Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (English: /miːkoʊˈjɑːn/; 25 November
1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old
Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin,
Khrushchev and Brezhnev. He was the only Soviet politician who managed
to remain at the highest levels of power within the Communist Party of
the Soviet Union, as that power oscillated between the Central
Committee and the Politburo, from the latter days of Lenin's rule,
throughout the eras of
Stalin and Khrushchev, until his peaceful
retirement after the first months of Brezhnev's rule.
Mikoyan became an early convert to the
Bolshevik cause. He was a
strong supporter of
Stalin during the immediate post-
During Stalin's rule, Mikoyan held several high governmental posts,
including that of Minister of Foreign Trade. By the end of Stalin's
rule, Mikoyan began to lose favour with him, and in 1949, Mikoyan lost
his long-standing post of minister of foreign trade. In October 1952
at the 19th Party Congress
Stalin even attacked Mikoyan viciously.
Stalin died in 1953, Mikoyan again took a leading role in
policy-making. He backed
Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization policy
and became First Deputy Premier under Khrushchev. Mikoyan's position
Khrushchev made him the second most powerful figure in the
Soviet Union at the time.
Mikoyan made several key trips to communist
Cuba and to the United
States, acquiring an important stature on the international diplomatic
scene, especially with his skill in exercising soft power to further
Soviet interests. In 1964
Khrushchev was forced to step down in a coup
Brezhnev to power. Mikoyan served as Chairman of the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the nominal Head of State, from 1964
until his forced retirement in 1965.
1 Early life and career
1.1 Russian Revolution
2 Politburo member
3 World War II and de-Stalinization
4 Foreign diplomacy
4.2 United States
Cuba and the Missile Crisis
5 Head of state and coup involvement
6 Death, personality, and legacy
8 Decorations and awards
10 Further reading
Early life and career
Caucasus trio: From left to right, Mikoyan, Joseph
Mikoyan was born to Armenian parents in the village of Sanahin, then a
part of the
Yelizavetpol Governorate of the
Russian Empire (presently
a part of Alaverdi in Armenia's Lori Province) in 1895. His father,
Hovhannes, worked as a carpenter and his mother was a rug weaver. He
had one younger brother, Artem Mikoyan, who would go on to become the
co-founder of the
MiG aviation design bureau which became one of the
primary design bureaus of fast jets in Soviet military aviation.
Mikoyan received his education at the
Nersisian School in
Gevorgian Seminary in
Vagharshapat (Echmiadzin), both affiliated
with the Armenian Apostolic Church. Religion, however, played an
increasingly insignificant role in his life. He would later remark
that his continued studies in theology drew him closer to atheism: "I
had a very clear feeling that I didn't believe in God and that I had
in fact received a certificate in materialist uncertainty; the more I
studied religious subjects, the less I believed in God." Before
becoming active in politics Mikoyan had already dabbled in the study
of liberalism and socialism.
At the age of twenty, he formed a workers' soviet in Echmiadzin. In
1915 Mikoyan formally joined the
Bolshevik faction of the Russian
Social Democratic Labour Party (later known as the
and became a leader of the revolutionary movement in the Caucasus.
His interactions with Soviet revolutionaries led him to Baku, where he
became the co-editor for the Armenian-language newspaper
Sotsyal-Demokrat and later for the Russian-language paper Izvestia
Bakinskogo Soveta. During this time, he is said to have robbed a
Tiflis with TNT and had his nose broken in street fighting.
After the February 1917 revolution that toppled the Tsarist
government, Mikoyan and other Bolsheviks fought against anti-Bolshevik
elements in the Caucasus. Mikoyan became a commissar in the newly
Red Army and continued to fight in
Baku against anti-Bolshevik
forces. He was wounded in the fighting and was noted for saving the
life of fellow Party-member Sergo Ordzhonikidze. Afterwards, he
continued his Party work, becoming one of the co-founders of the Baku
Soviet, which lasted until 1918, when he and twenty-six other
Baku and were captured by the Transcaspian Government.
Known as the
Baku 26, all the commissars were executed with the sole
exception of Mikoyan; the circumstances of his survival are shrouded
in mystery. In February 1919 Mikoyan returned to
Baku and resumed
his activities there, helping to establish the
Baku Bureau of the
Caucasus Regional Committee (Kraikom).
A. Badayev, Mikoyan, and
Sergei Kirov at a bread factory in Leningrad
Mikoyan supported Stalin, whom he had first met in 1919, in the power
struggle that followed Lenin's death in 1924; he had become a
member of the
Bolshevik Central Committee in 1923. As People's
Commissar for External and Internal Trade from 1926, he imported ideas
from the West, such as the manufacture of canned goods. In 1935 he
was elected to the Politburo and was among one of the first Soviet
leaders to pay goodwill trips to the United States in order to boost
economic cooperation. Mikoyan spent three months in the United States,
where he not only learned more about its food industry but also met
and spoke with
Henry Ford and inspected
Macy's in New York. When he
returned, Mikoyan introduced a number of popular American consumer
products to the Soviet Union, including American hamburgers, ice
cream, corn flakes, popcorn, tomato juice, grapefruit and corn on the
Mikoyan spearheaded a project to produce a home cookbook, which would
encourage a return to the domestic kitchen. The result, The Book of
Tasty and Healthy Food (Книга о вкусной и
здоровой пище, Kniga o vkusnoi i zdorovoi pishche), was
published in 1939, and the 1952 edition sold 2.5 million copies.
Mikoyan helped initiate the production of ice cream in the USSR and
kept the quality of ice cream under his own personal control until he
Stalin made a joke about this, stating, "You, Anastas,
care more about ice cream, than about communism." Mikoyan also
contributed to the development of meat production in the USSR
(particularly, the so-called Mikoyan cutlet), and one of the
Soviet-era sausage factories was named after him.
In the late 1930s
Stalin embarked upon the Great Purge, a series of
campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union
orchestrated against members of the Communist Party, as well as the
peasantry and unaffiliated persons. In assessing Mikoyan's role in the
Simon Sebag-Montefiore states that he "enjoyed the
reputation of one of the more decent leaders: he certainly helped the
victims later and worked hard to undo Stalin's rule after the Leader's
death." Mikoyan tried to save some close-knit companions from being
executed, though he was not without his faults. In 1936 he
enthusiastically supported the execution of
Grigory Zinoviev and Lev
Kamenev, claiming it to be a "just verdict." As with other leading
officials in 1937, Mikoyan signed death-lists given to him by the
NKVD. The purges were often accomplished by officials close to
Stalin, giving them the assignment largely as a way to test their
loyalty to the regime.
In September 1937
Stalin dispatched Mikoyan, along with Georgy
Malenkov and Lavrentiy Beria, with a list of 300 names to Yerevan, the
capital of the
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), to oversee
the liquidation of the Communist Party of
Armenia (CPA), which was
largely made up of Old Bolsheviks. Mikoyan tried, but failed, to save
one from being executed during his trip to Armenia. That person was
arrested during one of his speeches to the CPA by Beria. Over a
thousand people were arrested and seven of nine members of the
Armenian Politburo were sacked from office. In several instances,
he intervened on behalf of his colleagues; this leniency towards the
persecuted may have been one reason why he was selected by
oversee the purges in the ASSR.
World War II and de-Stalinization
Anastas Mikoyan with
Nikita Khrushchev (sitting left) in Berlin, 1957
In September 1939,
Nazi Germany and the
Soviet Union each carved out
their own spheres of influence in Poland and Eastern Europe via the
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The Soviets arrested 26,000 Polish officers
in the eastern portion of Poland and in March 1940, after some
Stalin and five other members of the Politburo, Mikoyan
included, signed an order for their execution as "nationalists and
counterrevolutionaries". When Germany invaded the
Soviet Union in
June 1941, Mikoyan was placed in charge of organizing the
transportation of food and supplies. His son Vladimir, a pilot in the
Red Air Force, died in combat when his plane was shot down over
Stalingrad. Mikoyan's main assignment throughout the war was
Red Army with materials, food and other necessities.
Mikoyan became a
Special Representative of the State Defense Committee
in 1941 by Stalin's orders; he was until that point not a member
because Beria believed he would be of better use in government
administration. Mikoyan was decorated with a Hero of Socialist
Labor in 1943 for his efforts. In 1946 he became the Vice-Premier of
the Council of Ministers.
Shortly before his death in 1953,
Stalin considered launching a new
purge against Mikoyan, Vyacheslav Molotov, and several other Party
leaders. Mikoyan and others gradually began to fall out of favor and,
in one instance, were accused of plotting against Stalin. Stalin's
plans never came to fruition, however, as he died before he could put
them into motion. Mikoyan originally argued in favor of keeping
Stalin's right-hand man Beria from punishment but later gave in to
popular support among Party members for his arrest. Mikoyan remained
in the government after Stalin's death, in the post of Minister of
Trade, under Malenkov. He supported
Nikita Khrushchev in the power
struggle to succeed Stalin, and became First Deputy Premier in
recognition of his services.
In 1956 Mikoyan helped
Khrushchev organize the Secret Speech, which
Khrushchev delivered to the 20th Party Congress, that denounced
Stalin's personality cult. It was he, and not Khrushchev, who made
the first anti-Stalinist speech at the 20th Congress. Along with
Khrushchev, he helped roll back some of the stifling restrictions on
nationalism and culture imposed during Stalin's time. In 1954, he
visited his native
Armenia and gave a speech in Yerevan, where he
Armenians to republish the works of Raffi and the purged
writer Yeghishe Charents.
In 1957 Mikoyan refused to back an attempt by Malenkov and Molotov to
Khrushchev from power; he thus secured his position as one of
Khrushchev's closest allies. He backed
Khrushchev because of his
strong support for de-Stalinization and his belief that a triumph by
the plotters might have given way to purges similar to the ones in the
1930s. In recognition of his support and his economic talents,
Khrushchev appointed Mikoyan First Deputy Premier and liked to
playfully describe him as "My rug merchant."
Mikoyan talking to
Wilhelm Pieck in East Berlin, East Germany, 1954.
In October 1956 Mikoyan was sent to the People's Republic of Hungary
to gather information on the developing crisis caused by the
revolution against the communist government there. Together with
Mikhail Suslov, Mikoyan traveled to
Budapest in an armored personnel
carrier, in view of the shooting in the streets. He sent a telegram to
Moscow reporting his impressions of the situation. "We had the
Ernő Gerő especially, but the other comrades as
well, are exaggerating the strength of the opponent and
underestimating their own strength," he and Suslov wrote. Mikoyan
strongly opposed the decision by
Khrushchev and the Politburo to use
Soviet troops, believing it would destroy the Soviet Union's
international reputation, instead arguing for the application of
"military intimidation" and economic pressure. The crushing of the
revolution by Soviet forces nearly led to Mikoyan's resignation.
Khrushchev's liberalization of hard-line policies led to an
improvement in relations between the
Soviet Union and the United
States during the late 1950s. As Khrushchev's primary emissary,
Mikoyan visited the United States several times. Despite the
volatility of the
Cold War between the two superpowers, many Americans
received Mikoyan amiably, including Minnesota Democrat Hubert
Humphrey, who characterized him as someone who showed a "flexibility
of attitude" and New York governor Averell Harriman, who described him
as a "less rigid" Soviet politician.
During November 1958
Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn
Berlin into an independent, demilitarized "free city", giving
the United States, Great Britain, and France a six-month ultimatum to
withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West
Berlin, or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the
East Germans. Mikoyan disapproved of Khrushchev's actions, claiming
they violated "Party principle."
Khrushchev had proposed the ultimatum
to the West before discussing it with the Central Committee. Ruud van
Djik, a historian, believed Mikoyan was angry because Khrushchev
didn't consult him about the proposal. When asked by
ease tension with the United States, Mikoyan responded, "You started
it, so you go!"
However, Mikoyan eventually left for Washington, which was the first
time a senior governing member of the USSR's Council of Ministers
visited the United States on a diplomatic mission to its leadership.
Furthermore, Mikoyan approached the mission with an unprecedented
informality, beginning with phrasing his visa request to US Embassy as
"a fortnight's holiday" to visit his friend, Mikhail Menshikov, the
then Soviet Ambassador to the United States. While the White House was
taken off guard by this seemingly impromptu diplomatic mission,
Mikoyan was invited to speak to numerous elite American organizations
such as the
Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations and the
Detroit Club in which
he professed his hopes for the USSR to have a more peaceful
relationship with the US. In addition to such well received
engagements, Mikoyan indulged in more informal opportunities to meet
the public such as having breakfast at a
Howard Johnson's restaurant
on the New Jersey Turnpike, visiting
Macy's Department Store in New
York City and meeting celebrities in
Jerry Lewis and
Sophia Loren before having an audience with President Dwight
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. Although
Mikoyan failed to alter the US's
Berlin policy, he was hailed in
the US for easing international tensions with an innovative emphasis
on soft diplomacy that largely went over well with the American
Mikoyan disapproved of Khrushchev's walkout from the 1960 Paris Summit
over the U-2 Crisis of 1960, which he believed kept tension in the
Cold War high for another fifteen years. However, throughout this
time, he remained Khrushchev's closest ally in the upper echelons of
the Soviet leadership. As Mikoyan later noted,
[in] inexcusable hysterics".
In November 1963 Mikoyan was asked by
Khrushchev to represent the USSR
at President John F. Kennedy's funeral. At the funeral ceremony,
Mikoyan appeared visibly shaken by the president's death and was
approached by Jacqueline Kennedy, who took his hand and conveyed to
him the following message: "Please tell Mr. Chairman [Khrushchev] that
I know he and my husband worked together for a peaceful world, and now
he and you must carry on my husband's work."
Cuba and the Missile Crisis
The Soviet government welcomed the overthrow of Cuban President
Fulgencio Batista by Fidel Castro's pro-socialist rebels in 1959.
Khrushchev realized the potential of a Soviet ally in the Caribbean
and dispatched Mikoyan as one of the top diplomats in Latin America.
He was the first Soviet official (discounting Soviet intelligence
officers) to visit
Cuba after the revolution, and secured important
trade agreements with the new government. He left
Cuba with a very
positive impression, saying that the atmosphere there made him feel
"as though I had returned to my childhood."
Khrushchev told Mikoyan of his idea of shipping Soviet missiles to
Cuba. Mikoyan was opposed to the idea, and was even more opposed to
giving the Cubans control over the Soviet missiles. In early
November 1962, after the United States and the
Soviet Union agreed to
a framework to remove Soviet nuclear missiles from Cuba, Khrushchev
dispatched Mikoyan to
Havana to help persuade Castro to cooperate in
the withdrawal. Just prior to beginning negotiations with
Castro, Mikoyan was informed about the death of his wife, Ashkhen, in
Moscow; rather than return there for the funeral, Mikoyan opted to
stay and sent his son Sergo there instead.
Castro was adamant that the missiles remain but Mikoyan, seeking to
avoid a full-fledged confrontation with the United States, attempted
to convince him otherwise. He told Castro, "You know that not only in
these letters but today also, we hold to the position that you will
keep all the weapons and all the military specialists with the
exception of the 'offensive' weapons and associated service personnel,
which were promised to be withdrawn in Khrushchev's letter [of October
27]." Castro balked at the idea of further concessions, namely the
removal of the Il-28 bombers and tactical nuclear weapons still left
in Cuba. But after several tense and grueling weeks of negotiations,
he finally relented and the missiles and the bombers were removed in
December of that year.
Head of state and coup involvement
On 15 July 1964, Mikoyan was appointed as Chairman of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet, replacing Leonid Brezhnev, who received a
promotion within the Party. Mikoyan's new position was largely
ceremonial; it was noted that his declining health and old age were
Some historians are convinced that by 1964 Mikoyan believed that
Khrushchev had turned into a liability to the Party, and that he was
involved in the October 1964 coup that brought
Brezhnev and Alexei
Kosygin to power. However,
William Taubman disputes this, as
Mikoyan was the only member of the Presidium (the name for the
Politburo at this time) to defend Khrushchev. Mikoyan, however, did
vote to force Khrushchev's retirement (so as, in traditional Soviet
style, to make the vote unanimous). Alone among Khrushchev's
colleagues, Mikoyan wished the former leader well in his retirement,
though he never spoke to him again. Mikoyan laid a wreath and sent a
letter of condolence at Khrushchev's funeral in 1971.
Due to his partial defense of
Khrushchev during his ouster, Mikoyan
lost his high standing with the new Soviet leadership. The Politburo
forced Mikoyan to retire from his seat in the Politburo due to old
age. Mikoyan quickly also lost his post as head of state and was
succeeded in this post by
Nikolai Podgorny on 9 December 1965.
Brezhnev officialised Mikoyan's retirement by awarding him an Order of
Death, personality, and legacy
Khrushchev and other companions, Mikoyan in his last days
wrote frank but selective memoirs from his political career during
Stalin's rule. Mikoyan died on 21 October 1978, at the age of 82,
from natural causes and was buried at
Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.
He received six commendations of the Order of Lenin. Mikoyan, in a
description by Simon Sebag-Montefiore, was "slim, circumspect, wily
and industrious". He has been described as an intelligent man,
understanding English, having learned German on his own by translating
the German version of Karl Marx's
Das Kapital into Russian. Unlike
many others, Mikoyan was not afraid to get into a heated argument with
Stalin. "One was never bored with Mikoyan", Artyom Sergeev notes,
Khrushchev called him a true cavalier. However, Khrushchev
warned of trusting "that shrewd fox from the east." In a close
Vyacheslav Molotov and Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin
referred to Mikoyan as a "duckling in politics"; he noted, however,
that if Mikoyan ever took a serious shot he would improve. Mikoyan
had so many children, five boys and the two sons of the late Bolshevik
leader Stepan Shahumyan, that he and his wife faced economic problems.
His wife Ashkhen would borrow money from Politburo wives who had fewer
children. If Mikoyan had discovered this he would, according to his
children, have become furious.
Mikoyan was defiantly proud of his Armenian identity, pointing out: "I
am not a Russian.
Stalin is not a Russian." He and
Stalin were said to
share a toast: "To hell with all these Russians!" However, in
Armenia he is a divisive and controversial figure like
some other Soviet-era Armenian officials. His critics argue that
he, as a loyal servant to Stalin, is responsible for the deaths of
thousands during the 1930s purges when many Armenian intellectuals
were assassinated. According to academician Hayk Demoyan, he
"symbolizes evil, mass murders, and an atmosphere of fear." His
supporters argue that he was a major figure on global political stage
and usually point to his role in the Cuban missile crisis.
Dubbed the Vicar of Bray of politics and known as the "Survivor"
during his time, Mikoyan was one of the few Old Bolsheviks who was
spared from Stalin's purges and was able to retire comfortably from
political life. This was highlighted in a number of popular sayings in
Russian, including "From Ilyich [Lenin] to Ilyich [Brezhnev] ...
without heart attack or stroke!"(Ot Ilyicha do Ilyicha bez infarkta i
paralicha). One veteran Soviet official described his political
career in the following manner: "The rascal was able to walk through
Red Square on a rainy day without an umbrella [and] without getting
wet. He could dodge the raindrops."
Paul Whitehouse played Mikoyan in the 2017 satirical film The Death of
Decorations and awards
Hero of Socialist Labour
Order of Lenin, six times
Order of the October Revolution
Order of the Red Banner
^ Mikoyan, Stepan A. (1999). Stepan Anastasovich Mikoyan: An
Autobiography. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing. p. 522.
^ a b c d e f Միկոյան, Անաստաս Հովհաննեսի
[Mikoyan, Anastas Hovhannesi] (in Armenian). vii. Yerevan: Armenian
Academy of Sciences. 1981. p. 542.
Staff writer (16 September 1957). "Russia: The Survivor". Time.
p. 2. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
^ a b
Staff writer (23 December 1958). "Mikoyan: Soviet Union's Shrewd
Trader". Milwaukee Sentinel. p. 7. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
^ a b
Staff writer (16 September 1957). "Russia: The Survivor". Time.
p. 4. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 214.
^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First
Year, 1918–1919, Vol. I. Berkeley: University of California Press.
p. 401. ISBN 0-520-01984-9.
^ For more on Mikoyan's and Stalin's first encounter see Stephen
Kotkin, Stalin: Volume I: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928. New York:
Penguin Press, 2014, p. 465.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 192–193n.
^ Russell, Polly; The history cook; The Financial Times (FT Weekend
Magazine), 17/18 August 2013, p36.
^ (in Russian) Bogdanov, Igor A. Лекарство от скуки,
или, История мороженого. Moscow: Novoe
literaturnoe obozrenie, 2007, p. 100.
^ (in Russian) "Цены на ассортимент ТД
^ a b Montefiore 2005, p. 256.
^ Tucker, Robert (1992).
Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above,
1928–1941. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 488–489.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 333.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 463.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 373.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 383.
^ Vasilyevich, Ufarkinym Nikolai. Анастас Иванович,
Микоян [Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich] (in Russian). warheroes.ru.
Retrieved 27 January 2011.
^ Service, Robert, Stalin: A Biography. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press
of the Harvard University Press, 2005, pp. 533, 577-80.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 662.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 666.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 652.
Staff writer (16 September 1957). "Russia: The Survivor (page 5)".
Time. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
^ Matossian, Mary Kilbourne. The Impact of Soviet Policies in Armenia.
Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1962, p. 201.
^ Laqueur, Walter (1990). Russia and Germany: A Century of Conflict.
New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 313.
^ Mikoyan, Anastas; Suslov, Mikhail (24 October – 4 November 1956).
Soviet Documents on the Hungarian Revolution, 24 October – 4
Cold War International History Project Bulletin.
Government of the Soviet Union. pp. 22–23 and 29–34.
Retrieved 19 January 2011.
Note: See the Mikoyan-Suslov Report of 24 October in Johanna
^ Békés, Csaba, Malcolm Byrne, M. János Rainer. The 1956 Hungarian
Revolution: A History in Documents. Budapest: Central European
University Press, 2003, p. xv. ISBN 963-9241-66-0.
^ Taubman, William (2004). Khrushchev: The Man and His Era. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company. p. 312. ISBN 0-393-32484-2.
Staff writer (26 January 1959). "Foreign Relations: Down to Hard
Cases". Time. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved
19 January 2011.
^ Taubman 2004, p. 409.
^ Kaplan, Fred (2009). 1959: The Year Everything Changed
([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley & Sons.
pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-470-38781-8.
^ a b c Van Djik, Ruud (2008). Encyclopedia of the Cold War. 1. New
York: Taylor & Francis. p. 586.
^ Kaplan (2009). 1959. p. 13.
^ Newman, Kitty (2007). Macmillan,
Khrushchev and the
1958–1960. New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 175.
^ Leffler, Melvyn P. (2007). For the Soul of Mankind: The United
States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War. New York: Hill and Wang.
p. 192. ISBN 0-8090-9717-6.
^ According to then
Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Jacqueline Kennedy's
message was much shorter and to the point: "My husband's dead. Now
peace is up to you": Douglass, James W (2008). JFK and the
Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters. New York: Simon and
Schuster. p. 380. ISBN 1-4391-9388-6.
^ Taubman 2004, pp. 532–533.
^ See Mikoyan, Sergo; Svetlana Savranskaya (ed.) The Soviet Cuban
Missile Crisis: Castro, Mikoyan, Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Missiles
of November. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012.
^ Taubman 2004, pp. 580ff.
^ Khrushchev, Sergei; Benson, Shirley (2008).
Nikita Khrushchev and
the Creation of a Superpower. 1. University Park, PA: Penn State
Press. pp. 652–653. ISBN 0-271-02170-5.
^ Savranskaya, Svetlana. "The Soviet Cuban Missile Crisis: Castro,
Mikoyan, Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Missiles of November." George
^ Matthews, Joe. "Cuban Missile Crisis: The Other, Secret One." BBC
News Magazine. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
Staff writer (24 July 1964). "Russia: Successor Confirmed". Time.
p. 1. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
^ Taubman 2004, pp. 3–17.
^ Khrushchev, Nikita (2006).
Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Reformer,
1945–1964. 2. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State Press.
p. 700. ISBN 0-271-02332-5.
^ Brown, Archie (2009). The Rise and Fall of Communism. New York:
Ecco. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-06-113879-9.
Staff writer (17 December 1965). "Russia: Kicks, Upstairs &
Down". Time. p. 1. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011.
Retrieved 14 February 2011.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 669.
^ a b c Montefiore 2005, p. 83n.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 52.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 12n., 43–44.
^ "Controversial Soviet Leader's Statue in
Yerevan an Exercise in
Rewriting History?". Hetq. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
^ a b Poghosyan, Yekaterina (29 May 2014). "Stalin's Man Mikoyan to
Get Statue in Yerevan". Institute for War and Peace Reporting.
Retrieved 25 June 2014.
^ Jebeyan, Hripsime (4 June 2014). ""'Mikoyan's statue will not be
erected, I am more than confident.' Hayk Demoyan"". Aravot. Retrieved
25 June 2014.
^ "The Death of Stalin".
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Memoirs Of Military Test-Flying And Life With The
Kremlin's Elite. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1999.
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