The Info List - Ancient India

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India
as it existed from pre-historic times to the start of Medieval India, which is typically dated (when the term is still used) to the end of the Gupta Empire.[1]


1 Geography of ancient India 2 General history of ancient India

2.1 Periodisation of Indian history 2.2 Indian pre-history 2.3 Iron Age (c. 1200 – 272 BCE) 2.4 Second Urbanisation 2.5 Classical Age 2.6 Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1500)

3 Culture in ancient India

3.1 Art in ancient India 3.2 Language in ancient India 3.3 Religion in ancient India

4 Science and technology in ancient India 5 Organizations concerned with ancient India

5.1 Museums with ancient Indian exhibits

6 Publications about ancient India 7 Scholars who have written about ancient India 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Geography of ancient India[edit] Ancient India
was composed of modern-day India, Pakistan, Afghanistan (some portions), Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan
and even Burma. General history of ancient India[edit] Further information: Timeline of Indian history Periodisation of Indian history[edit] An elaborate periodisation may be as follows:[2]

Indian pre-history including Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
(until c. 1750 BCE); Iron Age including Vedic period
Vedic period
(c. 1750-600 BCE); "Second Urbanisation" (c. 600-200 BCE); Classical period (c. 200 BCE-1200 CE);[note 1]

Pre-Classical period (c. 200 BCE-320 CE); "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE); Late-Classical period (c. 650-1200 CE);

Medieval period (c. 1200-1500 CE); Early Modern (c. 1500-1850); Modern period (British Raj and independence) (from c. 1850).

Indian pre-history[edit]

Neolithic Age India

Culture   (7570-6200 BCE) Mehrgarh
culture (c. 7000 – 2500 BCE)

Bronze Age India

Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
(c. 3300 – 1300 BCE) Ahar-Banas culture
Ahar-Banas culture
(c. 3000 - 1500 BCE)

Iron Age (c. 1200 – 272 BCE)[edit]

Iron Age India
(c. 1200 – 272 BCE)

Vedic civilization
Vedic civilization
(c. 1500 – 500 BCE)

Black and red ware culture
Black and red ware culture
(c. 1300 – 1000 BCE) (c. 1200 – 600 BCE) Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
(c. 700 – 200 BCE)

Indian Iron Age kingdoms (c. 700 – 300 BCE) Pandyan Kingdom (600 BCE - 1650 CE)

Second Urbanisation[edit]

Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
(425–321 BCE) Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
(321–184 BCE) Sangam Period
Sangam Period
(c. 300 BCE – 300 CE)

Pandyan Kingdom (c. 600 BCE – 1650 CE) Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BCE – 1102 CE) Chola Kingdom
Chola Kingdom
(c. 300 BCE – 1279 CE)

Pallava Kingdom
Pallava Kingdom
(250 BCE – 800 CE) Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (250s BCE – 5th century CE) Satavahana Empire (230 BCE – 220 CE) Indo-Scythian Kingdom (200 BCE – 400 CE) Kuninda Kingdom
Kuninda Kingdom
(3rd century BCE – 4th century CE) Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
(185–73 BCE) Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
(180 BCE – 10 CE) Kanva empire (75–26 BCE) Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
(30–375 CE)

Classical Age[edit]

(Middle kingdoms of India) Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire Vakataka Empire Chola Empire Pala Empire Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
(280–550 CE) Kadamba dynasty
Kadamba dynasty
(345–1000 CE)

Banavasi Halasi Hangal

Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1500)[edit]

Badami Chalukyas
Badami Chalukyas

Chalukya architecture Aihole Badami Pattadakal Mahakuta

Rashtrakuta Empire
Rashtrakuta Empire

Ellora Kailash Temple

Eastern Chalukyas Western Chalukyas
Western Chalukyas

Western Chalukya architecture Mahadeva Temple at Itagi Lakkundi Chaudayyadanapura Annigeri

Chaulukya (c. 944 - 1244) Kalachuris of Kalyani Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire

Belur Halebidu Somanathapura

Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire


Culture in ancient India[edit] Art in ancient India[edit]

Music in ancient India

Carnatic music Hindustani music

Language in ancient India[edit]

Vedic Sanskrit Proto-Dravidian Scripts

Tamil Brahmi Pallava Script Gupta script

Religion in ancient India[edit]

History of Hinduism

Exotic tribes of ancient India Historical Vedic religion

Vedas Vedic mythology Vedic priesthood

History of Buddhism

Science and technology in ancient India[edit]

Science and technology in ancient India

Indian mathematics Indian astronomy List of Indian inventions

Indian martial arts

Malla-yuddha Kalaripayattu

Ancient Indian medicine

Siddha medicine Ayurveda


Dravidian architecture Mughal architecture

Indian in Sanskrit epics

Organizations concerned with ancient India[edit] Museums with ancient Indian exhibits[edit]


Indian Museum, Kolkata Goa State Museum Government Museum, Bangalore Kutch Museum National Museum, New Delhi Patna Museum

United Kingdom

British Museum

Publications about ancient India[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (October 2016)

Scholars who have written about ancient India[edit]

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (October 2016)

See also[edit]

Media related to Ancient India
at Wikimedia Commons


^ Different periods are designated as "classical Hinduism":

Smart calls the period between 1000 BCE and 100 CE "pre-classical". It is the formative period for the Upanishads and Brahmanism[subnote 1] Jainism and Buddhism. For Smart, the "classical period" lasts from 100 to 1000 CE, and coincides with the flowering of "classical Hinduism" and the flowering and deterioration of Mahayana-buddhism in India.[4] For Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "Ascetic reformism",[5] whereas the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".[6] Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period". According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time.[7]


^ Smart distinguishes "Brahmanism" from the Vedic religion, connecting "Brahmanism" with the Upanishads.[3]


^ Stein 2010, p. 38. ^ Michaels 2004. ^ Smart 2003, p. 52, 83-86. ^ Smart 2003, p. 52. ^ Michaels 2004, p. 36. ^ Michaels 2004, p. 38. ^ Muesse 2003, p. 14.


Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Khanna, Meenakshi (2007), Cultural History Of Medieval India, Berghahn Books  Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Misra, Amalendu (2004), Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, SAGE  Muesse, Mark William (2003), Great World Religions: Hinduism  Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction, Fortress Press  Smart, Ninian (2003), Godsdiensten van de wereld (The World's religions), Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok  Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons  Thapar, Romila (1978), Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations (PDF), Orient Blackswan 

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