Katibin, who record people's actions,[45] and the Guardian angel,[46] will not perform their tasks assigned to the individual. Another hadith specifies, during the state of impurity, bad actions are still written down, but good actions are not. When a person tells a lie, angels nearly are separated from the person from the stench it emanates.[47] Angels also depart from humans when they are naked or are having a bath out of decency, but also curse people who are nude in public.[citation needed]

Abstract angels

Philosophy

In Islamic philosophy, angels appear frequently as incorporeal creatures. Al-Kindi and Ibn Sina both define angels as simple substances, which means, they belong to the Celestial spheres comparable to Ptolemaic astronomy, endowed with life, reason, and immortality, in contrast to sublunary entities such as humans and animals, who are endowed with life, and the former also with reason, but are mortal.[48][49] Similarly Qazwini assigns the angels to heavenly spheres, distinguishing them from among the animals, although both are said to possess the attribute of life. Significantly, Al-Damiri includes in his zoological works, animals, humans, jinn and even demons, but not angels.[50] Such cosmological thought, maintained by scholars such as Al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, has strong resemblance w

Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind, commonly dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are generally considered as the first creation of God.[citation needed] According to Tabari, the angels had been created on Wednesday,[6] while other creatures on the following days. Although not mentioned in the Quran,[7] angels are believed to be created from a luminous substance, repeatedly described as a form of light. What is probably the most famous hadith regarding their origin is reported in Sahih Muslim: "The Angels were created out of light and the Jann was created out of a mixture of fire and Adam was created out of what characterizes you."[8][9] Nur, the term used for the light from which the angels are created from, usually corresponds to the cold light of night or the light of the moon,[10] contrasted to nar, which corresponds to fire or the diurnal and solar light from which the angels of punishment are said to be created of.[11] Dividing angels into two groups created from different types of light is also attested by Tabari,[12] Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi,[13] Al-Jili[14] and Al-Suyuti.[15] Suyuti distinguishes in his work Al-Hay’a as-samya fi l-hay’a as-sunmya angels as created from "fire that eats, but does not drink" in opposition to devils created from "fire that drinks, but does not eat" which is also identified with the fire of the sun.[16] Scholars also argued that there is no distinction between nur and nar at all. Although not his conclusion, Tabari argued that both can be seen as the same substance, since both pass into each other but refer to the same thing on different degrees.[17] Asserting that both fire and light are actually the same but on different degrees can also be found by Qazwini and Ibishi.[18][19] The lack of distinction between fire and light might be explained by the fact that both are closely related morphologically and phonetically.[20] Al-Baydawi argued that light serves only as a proverb, but fire and light refers actually to the same substance.[21] Apart from light, other traditions also mention exceptions about angels created from fire, ice or water.[22]

Characteristics

One of the Islamic major characteristic is their lack of bodily desires; they never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.[23] As with other monotheistic religions, angels are characteristics of their purity and obedience to God.[24] However, their constant loyalty, towards God (Ismah), emphasized by some Quranic verses such as 16:49, does not necessarily imply impeccability,[25] and the motif of erring angels is also known to Islam.[26] Infallability (Ismah), applied to both angels and prophets, does not mean, they won't err, only they have no desire to sin on their own. Circumstances may affect angels (as known from hadiths, like smell), causing them to err. However, the angels will, as soon as they perceive their mistake, turns back to God immediately.[27] Some scholars on the other hand, among Hasan of Basra as one of the first,[28] extend their loyalty towards God to assume general impeccability. Those who accept the possibility of erring angels, advocate that actually only the messengers among the angels are infallible,[29] since the Quran also describes angels as being tested.[30] Al-Baydawi argued, that angels only remain impeccable if they do not fall. Ibn Arabi stated that angels may err in opposing Adam as a vice-regent and fixing on their way of worshipping God to the exclusion of other creatures.[31][32]

Angels are usually described in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size, wearing heavenly clothes and great beauty.[33] Some angels are identified with specific colors, often with white, but some special angels have a distinct color, such as Gabriel being associated with the color green.[34]

The Quran says that the angels were considered to be daughters of God and worshipped in Pre

One of the Islamic major characteristic is their lack of bodily desires; they never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.[23] As with other monotheistic religions, angels are characteristics of their purity and obedience to God.[24] However, their constant loyalty, towards God (Ismah), emphasized by some Quranic verses such as 16:49, does not necessarily imply impeccability,[25] and the motif of erring angels is also known to Islam.[26] Infallability (Ismah), applied to both angels and prophets, does not mean, they won't err, only they have no desire to sin on their own. Circumstances may affect angels (as known from hadiths, like smell), causing them to err. However, the angels will, as soon as they perceive their mistake, turns back to God immediately.[27] Some scholars on the other hand, among Hasan of Basra as one of the first,[28] extend their loyalty towards God to assume general impeccability. Those who accept the possibility of erring angels, advocate that actually only the messengers among the angels are infallible,[29] since the Quran also describes angels as being tested.[30] Al-Baydawi argued, that angels only remain impeccable if they do not fall. Ibn Arabi stated that angels may err in opposing Adam as a vice-regent and fixing on their way of worshipping God to the exclusion of other creatures.[31][32]

Angels are usually described in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size, wearing heavenly clothes and great beauty.[33] Some ang

Angels are usually described in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size, wearing heavenly clothes and great beauty.[33] Some angels are identified with specific colors, often with white, but some special angels have a distinct color, such as Gabriel being associated with the color green.[34]

The Quran says that the angels were considered to be daughters of God and worshipped in Pre-Islamic Arabia,[35] while newborn girls were often killed, which is condemned in Islam.[36] This is also mentioned concerning Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manāt.[37] The notion that God created the angels as females and fathered daughters is rejected in the Quran.[38]

Scholars debated whether human or angels rank higher. The prostration of angels before Adam is often seen as evidence for humans' supremacy over angels. Nevertheless, other hold angels to be superior, as being free from material deficits, such as anger and lust, Angels are free from such inferior urges and therefore superior, a position especially found among Mu'tazilites and some Asharites.[25] A similar opinion was asserted by Hasan of Basri, who argued that angels are superior to humans due to their infallibility, originally opposed by both Sunnis and Shias.[39] This view is based on the assumption of superiority of pure spirit against body and flesh. Contrarily argued, humans rank above angels, since for a human it is harder to be obedient and to worship God, hassling with bodily temptations, in contrast to angels, whose life is much easier and therefore their obedience is rather insignificant. Islam acknowledges a famous story about competing angels and humans in the tale of Harut and Marut, who were tested to determine, whether or not, angels would do better than humans under the same circumstances,[40] a tradition opposed by later scholars, such as ibn Taimiyya, but still accepted by earlier scholars, such as ibn Hanbal.[41] Some Sufi traditions argue that a human generally ranks below angels, but developed to Al-Insān al-Kāmil, he ranks above angels.[42] Comparable to another major opinion, that prophets and messengers among humans rank above angels, but the ordinary human below an angel, while the messengers among angels rank higher than prophets.[25] Maturidism generally holds that angels' and prophets' superiority and obedience derive from their virtues and insights to God's action, but not as their original purity.[43]

Angels believed to be engaged in human affairs are closely related to Islamic purity and modesty rituals. Many hadiths, including Muwatta Imam Malik from one of the Kutub al-Sittah, talk about angels being repelled by humans' state of impurity.[44] Such angels keep a distance from humans, who polluted themselves by certain actions (such as sexual intercourse). However, angels might return to an individual as soon as the person (ritually) purified himself or herself. The absence of angels may cause several problems for the person. If driven away by ritual impurity, the Kiraman Katibin, who record people's actions,[45] and the Guardian angel,[46] will not perform their tasks assigned to the individual. Another hadith specifies, during the state of impurity, bad actions are still written down, but good actions are not. When a person tells a lie, angels nearly are separated from the person from the stench it emanates.[47] Angels also depart from humans when they are naked or are having a bath out of decency, but also curse people who are nude in public.[citation needed]

Abstract angels

  1. ^ Webb, Gisela (2006). "Angel". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00010.(subscription required)
  2. ^ a b Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi Akhbar al-malik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0
  3. ^ "BBC – Religions – Islam: Basic articles of faith". Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  4. ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 22-23
  5. ^ Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN 9780815650706 page 20
  6. ^ Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 ISBN 978-3-110-33168-4 p. 43 (German)
  7. ^ Jane Dammen McAuliffe Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān Brill: VOlume 3, 2005 Contemporary Salafism continues to regard the belief in angels as a pillar of Islam and regards the rejection of the literal belief in angels as unbelief and an innovation brought by secularism and Positivism. Modern reinterpretations, as for example suggested by Nasr Abu Zayd, are strongly disregarded. Simultaneously, many traditional materials regarding angels are rejected on the ground, they would not be authentic. The Muslim Brotherhood scholars Sayyid Qutb and Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar reject much established material concerning angels, such as the story of Harut and Marut or naming the Angel of Death Azrail. Sulayman Ashqar not only rejects the traditional material itself, he furthermore disapproves of scholars who use them.[91]

    Islamic Modernist scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation

    Islamic Modernist scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.[92]