Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 states that Hyderabad
is common capital of both
Andhra Pradesh states for a
period of time not exceeding 10 years.
†† Common for
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Symbols of Andhra Pradesh
Maa Telugu Thalliki
Godavari, Krishna, Penna, Vamsadhara, Nagavali and Tungabhadra
Andhra Pradesh (/ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/)
( pronunciation (help·info)) is one of the 29 states of
India. The state, which is situated on the southeastern coast of the
country, is the eighth-largest state in
India covering an area of
162,970 km2 (62,920 sq mi). As per the 2011 Census
of India, the state is tenth-largest by population with 49,386,799
inhabitants. The largest city in the state is Visakhapatnam.
On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of
Andhra Pradesh was
separated to form a new state of Telangana. Andhra Pradesh's longtime
capital, Hyderabad, was transferred to
Telangana as part of the
division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2014,
Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of
Andhra Pradesh and
Telangana states for a period of time not
exceeding 10 years. The new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati,
is under the jurisdiction of the
Andhra Pradesh Capital Region
Development Authority (APCRDA). The Gross State Domestic Product
(GSDP) of the state in the 2018–2019 financial year at current
prices stood at ₹8.7 lakh crore (US$130 billion).
The state has a coastline of 974 km (605 mi) with
jurisdiction over nearly 15,000 km2 territorial waters, the
second longest coastline among the states of
Gujarat. It is bordered by
Telangana in the north-west, Odisha
in the north-east,
Karnataka in the west,
Tamil Nadu in the south and
the water body of
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of
30 km2 (12 sq mi) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry,
lies south of
Kakinada in the
Godavari delta on the east side of the
Andhra Pradesh is composed of three major regions: Coastal Andhra,
Uttarandhra and Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the
state. These three regions comprise 13 districts, with 3 in
Uttarandhra, 6 in
Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema. Visakhapatnam,
located on the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal in North
Coastal Andhra is the largest
city and commercial hub of the state with a GDP of $43.5 billion,
followed in population and GDP by Vijayawada, which is located on the
Krishna River and which has a GDP of $3 billion as of
Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in
tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third
most-visited Indian state. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in
Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with
18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centers in
Andhra Pradesh include the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti,
Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the
Ameen Peer Dargah in
Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the
Kanaka Durga Temple
Kanaka Durga Temple in
Prasanthi Nilayam in
Puttaparthi while the state's
natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill
stations such as the
Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, and the island of
Konaseema in the
Godavari River delta.
1.2 Early and medieval history
1.3 Modern history
1.4 Post independence
2.1 Natural vegetation and conservation
4 Administrative divisions
4.3 Revenue divisions
5 Government and politics
6.2 Industrial sector
7.1 Arts, crafts and artifacts
7.3 Music and films
8.4 Sea ports
9 Education and research
9.1.1 Space research organisation
11 See also
13 External links
Main article: History of Andhra Pradesh
A tribe named Andhra was mentioned in
Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya
Brahmana (800–500 BCE). According to
Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig
Veda, the Andhras left north
India and settled in south
India. The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names
Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and
Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic
literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of
their coins or inscriptions; it is possible that they were termed as
Andhras because of their ethnicity or because their territory included
the Andhra region.
Early and medieval history
Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati,
Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for Mauryan rule.
After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200
BCE, and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra
Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st
century BC to the 3rd century. The later Satavahanas made
Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the
Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana
lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The Andhra Ikshvakus, with
their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna
River valley in the later half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who
were originally executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were
not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were
swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in
the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the
Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th
and 6th centuries, and held sway over the entire Andhra country,
including Kalinga and parts of Telangana. They played an important
role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with
Eluru, Amaravathi and Puranisangam.
Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region
Godavari and Krishna with their capital at
Pedavegi) from 300 to 440 CE. The
Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi,
whose dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until
1130 C.E., eventually merged with the Chola empire. They continued to
rule under the protection of the
Chola empire until 1189 C.E., when
the kingdom succumbed to the
Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots
Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the
Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in
the fifth century CE.
Andhra Pradesh state for nearly 200 years and
constructed several forts. They were succeeded by the Musunuri
Reddy dynasty (1325–1448 CE) was established by Prolaya Vema
Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day
Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states
that started a movement against the invading Turkic
Muslim armies of
Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE and succeeded in repulsing them from
Warangal. They constructed
Kondaveedu Fort which they ruled
between 1328–1428, before it was taken over by the Gajpathis of
Orissa, and later ravaged by the
Muslim rulers of the Bahmani kingdom
in 1458. The
Krishnadevaraya captured it in 1516.
Golconda Sultans fought for the fort in 1531, 1536 and 1579, and
Quli Qutb Shah
Quli Qutb Shah captured it in 1579, renaming it Murtuzanagar.
Again it was reconquered by Vijayanagarans who overthrew sultunate
rule across the entirety of modern-day
Andhra Pradesh (excluding
Telangana). After this rebellion, the Bahmani sultans launched no
further military compaigns outside their kingdoms, because the
Marathas soon emerged as the strongest power in India.
Efforts are in progress to classify
Kondaveedu Fort as a UNESCO World
Heritage Site. Pemmasani Nayaks, the greatest kings during
Vijayanagara times ruled parts of
Andhra Pradesh state with Gandikota
as capital for nearly 300 years.
Lepakshi Nandi Bull
Vijayanagara Empire originated in the
Deccan Plateau region in the
early 14th century. It was established in 1336 by
Harihara Raya I and
Bukka Raya I of the Sangama Dynasty. The
empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new
heights in Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music
evolved into its current form. The
Lepakshi group of monuments are
culturally and archaeologically significant as it is the location of
shrines dedicated to Shiva,
Vishnu and Veerabhadra which were built
Vijayanagara Kings' period (1336–1646). The temples are
the location of mural paintings of the
Vijayanagara kings, dravidian
art, and inscriptions. Near the temple complex is a large granite
Nandi bull. On a hillock known as Kurma Saila, "tortoise shaped hill",
are other temples to Papanatheswara, Raghunatha, Srirama, and
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken the initiative for
including the "
Lepakshi Group of Monuments" among the UNESCO World
Heritage sites in India.
Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas
of Warangal, founded the
Vijayanagara Empire. In 1347 CE, an
Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah
Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi
Qutb Shahi dynasty
Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country
for about two hundred years from the early part of the sixteenth
century to the end of the seventeenth century.
In the early nineteenth century
Northern Circars was ceded to the
India Company and became part of the Madras Presidency.
Eventually this region emerged as the
Coastal Andhra region. Later the
Nizam rulers of
Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British that
eventually became the
Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control
of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad,
acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However,
Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the
Asaf Jahi Dynasty
Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of
Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the
Godavari delta, and (save
for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. In 1947
Vizianagaram was the largest
Hindu princely state in Andhra Pradesh.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam
wanted to retain the independence of the Princely
Hyderabad State from
India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the
Indian Union. The state of
Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the
Operation Polo in 1948.
Andhra State and Vishalandhra Movement
In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic
identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people
of Madras State,
Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. As Madras
became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated
"Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their
claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's
death, the Telugu-speaking area of
Andhra State was carved out of
Madras State on 1 October 1953, with
Kurnool as its capital city.
On the basis of the gentlemen's agreement of 1 November 1956, the
States Reorganisation Act
States Reorganisation Act formed
Andhra Pradesh by merging Andhra
State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad
Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The
Marathi-speaking areas of
Hyderabad State merged with
Bombay State and
the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.
In February 2014, the
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was
passed by the Parliament of
India for the formation of
comprising ten districts.
Hyderabad will remain as a joint capital for
not exceeding ten years. The new state of
Telangana came into
existence on 2 June 2014 after approval from the President of
India. Number of petitions questioning the validity of Andhra
Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 are long pending for verdict since
April 2014 before the supreme court constitutional bench.
Geography of Andhra Pradesh
Geography of Andhra Pradesh and List of districts of
Andhra Pradesh Topo Map
Map of Andhra Pradesh
Krishna River at Srisailam
The state has varied topography ranging from the hills of Eastern
Nallamala Hills to the shores of
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal that supports
varied ecosystems, rich diversity of flora and fauna. There are two
main rivers namely, Krishna and Godavari, that flow through the state.
The seacoast of the state extends along the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal from
Nellore district. The plains to the east of Eastern
Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The coastal plains are for the
most part of delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner
Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections
have local names. The
Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the
state's geography. The Kadapa
Basin[better source needed] formed by two arching
branches of the
Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The Ghats become
more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. Most
of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The
Rayalaseema region has semi-arid conditions.
Natural vegetation and conservation
Main article: Natural vegetation and Wildlife of Andhra Pradesh
Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Visakhapatnam
Andhra Pradesh Forest Department
Andhra Pradesh Forest Department deals with protection, conservation
and management of forests. The total forest cover of the state after
the bifurcation is left with an area of 22,862 km2. The
forest in the state can be broadly divided into four major biotic
provinces. They are:
East Coastal Plains
Eastern Ghats region is home to dense tropical forests, while the
vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau,
where shrub vegetation is more common. The vegetation found in the
state is largely of dry deciduous types with a mixture of teak,
Terminalia, Dalbergia, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, etc.
The state has many Sanctuaries,
National Parks and Zoological Parks
such as, Coringa, Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam
Tiger Reserve, Kambalakonda Wildlife Sanctuary, Sri Venkateswara
Indira Gandhi Zoological Park
Indira Gandhi Zoological Park etc. Atapaka Bird
Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary
Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary
attracts many migratory birds. The state possesses some rare and
endemic plants like Cycas beddomei,
Pterocarpus santalinus, Terminalia
pallida, Syzygium alternifolium, Shorea talura, Shorea tumburgia,
Psilotum nudum, etc. The diversity of fauna includes tigers,
panthers, hyenas, black bucks, cheetals, sambars, sea turtles and a
number of birds and reptiles. The estuaries of river
Krishna support rich mangrove forests with fishing cats and otters as
The climate of
Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the
geographical region. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal
plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of
the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and
41 °C. July to September is the season for tropical rains. About
one third of the total rainfall is brought by the northeast monsoon.
October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones
form in the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal which, along with the northeast monsoon,
bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state.
November, December, January, and February are the winter months in
Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters
are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally
12 °C to 30 °C.
Visakhapatnam district is
the only place in South
India which receives snowfall because of its
location as at 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above the sea level. It is
also nicknamed as the Kashmir of
Andhra Pradesh and the temperature
ranges from 0 °C to 10 °C.
Source:Census of India
Largest cities or towns in Andhra Pradesh
As per the 2011 Census
As of 2011[update] Census of India, the state had a population of
49,386,799 with a population density of 308/km2 (800/sq mi).
According to Polavaram ordinance bill 2014, 7 mandals of Khammam
Telangana state merged with
Andhra Pradesh to facilitate
polavaram project, due to which population of 2,47,515 added to Andhra
Pradesh. Thus final population of
Andhra Pradesh in the year 2014, as
per census 2011 is 4,96,34,314 ; with a density of 304.5/sqkm .
The total population constitute, 70.4% of rural population with
34,776,389 inhabitants and 29.6% of urban population with 14,610,410
inhabitants. Children in the age group of 0–6 years are 5,222,384,
constituting 10.6% of the total population, among them 2,686,453 are
boys and 2,535,931 are girls.
Visakhapatnam district has the largest
urban population of 47.5% and
Srikakulam district with 83.8%, has the
largest rural population, among others districts in the state. The
overall population of the state comprises 17.1% of Scheduled Caste and
5.3% of Scheduled Tribe population.
There are 24,738,068 male and 24,648,731 female citizens—a sex ratio
of 996 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 926
per 1000. The literacy rate of the state stands at 67.41%. However,
Post bifurcation from Telangana, the state is expected to reach 91.1%
by 2021. West
Godavari district has the highest literacy rate of
Vizianagaram district has the least with 58.9%.
Visakhapatnam is the most populous city in Andhra Pradesh, and the
14th-largest city in India
Religion in Andhra Pradesh
Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala
Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human
Development Index scores with a score of 0.416. The National
Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals
that Krishna, West
Godavari and Chittoor are the three districts in
rural AP with the highest
Human Development Index
Human Development Index scores in ascending
The official language of
Andhra Pradesh is Telugu. The
Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued a declaration of the Telugu
language as a Classical Language.
Majority of the people in
Andhra Pradesh are Hindus while Muslims
constitute a sizeable minority. According to the 2011 census, the
major religious groups in the state are Hindus (90.87%), Muslims
(7.32%) and Christians (1.38%). Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and the people
who declined to state their religion make up the remaining portion of
Sri Venkateswara Temple at
Tirupati is the world's second richest
temple and is visited by millions of devotees throughout the year.
Andhra Pradesh is home to Shankaracharya of Pushpagiri Peetham. Other
Hindu saints include Sadasiva Brahmendra, Bhaktha Kannappa, Yogi
Vemana, Sri Sathya Sai Baba, Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra
Buddha statue at
Bojjannakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam
Buddhism spread to
Andhra Pradesh early in its history. The Krishna
River valley was "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost
a thousand years." The ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna
Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be
traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."
The region played a central role in the development of Mahayana
Buddhism, along with the Magadha-area in northeastern India.
A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of
India and almost certainly in the Andhra country." According to
Xing, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajnaparamita
probably developed among the Mahasamghikas in Southern
in the Andhra country, on the Krishna River." The
Prajñāpāramitā Sutras belong to the earliest Mahayana
it comprised two regions:
Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. Now, the
state comprises two regions:
Main article: List of districts in Andhra Pradesh
It has a total of 13 districts, three in
Uttarandhra Sub part of
Costal Andhra Region, six in Costal Andhra Region and four in
Main article: List of Revenue Divisions in Andhra Pradesh
These 13 districts are further divided into 50 revenue divisions.
There are as many as 7 revenue divisions in East Godavari, and only 2
Main article: List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh
The 50 revenue divisions are in turn divided into 670 mandals.
Chittoor district has the most mandals with 66 and
the least with 34.
There are a total of 31 cities which include, 16 municipal
corporations and 14 municipalities. There are two cities with more
than one million inhabitants, namely
Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada.
Government and politics
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of Andhra Pradesh and Politics of Andhra
District Court, Guntur
Kadapa district Collectorate Complex
Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh
Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh is the lower house of the state
and legislative council of andhra pradesh is the upper house with 58
members. In the Parliament of India,
Andhra Pradesh has 11 seats in
the Rajya Sabha, and 25 seats in the Lok Sabha. There are a total
of 175 Assembly constituencies in the state. East
has the most number of constituencies with 19 and Vizianagaram
district has the least with 9 assembly seats. Whereas, the
legislative council of the state has 58 seats, which is one-third of
total assembly seats.
Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties namely Praja
Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in the
1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties
were eliminated and
CPI lost opposition party status. The first Chief
Minister of Andhra
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of
In 1983, the
Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T.
Rama Rao became the chief minister of the state for the first time.
This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from
1956 until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka
Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu
Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party. The
1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to
Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by
Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara
Reddy in 1992.
N. Chandrababu Naidu
N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief
minister (1995 to 2004). In 1994,
Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to
Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again.
Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the
backing of a majority of the MLAs. The
Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party won both the
Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of
In what would be the last elections held in the unified state, Telugu
Desam Party got a mandate in their favour in the residuary (new)state.
Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the chief of
Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party became Chief
Minister on 8 June 2014, for the new state of Andhra Pradesh.
Main article: Economy of Andhra Pradesh
Visakhapatnam is an important commercial hub of the state
Visakhapatnam Skyline, overlooking seaport
Andhra Pradesh was ranked eighth among other Indian states in terms of
GSDP for the financial year 2014–2015. The GSDP at current prices
was ₹5,200.3 billion (US$80 billion) and at constant prices was
₹2,645.21 billion (US$41 billion). The domestic product of
agriculture sector accounts for ₹545.99 billion
(US$8.4 billion) and Industrial sector for ₹507.45 billion
(US$7.8 billion). The service sector of the state accounts more
percentage of the GSDP with a total of ₹1,305.87 billion
(US$20 billion). In the 2010 list by
Forbes magazine, there
were several from
Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest
Lush green farms in Konaseema, East Godavari
Andhra Pradesh economy is mainly based on agriculture and livestock.
Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and
Thungabhadra flow through the state and provide irrigation. 60 percent
of population is engaged in agriculture and related activities. Rice
is the major food crop and staple food of the state. It is an exporter
of many agricultural products and is also known as "Rice Bowl of
India". The state has three
Agricultural Economic Zones in
Chittoor district for mango pulp and vegetables,
Krishna district for
Guntur district for chilies.
Besides rice, farmers also grow jowar, bajra, maize, minor millet,
coarse grain, many varieties of pulses, oil seeds, sugarcane, cotton,
chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Crops used for vegetable oil
production such as sunflower and peanuts are popular. There are many
multi-state irrigation projects under development, including Godavari
River Basin Irrigation Projects and
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
Livestock and poultry is also another profitable business, which
involves rearing cattle in enclosed areas for commercial purposes. The
state is also a largest producer of eggs in the country and hence, it
is nicknamed as "Egg Bowl of Asia".
Fisheries contribute 10% of total fish and over 70% of the shrimp
production of India. The geographical location of the state allows
marine fishing as well as inland fish production. The most exported
marine exports include Vannamei shrimp and are expected to cross
$1 billion in 2013–2014.
Tech Mahindra Development Centre, Visakhapatnam
The industrial sector of the state includes some of the key sectors
like Pharma, Automobile, Textiles etc.
Sricity located in Chittoor
district is an integrated business city which is home to many renowned
firms like PepsiCo, Isuzu Motors, Cadbury India, Kellogg's,
Kobelco etc. The
PepsiCo firm has its largest
India at Sri City.
The state is also emerging in information technology and
biotechnology. The IT/ITES revenues of
Visakhapatnam is at ₹14.45
billion (US$220 million) in 2012–2013. The development of IT in
Tier-II and Tier-III cities like Vijayawada,
also improving. In the fiscal year 2012–2013, Vijayawada's IT/ITeS
revenues were ₹1,153 million (US$18 million) crore. Tirupati
with ₹693 million (US$11 million) and
Kakinada with ₹615
million (US$9.4 million) stand next. For the benefit of
state i.e., After separating
Telangana from andhra, people of andhra
protested for special status during the month of January in 2017
Andhra Pradesh is one of the storehouses of mineral resources in
Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich
and variety of industrial minerals and building stones.
Andhra Pradesh is listed top in the deposit and production of mica in
India. Minerals found in the state include limestone, reserves of oil
and natural gas, manganese, asbestos, iron ore, ball clay, fire clay,
gold diamonds, graphite, dolomite, quartz, tungsten, steatitic,
feldspar, silica sand. It has about one third of India's limestone
reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of barytes and
galaxy granite in the international market.
Mining is identified as one of the growth engines for the overall
development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium
mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are
indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its
current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in
Reliance Industries Limited struck nine trillion cubic feet of gas
reserves in the KG basin, 150 km (93 mi) off the Andhra
Pradesh coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural
gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.
During the year 2016, nearly 134 trillion cubic feet of methane
hydrate deposits were explored in KG basin whose extraction is
adequate to impart energy security for many decades to India.
Main article: Power sector of Andhra Pradesh
The state is a pioneer nationwide in solar power generation. APGENCO
is the power generating company owned by the state. The state has
become power surplus with excess power generation being exported to
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station
Thermal (natural gas and coal based) and renewable power plants
totalling to 21,000 MW were installed in the state by the year 2015.
Local power plants of 9,600 MW capacity only are supplying
electricity in the state which includes Simhadri Super Thermal Power
Plant (2000 MW) of NTPC,
Vizag Thermal Power Station (1040 MW),
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station (1050 MW), Sri Damodaram Sanjeevaiah
Thermal Power Station (1600 MW),
Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant (1760
MW), etc. Hydel power plants are having a capacity of 1671 MW.
Main article: Culture of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has rich culture and heritage. Kuchipudi, the
state dance originated in the village of
Kuchipudi in Krishna
district, had entered the
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records for performing
Mahabrinda Natyam with a total of 6,117 dancers in Vijayawada. It
had thirteen geographical indications in categories of agricultural
handicrafts, foodstuff and textiles as per Geographical Indications of
Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999. It increased to
fifteen with the addition of Banaganapalle Mangoes and Bandar
laddu. The other GI tagged goods are, Bobbili Veena, Budithi Bell
and Brass Craft, Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas,
Guntur Sannam, Kondapalli Toys,
Machilipatnam Kalamkari, Mangalagiri
Sarees and Fabrics,
Tirupati Laddu, Uppada
Jamdani Sari and Venkatagiri Sari. and ponduru khaddaru.
Arts, crafts and artifacts
Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada
Srikalahasti Kalamkari are the two unique textile
art forms practised in India. There are also other notable
handicrafts present in the state, like the soft limestone idol
carvings of Durgi.
Visakhapatnam district is
notable for its
Lac industry, producing lacquered wooden.
The state has many museums, which features a varied collection of
ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and
inscriptions, and religious artifacts such as the Amaravati
Visakha Museum and Telugu Cultural Museum
Visakhapatnam displays the history of the pre-Independence and the
Victoria Jubilee Museum
Victoria Jubilee Museum in
Vijayawada with large collection of
Main article: Telugu literature
Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the
Mahabharata into Telugu language.
Nannayya wrote the
first treatise on Telugu grammar called Andhra Shabda Chintamani in
Sanskrit, as there was no grammatical work in Telugu prior to
Pothana is the poet who composed the classic Srimad Maha
Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatam.
Vemana is notable
for his philosophical poems. The
Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya
Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam
is termed as Adhunika Telugu Sahityam (Modern Telugu literature). He
is known as Gadya
Tikkana and was the author of Telugu social novel,
Jnanpith Award holders from the state include
C. Narayana Reddy
C. Narayana Reddy and Ravuri Bharadhwaja.
Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new
forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.
Music and films
Music of Andhra Pradesh
Music of Andhra Pradesh and Telugu theatre
See also: Shadow Puppets of Andhra Pradesh
Many composers of
Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and
Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music
composers and singers like Ghantasala, Sujatha Puligella and M.
Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry
hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P.
Balasubrahmanyam, P. Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Folk songs are
very important and popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms
such as the
Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.
Harikathaa Kalakshepam (or Harikatha) involves the narration of a
story, intermingled with various songs relating to the story.
Harikatha was originated in Andhra.
Burra katha is an oral
storytelling technique with the topic be either a
story or a contemporary social issue. Rangasthalam is an Indian
theatre in the Telugu language, based predominantly in Andhra
Gurazada Apparao wrote the play,
Kanyasulkam in 1892,
which is often considered the greatest play in the Telugu
C. Pullaiah is cited as the father of Telugu theatre
The Telugu film industry had largely shifted from
Hyderabad. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second
-largest film industry in
India next to
Bollywood Film Industry.
Prolific film producer from the state,
D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness
Record for the most number of films produced by a person. In the
years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the
largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films
produced in Bollywood. The industry holds the Guinness World
Record for the largest film production facility in the world.
Main article: Telugu cuisine
Telugu people's traditional sweet
Pootharekulu originated from
Atreyapuram village, Andhra Pradesh.
A Vegetarian Andhra Meal served on important occasions
Main article: Tourism in Andhra Pradesh
The state has several beaches in its coastal districts such as,
Rushikonda, Mypadu, Suryalanka etc.; caves such as, Borra
Indian rock-cut architecture
Indian rock-cut architecture depicting Undavalli
caves and the country's second longest caves named as Belum
Caves. The valleys and hills include, Araku Valley, Horsley
Papi Hills etc.
Arma Konda peak located in Visakhapatnam
district is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats.
The state is home to various religious pilgrim destinations such as,
Tirumala Temple, Simhachalam Temple, Annavaram, Srisailam temple,
Durga Temple, Amaravati,
Srikalahasti Kadiri temple, Shahi
jamia masjid in Adoni, Gunadala Church in Vijayawada, Buddhist centres
Nagarjuna Konda etc., and many more as well.
The state is well connected to other states through road and rail
networks. It is also connected to other countries by means of airways
and seaports as well. With a long seacoast along the Bay of Bengal, it
also has many ports for sea trade. The state has one of the largest
railway junctions at
Vijayawada and one of the largest seaports at
See also: APSRTC
Garuda Plus bus service of the APSRTC
Guntur Expressway section of NH-16
Andhra Pradesh consist of National Highways and state
highways with district roads as well. NH 5, with a highway network of
around 1,000 km (620 mi) in the state, is a part of Golden
Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development
Project. It also forms part of AH 45 which comes under the Asian
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the
major public bus transport owned by the state government which runs
thousands of buses connecting different parts of the state. Pandit
Nehru Bus Station (PNBS) in
Vijayawada is one of the largest bus
terminals in Asia.
See also: South Central Railway zone
Vijayawada railway station
Guntakal is one of the Major Junction in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh  has a total broad gauge railway route of
3703.25 km and has no metre gauge railway. The rail density
of the state is 16.59 per 1,000 km (620 mi), compared to an
India average of 20. The Howrah–
Chennai main line
which runs through the state is proposed to be upgraded into a
high-speed rail corridor through the
Diamond Quadrilateral project of
the Indian Railways.
The railway network spans two zones, further subdivided into divisions
Guntakal railway divisions of South Central
Railway zone., and
Waltair railway division
Waltair railway division of East Coast Railway
zone. There is a demand for creating a unified zone for the state
based out of Visakhapatnam.
There are three A1 and twenty three A-category railway stations in the
Visakhapatnam railway station has been declared the
cleanest railway station in the country. The railway station of
Shimiliguda was the first highest broad gauge railway station in the
See also: List of airports in Andhra Pradesh
Map of airports and airstrips of Andhra Pradesh
Visakhapatnam Airport, is the only airport in the state with operating
international flights while
Vijayawada Airport at Gannavaram is set to
launch international flights shortly. The state has four other
Rajahmundry Airport at Madhurapudi, at Renigunta,
Cuddapah Airport and a privately owned, public use airport at
Puttaparthi. There are also 16 small air strips located in the
See also: Ports and harbours of Andhra Pradesh
A view of
Andhra Pradesh has one of the country's largest port at Visakhapatnam
in terms of cargo handling. The other famous ports are
Krishnapatnam Port (Nellore),
Gangavaram Port and
Gangavaram Port is a deep seaport which can accommodate ocean liners
up to 200,000–250,000 DWT. There are 14 notified non-major
ports at Bheemunipatnam, S.Yanam, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu
Education and research
Main article: Education in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 67.41% as per the 2011
Indian census. The primary and secondary school education is
imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the
administration of the state School Education Department.
These schools include Municipal,
Andhra Pradesh Residential, Andhra
Pradesh Social Welfare Residential, Zilla Parishad, aided and unaided
private schools. There a total of 6,864,201 students
enrolled in 61,529 schools. The mediums of instruction are
Telugu, English, Urdu, Hindi, Kannada, Odia and Tamil.
The Directorate of Government Examinations of the state administers
the conduct of
Secondary School Certificate examination. 652,374
candidates took the 2016 exam and recorded a pass percentage of 94.52%
for regular and 55.47% by private candidates.
Higher education in the state is administered by the Department of
Higher Education. The central universities are All India
Medical Sciences, IIM Visakhapatnam, IIT Tirupati,
National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh and IIITDM
Kurnool, Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy. The
Government of Andhra Pradesh
Government of Andhra Pradesh established Rajiv Gandhi University of
Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the education needs
of the rural youth of Andhra Pradesh. As per the University
Grants Commission, GITAM,
K L University
K L University and
Vignan University are the
Deemed Universities in the state. There are 18 state universities
in the districts providing higher education in horticulture, law,
Vedic and veterinary.
Andhra University is
the oldest of the universities in the state, established in
Research institutes have been set up by the central state government.
Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL), National
Institute of Oceanography,
Visakhapatnam (NIO), School of Planning and
Vijayawada is an autonomous research institute under
Ministry of Human Resource Development
Ministry of Human Resource Development of Government of India,
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory carry out fundamental and
applied research in atmospheric and space sciences, Indian
Institute of Science Education and Research, Tirupati, Society
for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research,
Visakhapatnam Central Tobacco Research Institute,
control of ICAR (Indian Council of Agriculture Research) conducts
fundamental and applied research on Tobacco for the benefit of the
farming community, Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research (IIOPR)
Eluru in West
Godavari district serves as a centre
for conducting and co-ordinating research on all aspects of oil palm
conservation, improvement, production, protection, post-harvest
technology and transfer of technology, CCRH Regional Research
Institute at Gudivada, Clinical Research Institute at
National Institute of Oceanography at
Visakhapatnam are some of
Space research organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation (or
Sriharikota Range (SHAR)) at
barrier island of
Nellore district of
Andhra Pradesh is
a satellite launching station. It is India's primary orbital
launch site. India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the
centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.
Main article: Sports in Andhra Pradesh
The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which
looks after the infrastructure development in cricket, field hockey,
association football, Olympic weightlifting, chess, water sports,
tennis, badminton, table tennis, cycling, etc.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the state. The ACA-VDCA
Visakhapatnam is the home to
Andhra Pradesh cricket team.
The venue regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches.
Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include Maharajkumar of
Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, M. S. K. Prasad, V.V.S. Laxman,
Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju,
Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc. Humpy Koneru, from Gudivada
Krishna district of the state, is an Indian chess Grandmaster.
Karnam Malleswari, the first female Indian to win an Olympic medal,
Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. She won the bronze
medal on 19 September 2000, in the 69 kg category with a lift of
Krishnam Raju Gadiraju
Krishnam Raju Gadiraju of Bhimavaram,
Andhra Pradesh is a four-time
world record holder. He is a speedsolver and Unicyclist.
Pullela Gopichand, is a former Indian badminton player. He won the All
Badminton Championships (2001), to becoming the second
Indian to achieve it after Prakash Padukone.
Cherukuri Lenin 1985 or 1986 – 24 October 2010) was an Indian archer
and coach who won a silver medal at the Asian Grand Prix in Malaysia,
and was a National Archery Coach.
India – book
Index of Andhra Pradesh-related articles
Middle kingdoms of India
Part One of the Constitution of India
List of people from Andhra Pradesh
Luther Study Center
^ Survey-2016-17.pdf "Socio-economic Survey 2016–17" Check url=
value (help) (PDF). AP State Portal. Government of Andhra Pradesh.
p. 3. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
^ a b c d "Demography" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh
Government. Government of Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra Pradesh Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative
Research. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
^ a b c d "AP Socio-economic Survey 2016–17" (PDF). Official website
of Government of Andhra Pradesh. Government of Andhra Pradesh.
^ a b "The
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF).
Legislative Department. Ministry of
Law and Justice. 1 March 2014.
p. 2. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
^ "Capital City be named as "Amaravati"" (PDF).
Andhra Pradesh Capital
Region Development Authority. Municipal Administration & Urban
Development Department – Andhra Pradesh. 23 April 2015. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
Andhra Pradesh Budget Analysis 2016–17" (PDF). PRS Legislative
Research. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
^ "Length of coastline" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 26
^ "Yanam of Puducherry". Gov.t of Yanam. Archived from the original on
13 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
^ Shankarlal C. Bhatt (2006). Land and People of Indian States and
Union Territories (Volume 2 ed.). Gyan Publishing House. p. 15.
ISBN 978-81-7835-358-6. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
^ "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP". Yahoo Finance. 15 July
2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
^ Nicole Bippen (17 February 2014). "The 10 Richest Indian Cities".
The Richest. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
^ PTI (28 March 2016). "30% growth in AP tourist arrivals". The Hindu
Business Line. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
^ "World's Most-Visited Sacred Sites". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved 28
^ Dance Dialects of India. Ragini Devi. Motilal Bansarsi Dass.
ISBN 81-208-0674-3. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
^ "History of Andhra Pradesh". Government of Andhra Pradesh.
Associated Press. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012.
Retrieved 22 July 2012.
^ "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao.
Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. iv. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization.
New Age International. pp. 172–176.
^ Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya (1974). Some Early Dynasties of South India.
Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 17–56. ISBN 9788120829411.
^ Carla M. Sinopoli (2001). "On the edge of empire: form and substance
in the Satavahana dynasty". In Susan E. Alcock. Empires: Perspectives
from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 166–168. ISBN 978-0-521-77020-0.
^ Akira Shimada (2012). Early Buddhist Architecture in Context: The
Great St?pa at Amar?vat? (ca. 300 BCE-300 CE). BRILL.
pp. 33–40. ISBN 90-04-23283-4.
^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations.
Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-4381-0996-1.
^ David M. Knipe (2015).
Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living
Andhra Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–9.
^ Subramanian, K. R. Buddhist Remains in Andhra and the History of
Andhra Between 225 and 610 A.D. Asian Educational Services.
^ "Ancient and medieval history of Andhra Pradesh". P. Raghunadha Rao.
Sterling Publishers, 1993. p. 68. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
^ "History outline of Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). Board of Intermediate
Education, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 4 May 2017.
^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and
civilization By S. N. Sen. ISBN 9788122411980.
Eastern Chalukyas – Official AP State Government
AP State Portal".
^ "Age of Telugu language". The Hindu. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 31
^ Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian epigraphy : a guide to the
study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan
languages (1. publ. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
p. 106. ISBN 0-19-509984-2.
^ The History of Andhras,
Durga Prasad ("Archived copy" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2007. Retrieved
^ "Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15 1931". Kondaveedu. Digital South
Asia Library. p. 393. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
^ Sewell, Robert (1884). Lists of inscriptions, and sketch of the
dynasties of Southern India, Archaeological Survey of India.
Kondaveedu Reddy Chiefs…. E. Keys at the Government Press.
pp. 187–188. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
^ "Kondavid-durg near Guntur. 19 February 1804. Signed 'W.R.'".
British on line Gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
^ "Kondaveedu fort likely to get UNESCO heritage status".
^ Burgess, James (1872). Indian antiquary, Volume 1. Popular
^ Reporter, Staff (18 October 2015). "Stone from
Gandikota fort to be
used" – via www.thehindu.com.
^ By James Mansel Longworth page 204
^ edited by J C morris page 261
^ By Om Gupta, page 428-429
^ Historians such as
P. B. Desai (History of Vijayanagar Empire,
Henry Heras (The Aravidu Dynasty of Vijayanagara, 1927), B.A.
Saletore (Social and Political Life in the
Vijayanagara Empire, 1930),
G.S. Gai (Archaeological Survey of India), William Coelho (The Hoysala
Vamsa, 1955) and Kamath (Kamath 2001, pp. 157–160)
Andhra Pradesh eyes Unesco tag for its heritage sites". 15 April
^ Gopal, B. Madhu; Gopal, B. Madhu (20 March 2017). "Move to get world
heritage status for Sankaram" – via www.thehindu.com.
Lepakshi heritage". www.thehindubusinessline.com.
^ Voice, Amaravati. "
Lepakshi May Get World Heritage Status".
^ Robert Sewell, A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar): A contribution to
the history of India, Chapter 2 "A Forgotten Empire". 15 June
2016. [permanent dead link]
^ Richards, J. F. (1975). "The
Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707".
Modern Asian Studies. 9 (2): 241–260.
^ "Tributes paid to
Telangana martyrs". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18
^ "HYDERABAD: The Holdout". Time. 30 August 1948. Archived from the
original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
^ "Post-Independence Era, then and now". aponline.gov.in. Archived
from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
^ "Know Hyderabad: History". Pan
India Network. 2010. Archived from
the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
Telangana state formation gazette". The New Indian Express.
Retrieved 14 May 2014.
^ "Supreme court refers
Telangana petitions to constitution bench".
NDTV. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
Andhra Pradesh Fact File" (PDF). Official portal of Andhra Pradesh
Government. AP state portal. p. 2. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
Kadapa basin". Directorate General of Hydrocarbons. Retrieved 6
Forests in AP facts". AP Forest department. Archived from the
original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
^ a b c "Natural vegetation and wildlife". AP Forest Department.
Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 6 June
^ "The List of Wetlands of International Importance" (PDF). The Ramsar
Convention on Wetlands. The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands
(Ramsar, Iran, 1971). p. 20. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
^ Ganguly, Nivedita (17 September 2014). "
Lambasingi set to become
tourist hotspot". The Hindu. Visakhapatnam. Retrieved 26 November
Lambasingi records 2º c". Deccan Chronicle. Visakhapatnam. 16
December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
Literacy rate dismal in Telangana". 5 February 2016 – via
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Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
^ a b "Census of
India – Religious Composition". Government of
India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
^ "Human Development Report 2007" (PDF). APonline.gov.in. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 15 August
^ "Telugu Language". AP State Portal. Government of India. Archived
from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report
(July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic
Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India.
pp. 122–126. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012.
Retrieved 16 February 2012.
^ "Classical Language". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 9 June
^ "Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami". Mihira.com. Archived from the
original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
^ Davidson, Ronald. Tibetan Renaissance. Columbia 2005, pp. 29.
^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the
Krishna River Valley
of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, pg. 2.
^ Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the
Krishna River Valley
of Andhra. SUNY Press 2008, p.1
^ Peter Harvey (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History
and Practices, Cambridge University Press, p.108
^ Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 313
^ Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early
Buddhism to the Trikaya Theory. 2004. pp. 65–66
^ Williams, Paul. Buddhist Thought. Routledge, 2000, pages 131.
^ Williams, Paul.
Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations 2nd
edition. Routledge, 2009, pg. 47.
^ "Population of AP districts(2011)" (PDF). ap.gov.in. p. 14.
Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ "Part-I State Administrative Divisions 2001–2011" (PDF). Census of
India. p. 6. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
^ "Administrative and Geographical Profile" (PDF). msmehyd.ap.nic.in.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 3
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly". Archived from the original on
1 April 2005.
^ "DELIMITATION OF PARLIAMENTARY AND ASSEMBLY CONSTITUENCIES ORDER,
2008" (PDF). Election Commission of India. pp. 16–28. Retrieved
11 October 2014.
^ "Overview". AP Legislature. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved
23 May 2015.
^ "The Hindu, November 25, 2012". Chennai, India. 25 November 2012.
Retrieved 20 December 2013.
^ "The Hindu, on the election and Presidency". Chennai, India. 15 June
2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
^ "Length of time as Chief Minister". Retrieved 20 December
^ "CBN to be sworn as CM of Andhra on June 8th". Deccan-Journal.
Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June
^ "Indian states by GDP". Statistics Times. Retrieved 21 February
^ "Economy" (PDF). Official portal of
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^ "India's Richest". Forbes. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 31 January
^ Appaji Reddem. "Rice bowl of India". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 June
India Today. ABC-CLIO. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3.
Retrieved 15 November 2014.
^ "United AP stood second in agri exports". The Hindu. Vijayawada. 17
January 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
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Resources. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
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^ Mohanty, Muktikanta (2010). Macmillan's General Knowledge Manual
2010. Macmillan. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-230-32874-7. Retrieved 15
Special Correspondent. "AP top producer of shrimp: MPEDA". The
^ "Vannamei Hatcheries". Coastal Aquaculture Authority. Archived from
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^ "The $ Billion Andhra Shrimp exports". viscan.in.
^ "Firms in sricity". Sricity.in. Archived from the original on 9 May
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^ V Rishi Kumar (3 April 2015). "
PepsiCo inaugurates new facility at
Sri City". Business Line. Hyderabad. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
^ "IT/ITES revenues". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
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^ "ONGC hydrates discovery may be 4 times bigger than RIL's gas find".
Retrieved 7 September 2016.
^ "APGENGO overview". APGENCO. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
^ "Davos Visit will Boost Andhra Pradesh's Image, Says Naidu". The New
Indian Express. Vijayawada. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February
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^ Varma, P. Sujatha. "'
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^ Rao, G.V.R. Subba. "6,117
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September, 2003 – Till Date)" (PDF). Geographical Indication
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^ "Banaganapalle mangoes finally get GI tag". deccanchronicle.com/. 4
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^ Naidu, T. Appala. "
Bandar laddu gets GI tag". The Hindu. Retrieved
13 May 2017.
^ "Kalamkari: Craft of the matter". mid-day. Retrieved 26 January
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Andhra Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 11 March
^ Sarma, Rani (20 December 2015). "The lac industry of
An art form to cherish". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 March
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Comparative Study of Andhrasabdachintamani And Balavyakaranam.
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^ Thoomati Donappa. Telugu Harikatha Sarvasvam.
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