Andover Theological Seminary
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Andover Theological Seminary (1807-1965) was a Congregationalist seminary founded in 1807 and originally located in
Andover, Massachusetts Andover is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phe ...
on the campus of
Phillips Academy ("Not for Self") la, Finis Origine Pendet ("The End Depends Upon the Beginning") , address = 180 Main Street , city = Andover Andover may refer to: Places ;In Australia: *Andover, Tasmania ;In Canada: * ...
. Andover Theological Seminary and
Newton Theological Institution Newton Theological Institution was a Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism ...
merged in 1965 to form the
Andover Newton Theological School Andover Newton Theological School (ANTS) was a graduate school and seminary in Newton, Massachusetts. Affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the United Church of Christ, it was an official open and affirming seminary, meaning tha ...
(1965-2018). In its original and merged forms, it was the first and thus the oldest
theological seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, ...
founded in the United States. The seminary continues as
Andover Newton Seminary at Yale Divinity School Andover Newton Seminary at Yale Divinity School is an American seminary A seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, or divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called ''seminarians'') in scriptu ...
launched in 2017.


History

Andover Theological Seminary traces its roots to the late 18th century and the desire for a well-educated clergy among Congregationalists in the United States. That desire was expressed in the founding of
Phillips Academy ("Not for Self") la, Finis Origine Pendet ("The End Depends Upon the Beginning") , address = 180 Main Street , city = Andover Andover may refer to: Places ;In Australia: *Andover, Tasmania ;In Canada: * ...
in 1778 for "the promotion of true Piety and Virtue". In 1806, a growing split within the Congregational churches, known as the Unitarian Controversy, came to a full boil on the campus of
Harvard College Harvard College is the undergraduate Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree A b ...
. The
Hollis Chair of Divinity The Hollis Chair of Divinity is an endowed chair A financial endowment is a legal structure for managing, and in many cases indefinitely perpetuating, a pool of financial Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money and i ...
sat empty at Harvard for two years owing to tensions between liberal and more orthodox
Calvinists Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the a ...
. This theological battle soon divided many of the oldest churches in Massachusetts and began to impact church polity and the hiring of ministers. When the
Harvard Board of Overseers The Harvard Board of Overseers (more formally The Honorable and Reverend the Board of Overseers) is one of Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the thi ...
appointed well-known liberal Henry Ware to the Hollis Chair in 1805, the Calvinists withdrew to organize and establish a new school in 1807, Andover Theological Seminary on the campus of
Phillips Academy ("Not for Self") la, Finis Origine Pendet ("The End Depends Upon the Beginning") , address = 180 Main Street , city = Andover Andover may refer to: Places ;In Australia: *Andover, Tasmania ;In Canada: * ...
(est. 1778) in
Andover, Massachusetts Andover is a town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phe ...
. This act, covered widely in the national press, was one of the significant events that contributed to the split in the denomination and to the eventual founding of the
American Unitarian Association The American Unitarian Association (AUA) was a religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; ...
in 1825 (which joined the
Universalists Universalism is the philosophical and theological concept that some ideas have Universal (metaphysics), universal application or applicability. A belief in one fundamental truth is another important tenet in universalism. The living truth is see ...
, founded in 1793, to become the
Unitarian Universalist Association Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) is a Liberal religion, liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalism, Unitarian Universalist congregations. It was formed in 1961 by the consolidation of the American Unitarian Association and th ...
in 1961). Andover was founded by the joint efforts of traditionalist, "Old Calvinists" and the adherents of the
New Divinity New England theology (or Edwardsianism) designates a school of theology which grew up among the Congregationalism in the United States, Congregationalists of New England, originating in the year 1732, when Jonathan Edwards (theologian), Jonathan Ed ...
(also known as
New England theology New England theology (or Edwardsianism) designates a school of theology which grew up among the Congregationalism in the United States, Congregationalists of New England, originating in the year 1732, when Jonathan Edwards (theologian), Jonathan E ...
) which was more revivalistic.
Leonard Woods Leonard or ''Leo'' is a common English language, English, German language, German, Irish language, Irish, and Dutch language, Dutch masculine given name and a surname. The given name and surname originate from the Old High German ''Leonhard'' cont ...
,
Moses Stuart Moses B. Stuart (March 26, 1780 – January 4, 1852) was an American biblical scholar. Life and career Moses Stuart was born in Wilton, Connecticut on March 26, 1780. He was brought up on a farm, then attended Yale University graduating with hig ...

Moses Stuart
, and
Edward Dorr Griffin Edward Dorr Griffin (6 January 1770 – 8 November 1837) was a Christian minister and an United States, American educator who served as President of Williams College from 1821 to 1836 and served as the first pastor of Park Street Church from 1811 t ...

Edward Dorr Griffin
were early faculty. Between 1886 and 1892, a theological dispute known as the "Andover Controversy" broke out between the conservative "New England Calvinism" of the founders and the liberal theology of many on the faculty. President E. C. Smyth was investigated and dismissed for his liberal views in 1887, but in 1891 his dismissal was reversed, on technical grounds, by the Massachusetts Supreme Court, and the matter was dropped the following year.


Relocations and merger

In 1908,
Harvard Divinity School Harvard Divinity School (HDS) is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and ...
and Andover attempted to reconcile, and the seminary moved its faculty and library to the Harvard campus (and soon into Andover Hall
911
911
. Plans for a formal affiliation between the academies were made, but the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts disallowed the alliance since Andover's endowment is designated for a Christian theological education. Andover, therefore, relocated to the campus of Newton Theological Institution in 1931. Andover Theological Seminary and the Newton Theological Institution formally merged in 1965 as the
Andover Newton Theological School Andover Newton Theological School (ANTS) was a graduate school and seminary in Newton, Massachusetts. Affiliated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the United Church of Christ, it was an official open and affirming seminary, meaning tha ...
(ANTS).
Newton Theological Institution Newton Theological Institution was a Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism ...
began instruction in 1825 at Newton Centre, Massachusetts as a graduate seminary formally affiliated with the group now known as
American Baptist Churches USA The American Baptist Churches USA (ABCUSA) is a mainline Mainline, ''Main line'', or ''Main Line'' may refer to: Transportation Railway * Main line (railway), the principal artery of a railway system * Main Line of Public Works, a railroad ...
, the oldest Baptist denomination in America. As the institution developed, it adopted Andover's curricular pattern and shared the same theological tradition of loyalty to the evangelical Gospel and zeal for its dissemination. In November 2015, ANTS announced that it would sell its campus and relocate to
Yale Divinity School Yale Divinity School (YDS) is one of the twelve graduate and professional schools of Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a ...
, after a presence of 190 years on that site.


Historical influence on Protestant missions

Prior to the founding of Andover and Newton, the model for the training of clergy was based on an undergraduate degree (actually the basis for the founding of most of the early colleges in the United States). The graduate model and the three year curriculum with a resident student body and resident faculty pioneered at Andover and Newton has become the standard for almost all of the 140 Protestant theological schools in the country. Reflecting that zeal, the modern missionary movement began in this country through a group of Andover students known as the Brethren. Both Andover and Newton quickly assumed leadership in the modern mission movement, drawing the two schools into close association of people and ideas. Graduates such as Luther Rice and
Hiram Bingham
Hiram Bingham
pioneered in Christian missions around the world.
Adoniram Judson Adoniram Judson, Jr. (August 9, 1788 – April 12, 1850) was an American Congregationalist and later Particular Baptist Reformed Baptists (sometimes known as Particular Baptists or Calvinistic Baptists) are Baptists that hold to a Calvin ...

Adoniram Judson
, an 1810 Andover alumnus, is best known for his work in Burma, where he translated the Bible into Burmese and produced the first Burmese-English dictionary.


Notable alumni

Alumni of Andover Theological Seminary include the following notables, listed in order of their last year at the Seminary. *
Adoniram Judson Adoniram Judson, Jr. (August 9, 1788 – April 12, 1850) was an American Congregationalist and later Particular Baptist Reformed Baptists (sometimes known as Particular Baptists or Calvinistic Baptists) are Baptists that hold to a Calvin ...

Adoniram Judson
, class of 1810, one of the first U.S. missionaries sent by the
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) was among the first American Christian missionary organizations. It was created in 1810 by recent graduates of Williams College. In the 19th century it was the largest and most impo ...
; later became a
Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete Immersion baptism, ...

Baptist
missionary to
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
, then known as Burma. *
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (December 10, 1787 – September 10, 1851) was an American educator. Along with Laurent Clerc and Mason Fitch Cogswell, Mason Cogswell, he co-founded the first permanent institution for the Education of the Deaf, educatio ...

Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
, class of 1814. *
Hiram Bingham
Hiram Bingham
, class of 1816, leader of the first group of missionaries to Hawaii; helped devise the first alphabet for the Hawaiian language. *
Samuel Worcester Samuel Austin Worcester (January 19, 1798 – April 20, 1859), was an American missionary to the Cherokee, translator of the Bible, printer, and defender of the Cherokee sovereignty. He collaborated with Elias Boudinot (Cherokee), Elias Boudino ...
, class of 1823, American pastor and Cherokee missionary; plaintiff in the Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
case. * David Oliver Allen, class of 1824, American
missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.Thomas Hale 'On Being a Missi ...

missionary
. *
Walter Colton Reverend Walter Colton (May 7, 1797 – January 22, 1851) was an American clergyman and writer from Vermont who served as the first American Alcalde (mayor) of Monterey, California. He worked as an editor for newspapers in Washington, D.C. and Ph ...

Walter Colton
, class of 1825, U.S. Navy chaplain, first American alcalde (mayor) of Monterey, California, co-publisher of California's first newspaper *
John William Yeomans John William Yeomans (January 7, 1800 – June 22, 1863) was a Presbyterian pastor, the second president of Lafayette College Lafayette College is a private school, private liberal arts college based in Easton, Pennsylvania, with a small satell ...

John William Yeomans
, class of 1827, Presbyterian pastor and second president of
Lafayette College Lafayette College is a private school, private liberal arts college based in Easton, Pennsylvania, with a small satellite campus in New York City. Founded in 1826 by James Madison Porter and other citizens in Easton, the school first held classe ...
* Nehemiah Adams, class of 1829, clergyman and author. *
Bela Bates Edwards Bela Bates Edwards (1802–1852) was an American man of letters. Biography Edwards was born at Southampton, Massachusetts, on 4 July 1802. He graduated at Amherst College in 1824, was a tutor there from 1827 to 1828, graduated at Andover Theologic ...
, class of 1830, Andover Theological Seminary faculty, 1837-1852; editor of ''American Quarterly Observer'', ''Biblical Repository'', and ''
Bibliotheca Sacra ''Bibliotheca Sacra'' is a theological journal published by Dallas Theological Seminary Dallas Theological Seminary (DTS) is an evangelical Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a world ...
''. *
William Adams
William Adams
, class of 1830, one of the founders of the
Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York Union commonly refers to: * Trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), ...
and later its president. * Asher Wright, class of 1831, missionary to the
Seneca people The Seneca () ( see, Onödowáʼga:, "Great Hill People") are a group of Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people ...
, and a linguist who developed a Seneca alphabet and translated large portions of the bible and other texts. *
Caleb Mills Caleb Mills (July 29, 1806 – October 17, 1879) was an American educator who served as the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Indiana and was the first faculty member at Wabash College. He played a central role in designing the public educat ...
, class of 1833, first professor of
Wabash College Wabash College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decade ...
and father of the
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
public education system. *
Samuel Francis Smith Samuel Francis Smith (October 21, 1808 – November 16, 1895) was an American Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believe ...

Samuel Francis Smith
, class of 1834, Baptist minister who wrote the words to "
My Country, 'Tis of Thee "America (My Country, 'Tis of Thee)" is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly kn ...

My Country, 'Tis of Thee
" while a seminary student. *
Samuel Harvey Taylor Samuel Harvey Taylor (October 3, 1807 – January 29, 1871) was an American educator and 6th List of Phillips Academy Heads of School, Principal of Phillips Academy Andover, Massachusetts, Andover from 1837 to 1871, the longest to hold the office ...
, class of 1837, 6th Principal of
Phillips Academy ("Not for Self") la, Finis Origine Pendet ("The End Depends Upon the Beginning") , address = 180 Main Street , city = Andover Andover may refer to: Places ;In Australia: *Andover, Tasmania ;In Canada: * ...
1837-1871 * George Frederick Magoun, class of 1847, co-founder and first president of Grinnell CollegeGrinnell College Libraries
Presidents of Grinnell College: George Magoun
. Accessed May 10, 2008.
* George Park Fisher, class of 1851, ecclesiastical historian, president of the American Historical Association in 1898 * Charles Augustus Aiken, class of 1853, Faculty at Dartmouth College and Princeton Theological Seminary; president of Union College. * Laurenus Clark Seelye, attended 1858-59, first president of Smith College * George Washburn (educator), class of 1859, professor of philosophy (1886), acting president (1870-1877) and later president (1877) of Robert College, Constantinople (now Istanbul), founding principal of American College, Madurai (1881). * Henry F. C. Nichols, class of 1864, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly * William Jewett Tucker, class of 1866, Andover Theological Seminary faculty, 1879-1893; editor of ''Andover Review''; founder of Andover House; president of Dartmouth College. *James Griswold Merrill, class of 1866, president of Fisk University (1901-1908). He graduated from Amherst College. *George Trumbull Ladd (1842 – 1921), class of 1869, was an American philosopher, educator and psychologist. He was the first foreigner to receive the Second (conferred in 1907) and Third (conferred in 1899) Orders of the Rising Sun. * Joseph Hardy Neesima, attended 1870-72, 1873–74, but did not graduate. Founder and president of Doshisha University in Japan. * Albert Edward Winship, educator * William Scott Ament, class of 1877, controversial Congregational missionary to China criticised by Mark Twain *Thomas Davidson Christie, class of 1877, Civil War Veteran, missionary in Turkey, President of Tarsus American College, St. Paul's College in Tarsus, papers at MNHS.org *Claude Black, class of 1943, noted pastor of Mt. Zion First Baptist Church, civil rights icon, politician.


References


Further reading

*


External links


Andover-Harvard Library Mission and History

Andover Newton Seminary at Yale
{{Authority control Seminaries and theological colleges in Massachusetts Educational institutions established in 1807 Defunct private universities and colleges in Massachusetts 1807 establishments in Massachusetts Andover Theological Seminary alumni, *