J J Ebers Award (1974)
Time Man of the Year, 1997
CEO of the Year, CEO magazine, 1997
Andrew Stephen 'Andy' Grove (born András István Gróf; 2 September
1936 – 21 March 2016) was a Hungarian-born American
businessman, engineer, author and a pioneer in the semiconductor
industry. He escaped from Communist-controlled Hungary at the age of
20 and moved to the
United States where he finished his education. He
was one of the founders and the CEO of Intel, helping transform the
company into the world's largest manufacturer of semiconductors.
As a result of his work at Intel, along with his books and
professional articles, Grove had a considerable influence on
electronics manufacturing industries worldwide. He has been called the
"guy who drove the growth phase" of Silicon Valley. In 1997, Time
magazine chose him as "Man of the Year", for being "the person most
responsible for the amazing growth in the power and the innovative
potential of microchips." One source notes that by his
Intel alone, he "merits a place alongside the great
business leaders of the 20th century."
In 2000, he was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease; he became a
contributor to several foundations that sponsor research towards a
cure. He died at his home on March 21, 2016; the cause of death was
1 Early life and education
2.1 Helping start up Intel
2.2 Management methods and style
2.3 Preference for a "job-centric" American economy
2.4 Writing & teaching
3 Honors and awards
5.1 Further reading
6 External links
Early life and education
Grove was born to a middle-class Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary,
the son of Maria and George Gróf. At the age of four he contracted
scarlet fever, which was nearly fatal and caused partial hearing
Nazi invasion of Budapest, 1944
When he was eight, the Germans occupied Hungary and deported nearly
Jews to concentration camps, including Auschwitz. Its
commandant, Rudolf Höss, said at his trial that he killed 400,000
Jews in three months. To avoid being arrested, Grove and
his mother took on false identities and were sheltered by friends.
His father, however, was arrested and taken to an Eastern Labor Camp
to do forced labor, and was reunited with his family only after the
During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, when he was 20, he left his
home and family and escaped across the border into Austria. Penniless
and barely able to speak English, in 1957 he eventually made his way
to the United States. He later changed his name to the anglicized
Andrew S. Grove. Grove summarized his first twenty years of
life in Hungary in his memoirs:
By the time I was twenty, I had lived through a Hungarian Fascist
dictatorship, German military occupation, the Nazis' "Final Solution,"
the siege of
Budapest by the Soviet Red Army, a period of chaotic
democracy in the years immediately after the war, a variety of
repressive Communist regimes, and a popular uprising that was put down
at gunpoint. . . [where] many young people were killed; countless
others were interned. Some two hundred thousand Hungarians escaped to
the West. I was one of them.
Soon after arriving in the United States, in New York, in 1957, he met
his future wife, Eva Kastan, who was a fellow refugee. They met
while he held a job as a busboy and she was a waitress. They married
in June 1958 and remained married until his death. They had two
Even though he arrived in the
United States with little money, Grove
retained a "passion for learning." He earned a bachelor's degree
in chemical engineering from the
City College of New York
City College of New York in 1960,
followed by a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of
California, Berkeley in 1963.
Helping start up Intel
When I came to Intel, I was scared to death. I left a very secure job
where I knew what I was doing and started running R&D for a brand
new venture in untried territory. It was terrifying.
After completing his Ph.D. in 1963, Grove worked at Fairchild
Semiconductor as a researcher, and by 1967 had become its assistant
director of development. His work there made him familiar with the
early development of integrated circuits, which would lead to the
"microcomputer revolution" in the 1970s. In 1967, he wrote a college
textbook on the subject, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor
Robert Noyce and
Gordon Moore (1978)
Robert Noyce and
Gordon Moore co-founded Intel, after they
and Grove left Fairchild Semiconductor. Grove joined on the day of its
incorporation, although was not a founder according to the company.
Fellow Hungarian émigré
Leslie L. Vadász
Leslie L. Vadász was Intel's fourth
employee. Grove worked initially as the company's director of
engineering, and helped get its early manufacturing operations
started. In 1983, he wrote a book, High Output Management, in which he
described many of his methods and manufacturing concepts.
Intel primarily manufactured dynamic memory chips, DRAMs.
By 1985, with less demand for their memory, production problems, and
the challenges created by Japanese "dumping" of memory chips at
below-cost prices, Grove was forced to make radical changes. As a
result, he chose to discontinue producing DRAMs and focus instead on
manufacturing microprocessors. Grove played a key role in negotiating
IBM to use only
Intel microprocessors in all their new personal
The company's revenue increased from $2,672 in its first year to $20.8
billion in 1997. Grove was Intel's president in 1979, its CEO in 1987
and its Chairman and CEO in 1997. He relinquished his CEO title in May
1998, having been diagnosed with prostate cancer a few years earlier,
and remained chairman of the board until November 2004. Grove
continued his work at
Intel as a senior advisor and had been a
lecturer at Stanford University. He reflected back upon Intel's growth
through the years:
In various bits and pieces, we have steered
Intel from a start-up to
one of the central companies of the information economy.
Grove is credited with having transformed
Intel from a manufacturer of
memory chips into one of the world's dominant producers of
microprocessors. During his tenure as CEO, Grove oversaw a 4,500%
increase in Intel's market capitalization from $4 billion to $197
billion, making it the world's 7th largest company, with 64,000
employees. Most of the company's revenues were reinvested in research
and development, along with building new facilities, in order to
produce improved and faster microprocessors.
Management methods and style
Probably no one person has had a greater influence in shaping Intel,
Silicon Valley, and all we think about today in the technology world
than Andy Grove.
Pat Gelsinger, CEO of VMware
As director of operations, manufacturing became Grove's primary focus
and his management style relied heavily on his management concepts. As
the company expanded and he was appointed chairman, he became more
involved in strategic decision-making, including establishing markets
for new products, coordinating manufacturing processes and developing
new partnerships with smaller companies.
Grove helped create the
Intel Architecture Laboratory (IAL) in Oregon
to ensure that software was developed in time to take advantage of
their new microprocessors. Grove stated that "you are making decisions
about what the information technology world will want five years into
the future ..." He created a culture within
allowed innovation to flourish. As CEO, he wanted his managers to
always encourage experimentation and prepare for changes, making a
case for the value of paranoia in business. He became known for his
guiding motto: "Only the paranoid survive," and wrote a management
book with the same title.
According to Grove, "Business success contains the seeds of its own
destruction," explaining that "Success breeds complacency.
Complacency breeds failure. Only the paranoid survive." As a
result, he urges senior executives to allow people to test new
techniques, new products, new sales channels, and new customers, to be
ready for unexpected shifts in business or technology. Grove
biographer Jeremy Byman observes that Grove "was the one person at
Intel who refused to let the company rest on its laurels." Grove
explains his reasoning:
A corporation is a living organism; it has to continue to shed its
skin. Methods have to change. Focus has to change. Values have to
change. The sum total of those changes is transformation.
Intel Senior Vice President Ron Whittier notes that Grove preferred to
keep open channels of communication between employees, and encouraged
people to speak their minds: "People here aren't afraid to speak up
and debate with Andy." They termed this style "constructive
confrontation." According to Grove's successor at Intel, Craig
Barrett, "It's give and take, and anyone in the company can yell at
him. He's not above it." Grove insisted that people be demanding on
one another, which fostered an atmosphere of "ruthless
intelligence." About that philosophy, writes business author Ken
Goldstein, "you bought into it or got your walking papers."
Grove's office was an 8 by 9 ft (2.4 by 2.7 m) cubicle like
the other employees, as he disliked separate "mahogany-paneled corner
offices." He states, "I've been living in cubicles since 1978 — and
it hasn't hurt a whole lot." Preferring this egalitarian
atmosphere, this made his work area accessible to anyone who walked
by. There were no reserved parking spaces, and Grove parked wherever
there was a space. This atmosphere at work was partly a reflection
of his personal life. Some who have known him, such as venture
capitalist Arthur Rock, have stated that "he has no airs." Grove has
lived modestly without expensive cars or an airplane.
Grove was noted for making sure that important details were never
missed, with one of his favorite sayings being, "The devil is in the
Intel Vice President Dennis Carter states that "Andy is very
disciplined, precise, and detail oriented ... But at the same
time, he has an element of intuition and creativity that is
fundamental to Intel's innovation." According to Industry Week
magazine, Grove feared that the "brilliance that sparked the creation
of Intel" during its early years, "might come to nothing if somebody
didn't pay attention to details." Carter recalls that Grove would even
correct his spelling errors:
When he came to this country from Hungary in 1956, he didn't speak
English. Yet I learned spelling from him. Not only does he have the
instincts of a teacher, but he also has a great deal of patience.
Preference for a "job-centric" American economy
While Grove naturally supported helping technology startups, he also
felt that America was wrong in thinking that those new companies would
increase employment. "Startups are a wonderful thing," he wrote in a
2010 article for Bloomberg, "but they cannot by themselves increase
tech employment." Although many of those startups and
entrepreneurs would achieve tremendous success and wealth, said Grove,
he was more concerned with the overall negative effect on America:
"What kind of a society are we going to have if it consists of highly
paid people doing high-value-added work—and masses of
He felt that employment growth depended on those companies' ability or
willingness to scale up within the U.S. According to Grove, Silicon
Valley's "innovation machine" over the last few decades has not been
adding many jobs, although American tech companies have instead been
adding jobs in Asia "like mad." He noted that while our
investments in startups have increased dramatically, those investments
have in fact resulted in fewer jobs: "Simply put," he wrote, "the U.S.
has become wildly inefficient at creating American tech jobs." He
therefore worked to keep Intel's manufacturing in the U.S., with the
company having 90,000 employees in 2010. He explained the causes
and effects of many business's growth plans:
Each company, ruggedly individualistic, does its best to expand
efficiently and improve its own profitability. However, our pursuit of
our individual businesses, which often involves transferring
manufacturing and a great deal of engineering out of the country, has
hindered our ability to bring innovations to scale at home. Without
scaling, we don't just lose jobs—we lose our hold on new
technologies. Losing the ability to scale will ultimately damage our
capacity to innovate.
To remedy the problem, he strongly believed that "job creation" should
become America's number 1 objective, much as it is in Asian nations.
Among the methods he felt were worth considering was the imposition of
a tax on imported products, with the funds received then made
available to help American companies scale their operations here.
However, he also accepted the fact that his ideas would be
controversial: "If what I'm suggesting sounds protectionist, so be
it." Or that those protectionist steps could lead to conflicts
with our trade partners: "If the result is a trade war, treat it like
other wars—fight to win." He added:
All of us in business have a responsibility to maintain the industrial
base on which we depend and the society whose adaptability — and
stability — we may have taken for granted.
Grove was also in the minority of high-tech leaders when he advocated
taxing internet sales made to other states: "I don't think electronic
commerce needs federal or state subsidies in terms of tax advantages,"
he told a Congressional committee in 2000. At the same hearing, he
also expressed his opinion about internet privacy, stating that
"personal data is a form of property and it's inevitable that
governments will regulate property rights." He said that it would be
better if the federal government established its own uniform privacy
standards rather than have states create a patchwork of different
Writing & teaching
Grove was also a noted author and scientist. His first book on
semiconductors, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices
(1967), has been used by leading universities. Another book he
wrote on business operation methods, High Output Management (1983),
has been translated into 11 languages. He also wrote over 40 technical
papers and held several patents on semiconductor devices.
Grove wrote Only the Paranoid Survive, a business book, whose core
message is that a company in pursuit of a stronger competitive
advantage never rests.
He also taught graduate computer physics courses at the University of
California, Berkeley and the Stanford Graduate School of Business.
Grove School of Engineering-CCNY
In 2005, Grove made the largest donation that the City College of New
York (CUNY) has ever received. His grant of $26 million transformed
the CCNY School of Engineering into the Grove School of
Grove was also instrumental, as a key fundraiser, in establishing the
University of California, San Francisco's Mission Bay Campus, the
largest ongoing biomedical construction project in the world.
Chancellor Sam Hawgood said that Grove's "generous and tireless
support of UCSF has transformed our university and helped accelerate
our research into breakthrough treatments and better patient
UCSF Mission Bay campus
Among the research facilities which he helped fund were the UCSF
Prostate Cancer Center, the Helen Diller Family Cancer Research
Building, and the Clinical and Translational Science Institute. He
also promoted general surgery initiatives and supported various
obstetrics and gynecology research programs.
Grove was a longtime member of the International Rescue Committee
(IRC), along with being one of its overseers and a member of its Board
of Directors. He was also the founding supporter of the IRC's Pathways
to Citizenship program. In 2010, the IRC honored him as one of ten
distinguished refugees. In an interview in Esquire magazine in
2000, Grove encouraged the
United States to be "vigilant as a nation
to have tolerance for difference, a tolerance for new people." He
pointed out that immigration and immigrants are what made America what
Honors and awards
Grove received honorary degrees from the City College of New York
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (1989) and Harvard University
In 2004, the Wharton School of Business recognized him as the "Most
Influential Business Person of the Last 25 Years."
The 1st Annual Heinz Award in Technology, the Economy and
Employment. Grove received the award in 1995, and he was honored
by the foundation for representing a story "as old as America: the
story of a young immigrant rising to great success." The donors of the
award added that Grove "has played perhaps the single most pivotal
role in the development and popularization of the twentieth century's
most remarkable innovation – the personal computer."
On August 25, 2009,
California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
announced that Grove would be one of 13
California Hall of Fame
inductees in The
California Museum's yearlong exhibit. The induction
ceremony was on 1 December 2009 in Sacramento, California.
Strategic Management Society's Lifetime Achievement Award (2001)
IEEE Medal of Honor (2000)
Time Magazine's Man of the Year (1997)
"1997 Technology Leader of the Year", IndustryWeek.com, December 15,
Chief Executive's CEO of the Year (1997)
Medal of Achievement from the American Electronics Association
IEEE Engineering Leadership Recognition Award (1987)
Franklin Institute Certificate of Merit (1975)
A. S. Grove (1967). Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices.
Wiley. ISBN 0-471-32998-3.
A. S. Grove (1988). One on One With Andy Grove. Penguin Putnam.
A. S. Grove (1995). High Output Management. Random House.
ISBN 0-679-76288-4. (originally published in 1983)
A. S. Grove (1996). Only the Paranoid Survive. Doubleday.
A. S. Grove (2001). Swimming Across: A Memoir.
Robert Burgelman and A. S. Grove (2001). Strategy Is Destiny: How
Strategy-Making Shapes a Company's Future.
Robert A. Burgelman, Andrew S. Grove and Philip E. Meza (2005).
Strategic Dynamics: Concepts and Cases. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
^ a b c Grove, Andrew S. Swimming Across: a Memoir, Hachette Book
Group (2001) Prologue.
Andrew Grove dies aged 79", BBC, March 22, 2016.
^ a b "Andy Grove, Valley Veteran Who Founded Intel, Dies at 79",
Bloomberg, March 21, 2016.
^ a b Gaither, Chris (2001-11-12). "Andy Grove's Tale of His Boyhood
in Wartime". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
^ a b Kandall, Jonathan (21 March 2016). "Andrew S. Grove, Longtime
Chief of Intel, Dies at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March
^ a b Isaacson, Walter (1997-12-29). "TIME: Man Of The Year".
^ a b c Movers and Shakers: the 100 Most Influential Figures in Modern
Business, Basic Books (2003), pp. 205–207.
^ "Andy Grove's Last Stand".
^ This statement is corroborated by information shared in his
autobiography. See: Rudolf Höss, Death Dealer: The Memoirs of the SS
Auschwitz (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1992), p. 39.
^ "Andrew S. Grove Dies at 79;
Intel Chief Spurred Semiconductor
Revolution", New York Times, March 21, 2016.
^ Nocera, Andrew (2005-07-30). "From
Intel to Health Care to Beyond".
The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
^ Tedlow, Richard (2007). Andy Grove: The Life and Times of an
American Business Icon. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781591841821.
Retrieved 1 January 2015.
^ a b c d e "
Andrew Grove 1 of the 3 co-founders of
CrownHeights.info, July 18, 2007.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "1997 Technology Leader of the Year",
IndustryWeek.com, December 15, 1997.
^ Henderson, Harry. Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology,
Infobase Publishing (2009), p. 218.
^ a b Grove, Andrew. Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices,
John Wiley and Sons (1967)
^ "Intel's Long Awaited Return to the Memory Business".
www.realworldtech.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
Intel CEO Andy Grove Dies at 79", Wall Street Journal, March
^ a b Grove, Andrew. Only the Paranoid Survive, Doubleday (1996).
^ Byman, Jeremy.
Andrew Grove and the
Intel Corporation, Morgan
Reynolds (1999), p. 65.
^ a b "What I've Learned: Andy Grove", Esquire magazine, May 1, 2000
^ Goldstein, Ken. "The Many Lessons of Andy Grove", The Good Men
Project, April 26, 2016.
^ a b c d e f g Grove, Andrew. "Andy Grove: How America Can Create
Jobs", Bloomberg News, July 1, 2010
Intel CEO Chairman
Andrew Grove Dies at 79", Fox Business,
March 22, 2016.
^ "Andy Grove’s Warning to Silicon Valley", New York Times, March
^ a b "High-Tech Chiefs Lobby Key Issues at Capitol Hill Hearing",
Computerworld, June 12, 2000, p. 8.
^ a b c Koven, Steven G.; Gotzke, Frank. American Immigration Policy:
Confronting the Nation's Challenges, Springer Science (2010), p. 81.
^ Best, Roger (2013). Market-Based Management. Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 195. ISBN 9780130387752.
^ Hershenson, Jay; Arena, Michael (October 28, 2005). "Intel's Grove
gives $26 million to CCNY'S school of engineering". News Report. CUNY
Newswire. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
^ a b c "UCSF Mourns Loss of Andrew S. Grove (1936-2016)", UCSF, April
^ "Remembering Andrew Grove, IRC Overseer and champion of refugees",
Rescue.org, March 30, 2016.
^ The Heinz Awards,
Andrew Grove profile.
Strategic Management Society – Home Archived September 23, 2006,
at the Wayback Machine.
IEEE Medal of Honor Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved November 20,
^ CEO of the year 1997 Archived 2016-04-04 at the Wayback Machine..
David Packard Medal of Achievement
David Packard Medal of Achievement — Previous Winners (1959 to
TechAmerica Foundation. Archived from the original on
2011-07-19. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
IEEE Ernst Weber Engineering Leadership Recognition
IEEE Ernst Weber Engineering Leadership Recognition Recipients"
(PDF). IEEE. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
Tim Jackson (1998). Inside Intel: Andy Grove and the Rise of the
World's Most Powerful Chip Company. Plume.
Richard Tedlow (2006). Andy Grove. Penguin.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andrew Grove.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Andy Grove
Andrew S. Grove 1936 – 2016 from Intel.
Andrew S. Grove Biography, Engineering and Technology History Wiki.
"Andrew S. Grove collected news and commentary". The New York
Appearances on C-SPAN.
Awards and achievements
Time Persons of the Year
Charles Lindbergh (1927)
Walter Chrysler (1928)
Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young (1929)
Mohandas Gandhi (1930)
Pierre Laval (1931)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932)
Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson (1933)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934)
Haile Selassie (1935)
Wallis Simpson (1936)
Chiang Kai-shek /
Soong Mei-ling (1937)
Adolf Hitler (1938)
Joseph Stalin (1939)
Winston Churchill (1940)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941)
Joseph Stalin (1942)
George Marshall (1943)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944)
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman (1945)
James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes (1946)
George Marshall (1947)
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman (1948)
Winston Churchill (1949)
The American Fighting-Man (1950)
Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951)
Elizabeth II (1952)
Konrad Adenauer (1953)
John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles (1954)
Harlow Curtice (1955)
Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956)
Nikita Khrushchev (1957)
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle (1958)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959)
George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald
A. Glaser /
Joshua Lederberg /
Willard Libby /
Linus Pauling / Edward
Purcell / Isidor Rabi /
Emilio Segrè /
William Shockley / Edward
Teller / Charles Townes /
James Van Allen
James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960)
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy (1961)
Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII (1962)
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. (1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1964)
William Westmoreland (1965)
The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1967)
Apollo 8 Astronauts:
William Anders /
Frank Borman / Jim Lovell
The Middle Americans (1969)
Willy Brandt (1970)
Richard Nixon (1971)
Henry Kissinger /
Richard Nixon (1972)
John Sirica (1973)
King Faisal (1974)
Susan Brownmiller /
Kathleen Byerly /
Alison Cheek /
Jill Conway /
Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King /
Susie Sharp /
Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)
Jimmy Carter (1976)
Anwar Sadat (1977)
Deng Xiaoping (1978)
Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)
Ronald Reagan (1980)
Lech Wałęsa (1981)
The Computer (1982)
Ronald Reagan /
Yuri Andropov (1983)
Peter Ueberroth (1984)
Deng Xiaoping (1985)
Corazon Aquino (1986)
Mikhail Gorbachev (1987)
The Endangered Earth (1988)
Mikhail Gorbachev (1989)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1990)
Ted Turner (1991)
Bill Clinton (1992)
Yasser Arafat /
F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk /
Nelson Mandela /
Yitzhak Rabin (1993)
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II (1994)
Newt Gingrich (1995)
David Ho (1996)
Andrew Grove (1997)
Bill Clinton /
Ken Starr (1998)
Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999)
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (2000)
Rudolph Giuliani (2001)
The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper /
Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins
The American Soldier (2003)
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (2004)
The Good Samaritans:
Bill Gates /
Melinda Gates (2005)
Vladimir Putin (2007)
Barack Obama (2008)
Ben Bernanke (2009)
Mark Zuckerberg (2010)
The Protester (2011)
Barack Obama (2012)
Pope Francis (2013)
Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr.
Kent Brantly / Ella
Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah /
Salome Karwah (2014)
Angela Merkel (2015)
Donald Trump (2016)
The Silence Breakers (2017)
IEEE Medal of Honor
H. Earle Vaughan (1977)
Robert Noyce (1978)
Richard Bellman (1979)
William Shockley (1980)
Sidney Darlington (1981)
John Tukey (1982)
Nicolaas Bloembergen (1983)
Norman Ramsey (1984)
John Roy Whinnery (1985)
Jack Kilby (1986)
Paul Lauterbur (1987)
Calvin Quate (1988)
C. Kumar Patel (1989)
Robert G. Gallager
Robert G. Gallager (1990)
Leo Esaki (1991)
Amos E. Joel, Jr. (1992)
Karl Johan Åström (1993)
Alfred Y. Cho (1994)
Lotfi A. Zadeh
Lotfi A. Zadeh (1995)
Robert Metcalfe (1996)
George H. Heilmeier
George H. Heilmeier (1997)
Donald Pederson (1998)
Charles Concordia (1999)
Andrew Grove (2000)
ISNI: 0000 0001 1779 3471
BNF: cb120418372 (data)