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Andronikos II Palaiologos
Palaiologos
(Greek: Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.[1]

Contents

1 Life 2 Family 3 Ancestry 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Life[edit] Andronikos II was born Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos (Greek: Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνός Παλαιολόγος) at Nicaea. He was the eldest surviving son of Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
and Theodora Palaiologina, grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes. Andronikos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1261, after his father Michael VIII recovered Constantinople
Constantinople
from the Latin Empire, but he was not crowned until 1272. Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II immediately repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy, which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive, but he was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310. Andronikos II was also plagued by economic difficulties. During his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously, while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue (in nominal coins) that it had previously. Seeking to increase revenue and reduce expenses, Andronikos II raised taxes, reduced tax exemptions, and dismantled the Byzantine fleet (80 ships) in 1285, thereby making the Empire increasingly dependent on the rival republics of Venice and Genoa. In 1291, he hired 50–60 Genoese ships, but the Byzantine weakness resulting from the lack of a navy became painfully apparent in the two wars with Venice in 1296–1302 and 1306–10. Later, in 1320, he tried to resurrect the navy by constructing 20 galleys, but failed. Andronikos II Palaiologos
Palaiologos
sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
through diplomacy. After the death of his first wife Anne of Hungary, he married Yolanda (renamed Irene) of Montferrat, putting an end to the Montferrat claim to the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Andronikos II also attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire. Another marriage alliance attempted to resolve the potential conflict with Serbia
Serbia
in Macedonia, as Andronikos II married off his five-year-old daughter Simonis to King Stefan Milutin
Stefan Milutin
in 1298.

Andronikos II and Michael IX Palaeologus
Michael IX Palaeologus
(Silver basilikon)

In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor, despite the successful, but short, governorships of Alexios Philanthropenos and John Tarchaneiotes. The successful military victories in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
by Alexios Philanthropenos
Alexios Philanthropenos
and John Tarchaneiotes against the Turks were largely dependent on a considerable military contingent of Cretan escapees, or exiles from Venetian-occupied Crete, headed by Hortatzis, whom Michael VIII
Michael VIII
had repatriated to Byzantium through a treaty agreement with the Venetians ratified in 1277.[2] Andronikos II had resettled those Cretans in the region of Meander river, the southeastern Asia Minor
Asia Minor
frontier of Byzantium with the Turks. After the failure of the co-emperor Michael IX to stem the Turkish advance in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
in 1302 and the disastrous Battle of Bapheus, the Byzantine government hired the Catalan Company
Catalan Company
of Almogavars (adventurers from Catalonia) led by Roger de Flor
Roger de Flor
to clear Byzantine Asia Minor
Asia Minor
of the enemy.[3] In spite of some successes, the Catalans were unable to secure lasting gains. Being more ruthless and savage than the enemy they intended to subdue they quarreled with Michael IX, and eventually openly turned on their Byzantine employers after the murder of Roger de Flor
Roger de Flor
in 1305; together with a party of willing Turks they devastated Thrace, Macedonia, and Thessaly
Thessaly
on their road to Latin occupied southern Greece. There they conquered the Duchy of Athens and Thebes. The Turks continued to penetrate the Byzantine possessions, and Prusa fell in 1326. By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan.[4] Also, Karasids
Karasids
conquered Mysia-region with Paleokastron after 1296, Germiyan conquered Simav
Simav
in 1328, Saruhan captured Magnesia in 1313, and Aydinids
Aydinids
captured Smyrna in 1310.

Gold hyperpyron of Andronikos II, kneeling before Christ.

The Empire's problems were exploited by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, who defeated Michael IX and conquered much of northeastern Thrace
Thrace
in c. 1305–07. The conflict ended with yet another dynastic marriage, between Michael IX's daughter Theodora and the Bulgarian emperor. The dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos
Palaiologos
led to a rift in the family, and after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328. The conflict precipitated Bulgarian involvement, and Michael Asen III of Bulgaria attempted to capture Andronikos II under the guise of sending him military support. In 1328 Andronikos III entered Constantinople
Constantinople
in triumph and Andronikos II was forced to abdicate.[3] Andronikos II died as a monk at Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1332. Family[edit] On 8 November 1273 Andronikos II married as his first wife Anna of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary
Stephen V of Hungary
and Elizabeth the Cuman, with whom he had two sons:

Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
(17 April 1277 – 12 October 1320). Constantine Palaiologos, despotes (c. 1278 – 1335). Constantine was forced to become a monk by his nephew Andronikos III Palaiologos.

Anna died in 1281, and in 1284 Andronikos married Yolanda (renamed Irene), a daughter of William VII of Montferrat, with whom he had:

John Palaiologos
Palaiologos
(c. 1286–1308), despotes. Bartholomaios Palaiologos
Palaiologos
(born 1289), died young. Theodore I, Marquis of Montferrat (1291–1338). Simonis Palaiologina (1294–after 1336), who married King Stefan Milutin of Serbia. Theodora Palaiologina (born 1295), died young. Demetrios Palaiologos
Palaiologos
(1297–1343), despotēs. Isaakios Palaiologos
Palaiologos
(born 1299), died young.

Andronikos II also had at least three illegitimate daughters:

Irene, who married John II Doukas, ruler of Thessaly. Maria, who married Toqta, Khan of the Golden Horde. A daughter known as Despina Khatun, who married Öljaitü, Khan of the Ilkhanate.[5]

Ancestry[edit]

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Ancestors of Andronikos II Palaiologos

16.  ?Michael Doukas Palaiologos?

8. Alexios Palaiologos

4. Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos

18. John Kantakouzenos

9. Eirene Komnene

19. Maria Komnene

2. Michael VIII
Michael VIII
Palaiologos

20. George Komnenodoukas Palaiologos

10. Alexios Palaiologos

21. ?Eirene Komnene Kantakouzene?

5. Theodora Angelina Palaiologina

22. Alexios III Angelos

11. Irene Komnene Angelina

23. Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera

1. Andronikos II Palaiologos

24. Basil Vatatzes

12. Isaac Doukas Vatatzes

25. cousin of 22

6. John Doukas

3. Theodora Palaiologina

14. John Komnenos Angelos

7. Eudokia Angelina

See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

List of Byzantine emperors Rabban Bar Sauma

Notes[edit]

^ PLP, 21436. Παλαιολόγος, Ἀνδρόνικος II. Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνός. ^ Agelarakis, P. A. (2012), Cretans in Byzantine foreign policy and military affairs following the Fourth Crusade. Cretika Chronika, 32, 41-78. ^ a b Chisholm 1911. ^  "Andronicus II.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (9th ed.). 1878. p. 23.  ^ Korobeinikov, Dimitri (2014). Byzantium and the Turks in the Thirteenth Century. Oxford University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-198-70826-1. 

References[edit]

Bartusis, Mark C. (1997). The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society 1204–1453. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1620-2.   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Andronicus II". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 976.  Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.  Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Laiou, Angeliki E. (1972). Constantinople
Constantinople
and the Latins: The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II, 1282–1328. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-16535-7.  Κοντογιαννοπούλου, Αναστασία (2004). Η εσωτερική πολιτική του Ανδρονίκου Β΄ Παλαιολόγου (1282-1328). Διοίκηση - Οικονομία. Κέντρο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών Θεσσαλονίκη. ISBN 960-7856-15-5.  Nicol, Donald M. (1993) [1972]. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Trapp, Erich; Beyer, Hans-Veit; Walther, Rainer; Sturm-Schnabl, Katja; Kislinger, Ewald; Leontiadis, Ioannis; Kaplaneres, Sokrates (1976–1996). Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit (in German). Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 3-7001-3003-1.  Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Andronikos II Palaiologos
Palaiologos
at Wikimedia Commons

Andronikos II Palaiologos Palaiologos
Palaiologos
dynasty Born: Unknown 1259 Died: 13 February 1332

Regnal titles

Preceded by Michael VIII Byzantine Emperor 11 December 1282–24 May 1328 with Michael VIII
Michael VIII
(11 December 1282–24 May 1328) Michael IX (1294–1320) Andronikos III (1325–1328) Succeeded by Andronikos III

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Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
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Petronius Maximus
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Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

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Basiliscus
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Tiberius
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Constans
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Constantine IV
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Heraclius
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Tiberius
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Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII
Michael VIII
Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89594853 LCCN: n85041124 ISNI: 0000 0001 2143 0382 GND: 119132877 SELIBR: 174808 SUDOC: 130622370 BNF: cb12363738j (data) SN

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