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Amritsar
Amritsar
( pronunciation (help·info);Punjabi pronunciation: [əmːɾɪt̪səɾ]), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India
India
which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha
Majha
region of the Indian state of Punjab.

Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
in Amritsar

According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar
Amritsar
was 1,132,761 and it is the second most populous city of Punjab. It is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city[3]. The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh
Chandigarh
and 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border
Wagah Border
being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away. The closest major city is Lahore, the second largest city in Pakistan, located 50 km (31.1 mi) to the west. Amritsar
Amritsar
is home to the Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
(commonly known as the Golden Temple), the spiritual and cultural centre for the Sikh
Sikh
religion. This important Sikh
Sikh
shrine attracts more visitors than the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
with more than 100,000 visitors on weekdays alone and is the most popular destination for non-resident Indians (NRI) in the whole of India.[citation needed] The city also houses the Akal Takht Sahib, the highest seat of earthly authority of the Khalsa, and the committee responsible for the upkeep of Gurdwaras. The Ram Teerath
Ram Teerath
situated at Amritsar
Amritsar
is believed to be the Ashram
Ashram
site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.[4] As per the Ramayana, Sita
Sita
gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama
Rama
at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore
Lahore
and Kasur
Kasur
were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha
Ashvamedha
Yagna
Yagna
by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman
Hanuman
to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu
Hindu
population of the city to visit that temple.[5] The main commercial activities of Amritsar
Amritsar
include tourism, carpets and fabrics, farm produce, handicrafts, service trades, and light engineering. The city is known for its rich cuisines, culture, and for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
in 1919 under British Rule. Amritsar
Amritsar
is home to Central Khalsa
Khalsa
Orphanage, which was once home to Udham Singh, a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement. Gandhi Ground is the main sports complex in the city which is home to the Amritsar Games Association, (AGA). Amritsar
Amritsar
has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.[6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
massacre 1.2 Partition of 1947 1.3 Operation Blue Star

2 Geography and climate

2.1 Administrative towns

3 Demographics 4 Religion 5 Transport

5.1 Air 5.2 Rail 5.3 Road 5.4 Amritsar
Amritsar
BRTS

6 Tourist places in Amritsar 7 Educational institutions 8 Notable residents 9 Twin towns / cities 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

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Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
listening to Shri Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
being recited near the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
in Amritsar

Amritsar
Amritsar
is one of the largest cities of the Punjab state of India. The city origin lies in the village of Tung, and was named after the lake founded by the fourth Sikh
Sikh
Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
in 1574 on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.[7] Earlier, Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 (according to one source in 1570). It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das
Guru Ram Das
built his residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das.) Amritsar's central walled city has narrow streets mostly developed in the 17th and 18th century. The city is a peculiar example of an introverted planning system with unique areas called Katras. The Katras are self-styled residential units that provided unique defence system during attacks on the city. Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
massacre[edit] Main article: Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
massacre

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre

Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises

The Jallianwala Bagh
Jallianwala Bagh
massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa
Khalsa
( Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
day). In the Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi
New Delhi
and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India
India
as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
(1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India
India
in January 1915, and Annie Besant
Annie Besant
(1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India
India
as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India
India
at an early date".[8] On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
put the number of the dead between 20 and 30. Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379. The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed. Partition of 1947[edit] Main article: Partition of British India Partition of British India
India
into India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
had a most profound effect on the demographics, economics, culture, political and social structures of Amritsar. The state of Punjab was divided between India and Pakistan
Pakistan
and Amritsar
Amritsar
became a border city, often on the front lines of India- Pakistan
Pakistan
wars. Prior to partition, the Muslim league wanted to incorporate Amritsar
Amritsar
into Pakistan
Pakistan
because of the Amritsar's proximity to Lahore
Lahore
(a distance of 30 miles) and a nearly 50% Muslim population,[citation needed] but the city became part of India. The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
had similar aims of incorporating Lahore
Lahore
into India
India
as Lahore
Lahore
was the cultural, economic, and political capital of undivided Punjab and Hindus and Sikhs
Sikhs
constituted nearly 50% of the population, but Lahore
Lahore
became a part of Pakistan. Amritsar
Amritsar
and Lahore experienced some of the worst communal riots during the partition of India. Muslim residents of Amritsar
Amritsar
left the city en-masse leaving their homes and property behind because of violent anti-Muslim riots in Amritsar. Similar scenes of communal carnage against Hindus and Sikhs
Sikhs
were witnessed in Lahore
Lahore
and led to their mass evacuation.[citation needed] Important Muslim dominated villages in Amritsar district
Amritsar district
prior to partition include Sultanpur, Kala Afgana, Abdul Kalan, Rasheed Bal, Lahorie, Shahpur, Shahkot, Alipur, Aliwal, Allahbad, Fatehbad, Chak, Guza Chak, Jattan, Cheema. Operation Blue Star[edit] Main article: Operation Blue Star Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star
(1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India[9] to curb and remove Sikh
Sikh
militants from the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army
Indian army
troops with tanks and armoured vehicles.[10] Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated.[11] Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star
was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India
India
Today magazine.[12] Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army
Indian army
at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh
Sikh
militants killed.[13][14] In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh
Sikh
Reference Library before burning it down.[15] [16] Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh
Sikh
bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 3,000 Sikhs
Sikhs
were killed in anti- Sikh
Sikh
pogroms.[17] Within the Sikh community itself, Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star
has taken on considerable historical significance. Geography and climate[edit] Amritsar
Amritsar
is located at 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.63°N 74.87°E / 31.63; 74.87[18] with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft). Amritsar
Amritsar
has a semiarid climate, typical of Northwestern India
India
and experiences four seasons primarily: winter season (December to March) with temperature ranges from 0 °C (32 °F) to about 15 °C (59 °F), summer season (April to June) where temperatures can reach 42 °C (108 °F), monsoon season (July to September) and post-monsoon season (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 681 millimetres (26.8 in).[19] The lowest recorded temperature is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), was recorded on 22 May 2013.[20][21]

Climate data for Amritsar

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 29.0 (84.2) 31.1 (88) 35.7 (96.3) 41.9 (107.4) 48.1 (118.6) 46.2 (115.2) 42.0 (107.6) 37.2 (99) 36.5 (97.7) 34.6 (94.3) 29.3 (84.7) 23.2 (73.8) 48.1 (118.6)

Average high °C (°F) 19.3 (66.7) 22.2 (72) 27.4 (81.3) 34.0 (93.2) 38.7 (101.7) 40.1 (104.2) 35.4 (95.7) 34.3 (93.7) 34.5 (94.1) 32.4 (90.3) 26.9 (80.4) 21.3 (70.3) 30.5 (86.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.6 (52.9) 13.9 (57) 18.7 (65.7) 25.1 (77.2) 29.9 (85.8) 32.1 (89.8) 30.2 (86.4) 29.7 (85.5) 28.3 (82.9) 23.8 (74.8) 17.9 (64.2) 12.9 (55.2) 22.8 (73)

Average low °C (°F) 3.9 (39) 6.5 (43.7) 11.3 (52.3) 16.6 (61.9) 21.1 (70) 25.1 (77.2) 25.7 (78.3) 25.3 (77.5) 23.0 (73.4) 16.3 (61.3) 9.0 (48.2) 4.6 (40.3) 15.7 (60.3)

Record low °C (°F) −3.5 (25.7) −1.6 (29.1) 2.6 (36.7) 5.7 (42.3) 7.7 (45.9) 13.8 (56.8) 14.0 (57.2) 15.0 (59) 10.5 (50.9) 4.6 (40.3) 1.7 (35.1) −2.7 (27.1) −3.5 (25.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 24 (0.94) 33 (1.3) 48 (1.89) 29 (1.14) 25 (0.98) 62 (2.44) 231 (9.09) 187 (7.36) 79 (3.11) 18 (0.71) 6 (0.24) 18 (0.71) 760 (29.91)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.4 2.0 2.6 1.5 1.3 3.1 8.2 8.1 3.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 35.8

Average relative humidity (%) 74 70 64 47 38 48 72 77 69 67 73 76 64.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 181.7 192.7 219.4 265.0 294.7 269.0 215.5 227.7 240.8 253.2 220.1 182.2 2,762

Source: [20][22]

Administrative towns[edit]

Ajnala Attari Beas Budha Theh Chheharta Sahib Jandiala Guru Majitha Rajasansi Ramdass Rayya Verka Town

Demographics[edit] See also: List of cities in Punjab and Chandigarh As of the[update] 2011 census, Amritsar
Amritsar
municipality had a population of 1,132,761[1] and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,183,705.[2] The municipality had a sex ratio of 879 females per 1,000 males and 9.7% of the population were under six years old.[1] Effective literacy was 85.27%; male literacy was 88.09% and female literacy was 82.09%.[1] The scheduled caste population is 28.8%[23] Religion[edit] Amritsar
Amritsar
is the holiest city of the Sikhs. The 2011 Census of India
India
recorded Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sikhism
Sikhism
as the main religions of Amritsar
Amritsar
city with respectively 49.36% and 48% of the population following them. However, Sikhs
Sikhs
form a majority of close to 70% in the Amritsar District
Amritsar District
including the rural areas and some of the other towns. In Amritsar
Amritsar
city, Christianity was followed by 1.23% and Islam by 0.51%. Around 0.74% of the population of the city stated 'No Particular Religion' or another religion.[24]

Located in Amritsar, Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
is the holiest shrine of Sikhism.

Durgiana Temple
Durgiana Temple
in Amritsar
Amritsar
city is dedicated to Hindu
Hindu
goddess Durga.

Transport[edit] The city lies on the main Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
(GT Road) from Delhi
Delhi
to Amritsar
Amritsar
connecting to Lahore
Lahore
in Pakistan. The G. T. Road, built by Sher Shah Suri, runs through the whole of the northern half of the Indian subcontinent, connecting Peshawar, Pakistan
Pakistan
to Sonargaon, Bangladesh. The city is also connected to most other major cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta by an extensive network of rail system. The city also provides air connectivity to major Indian cities, as well as foreign cities such as Birmingham, Toronto, Dubai, Singapore, Tashkent, Ashgabat, London
London
etc. from Guru Ramdas International Airport (formerly the Raja Sansi International Airport). The airport is being developed for increasing demand in future; a new[when?] International inbound and outbound terminal is operational, and a cargo terminal is under construction. The city is the administrative centre for the Amritsar
Amritsar
District. However, it did not become the industrial centre of Punjab because of its proximity to the volatile Indo- Pakistan
Pakistan
border. Air[edit]

Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport
in Amritsar

Amritsar's international airport, Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport, has more than 400 domestic and international flights during the week with daily connections to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Srinagar
Srinagar
and Jammu
Jammu
etc. in India
India
and international flights to London
London
(Heathrow), Melbourne
Melbourne
and Sydney
Sydney
via Delhi. Also it has direct flights to Birmingham, Doha, Ashgabat, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Tashkent
Tashkent
and Dubai.Demands are being raised by various organisations,local politicians and individuals to airline companies to check the potential of the airport.The Airport being located on the strategic location of NRI Hub will prove to be a major success if various airlines starts non-stop flights to various trade and business centres in Europe,Asia,North America and Australia. Rail[edit] Amritsar
Amritsar
is connected by rail to almost every major city in India. Amritsar railway station
Amritsar railway station
is the main terminus. The Samjhauta Express runs from Delhi
Delhi
through Amritsar
Amritsar
to Lahore
Lahore
in Pakistan. Indian Railways
Indian Railways
has proposed a high-speed rail line to serve Delhi- Amritsar
Amritsar
via Panipat-Ambala-Chandigarh-Ludhiana-Jalandhar.[citation needed] The train is to run at high speeds of 160 km/h, second only in India to the Bhopal
Bhopal
Shatabdi Express. It will travel the 445 km between the two cities in 2.5 hours (compared to the current time of 5 hours). Companies from Japan, China, UK and Canada have expressed an interest in the project. The contract for building the line were to be awarded at the end of May 2008. Other lines of this kind have proposed in Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, and Kolkata.[25][26][27] Amritsar
Amritsar
railway station has 6 platforms namely 1a.1–5 and there are proposals for expanding it to 10 to 12 platforms.[citation needed] Important Trains :

Amritsar
Amritsar
Shatabdi Express New Delhi
New Delhi
Amritsar
Amritsar
Swarna Shatabdi Express Amritsar
Amritsar
Haridwar Jan Shatabdi Express Chhattisgarh Express

Road[edit]

Amritsar
Amritsar
Inter State Bus Stand

Amritsar
Amritsar
is located on the historic Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
(G.T Road), also known as National Highway 1, and therefore very well connected to the road network. Daily bus services run to and from Ambala, Patiala, Delhi, Chandigarh
Chandigarh
and Jammu. Rs 450,000,000 is being spent to expand the Amritsar- Jalandhar
Jalandhar
stretch of G.T. Road to four lanes. In 2010, elevated road with four lanes connected to the National highway for better access to the Golden Temple
Golden Temple
has been started.[28] For transportation within Amritsar
Amritsar
city, rickshaws, auto rickshaws, taxis and buses are available.Bike Taxis are recently launched in the city and gradually gaining popularity.Currently there are more than 200 bike taxis serving in the city under app-based giants Ola and Uber. Inter-city buses are available from Amritsar
Amritsar
to Chandigarh, Delhi, Shimla, Jalandhar
Jalandhar
and Ludhiana,Dehradun among other cities. Amritsar
Amritsar
BRTS[edit] The government of Punjab pledged Rs. 580 crore (100 million dollars) for the Amritsar BRTS for the city.[29] It is hoped that Amritsar
Amritsar
BRTS will help relieve traffic congestion and improve air quality. The Amritsar BRTS (or Amritsar
Amritsar
Metrobus) has commenced operations and is open to the public in some areas and rest is work in progress. City bus service is also present in the city. Amritsar
Amritsar
is also connected with Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan
via the old Grand Trunk Road. Tourist places in Amritsar[edit]

Charles W. Bartlett, Amritsar
Amritsar
(The Lake by the Golden Temple) 1920

Harmandir Sahib Partition Museum Shivala Mandir Valmeki Tirth Partition Museum,Town Hall Gobindgarh Fort Durgiana Temple Jallianwala Bagh Wagah Border Model Town Temple Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Museum Pul Kanjri Sadda Pind Punjab State War Heroes Memorial ISKCON Amritsar RamTirath

Educational institutions[edit]

Khalsa
Khalsa
College

Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health

Vidya Sagar Institute of Mental Health

Indian Institute of Management, Amritsar Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar
Amritsar
College of Engineering and Technology BBK DAV College for Women, Amritsar Delhi
Delhi
Public School, Amritsar Global Institute, Amritsar Government Medical College, Amritsar Guru Nanak Dev University Khalsa
Khalsa
College, Amritsar St. Francis School, Amritsar Punjab Institite of Textile Technology, Amritsar D.A.V. College, Amritsar Sacred Heart Senior Secondary School, Amritsar Amritsar
Amritsar
Public School,Amritsar Saroop Rani Government woman collage, Amritsar

Notable residents[edit]

Abdul Hameed, writer Akshay Kumar, Indian actor Amrinder Gill, Punjabi singer Baba Deep Singh, General Bhagat Puran Singh, Environmentalist Bhagat Singh Thind,[30] US Sikh
Sikh
Leader Bharti Singh, Indian stand-up comedian Bhisham Sahni, Hindi writer Bishan Singh Bedi, cricketer Chandan Prabhakar, comedian Dalbir Chetan, Punjabi short-story writer[31] Dara Singh, wrestler-Indian actor Deepa Mehta, Indo-Canadian filmmaker Deepti Naval, Indian actress Geeta Bali, Indian actress Ghulam Abbas (writer) Ghulam Mohammad Baksh, wrestler Guru Tegh Bahadur, 9th Guru of Sikhs Hans Raj Khanna, judge at the Supreme court of India Jeetendra, Indian actor Kapil Sharma, comedian Kiran Bedi, first woman IPS officer of India Krishan Kant, 10th Vice-President of India Laxmi Kanta Chawla Madan Lal Dhingra, independence activist Madan Lal, cricketer Mahendra Kapoor, Indian playback singer Manmohan Singh, 13th Prime Minister of India Maurice Barrymore, (patriarch of the Barrymore acting family M. D. Taseer, Urdu Poet Mira Nair, Indo-American filmmaker Mohammed Rafi, Indian recording artist Narendra Chanchal, Indian singer Navjot Singh Sidhu, politician Nawab Kapur Singh, Sikh
Sikh
Leader Pramod Moutho, Indian actor Raghunandan Lal Bhatia, Politician Rajesh Khanna, Indian actor[citation needed] Ramandeep Singh, footballer Ritu Kumar, Fashion Designer Rupa Bajwa, writer Saadat Hasan Manto, writer Sahila Chadha, Actress Saifuddin Kitchlew, freedom fighter Sam Manekshaw, Field Marshal of India Shamshad Begum, Indian classical singer Sudesh Lehri, comedian Veeru Devgan, Director and Producer of Hindi Films Vikas Khanna, chef Vinod Mehra, Indian actor Vipul Mehta, singer Waris Ahluwalia, model, actor in US Yash Johar, Director and Producer of Hindi films

Twin towns / cities[edit]

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Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in India

Waitakere City, Auckland, New Zealand
New Zealand
(2009) Sandwell, England[32] Lahore,Pakistan

Gallery[edit]

Night view of the Harmandir Sahib

Golden Temple

Jallianwala Bagh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Ram Bagh Gardens

Golden Temple's Clock Tower

Durgiana Temple

Jallianwala Bagh

The holy water

Akal Takhat Sahib, Sikh
Sikh
Gurdwara

The holy water

Deorhi, main entrance to the summer palace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ram Bagh, Amritsar

Gobindgarh fort, Amritsar, Punjab, India

See also[edit]

Punjab portal India
India
portal

Amritsar
Amritsar
District Tarn Taran District Majha Sikhism

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India
India
2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.  ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India
India
2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.  ^ List of Municipal Corporations in Punjab ^ nimmi. "Ram Tirth Temple, Indian Ram Tirth Temple, Ram Tirth Temple in India".  ^ "Mamas turn sons into monkeys –LANGOOR WALA MELA IN AMRITSAR..." 1 October 2008.  ^ "Introduction". HRIDAY official website.  ^ "History, Harmandir Sahib, the Golden Temple, Amritsar". Amritsar Portal. Retrieved 29 November 2014.  ^ Proceedings of the Lucknow
Lucknow
Session of the Indian National Congress, 1916, cited by Pasricha, Ashu (2008). The Political Thought of Annie Besant (Encyclopaedia of Eminent Thinkers, Vol. 25). Concept Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 8180695859.  ^ "Operation Bluestar, 20 Years On". Rediff.com. 6 June 1984. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ Ahmad, Ishtiaq (1996). State, Nation, and Ethnicity in the Contemporary South Asia. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 1-85567-578-1.  ^ Praagh, David Van (2003). The Greater game: India's Race With Destiny and China. India: McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP). ISBN 0-7735-1639-5.  ^ Gunjeet K. Sra (19 December 2008). "10 Political Disgraces". Indiatoday.digitaltoday.in. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ Martha Crenshaw (1995). Terrorism in Context. Penn State Press. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-271-01015-1.  ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. pp. 44. ISBN 978-0-415-45666-1. Retrieved 29 July 2010.  ^ Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006). Twenty years of impunity: the November 1984 pogroms of Sikhs
Sikhs
in India
India
(PDF) (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Ensaaf. p. 16. ISBN 0-9787073-0-3.  ^ Westerlund, David (1996). Questioning The Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics. C. Hurst & Co. p. 1276. ISBN 1-85065-241-4.  ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-415-45666-1. Retrieved 29 July 2010.  ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Amritsar". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ "Amritsar". Imd.gov.in. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ a b "Extremes of India" (PDF). www.imdpune.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2013.  ^ "Resumen synop".  ^ " Amritsar
Amritsar
Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 11 January 2014.  ^ "State-wise, District-wise List of Blocks with >40% but less than 50% SC population". Retrieved 12 July 2012.  ^ ORGI. "Census of India :Religion PCA".  ^ "Rail ride to Chandigarh
Chandigarh
from Delhi
Delhi
in 50 mins flat?". The Times of India. 4 April 2008.  ^ "Railways invites global bids for Delhi- Amritsar
Amritsar
high speed route". The Times of India. 23 March 2008.  ^ "Speed machines: 13 states want Bullet Train". The Times of India. 6 April 2008.  ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India
India
– Punjab". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 17 July 2012.  ^ " Amritsar
Amritsar
BRTS".  ^ "South/Southeast Asia Library – UC Berkeley Library".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-12.  ^ "Twin town". Sandwell
Sandwell
Metropolitan Borough Council. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Amritsar.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amritsar.

Official Website of District of Amritsar Official Website of Amritsar
Amritsar
Municipal Corporation Amritsar
Amritsar
HRIDAY city

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Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

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Cities and towns in Amritsar
Amritsar
district

Amritsar
Amritsar
district

Ajnala Amritsar Amritsar
Amritsar
Cantonment Budha Theh Buttar Sivia Jandiala Guru Majitha Rajasansi Ramdass Rayya Baba Bakala

Other districts

Ajitgarh Barnala Bathinda Faridkot Fatehgarh Sahib Firozpur Gurudaspur Hoshiarpur Jalandhar Kapurthala Ludhiana Mansa Moga Sri Muktsar Sahib Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar Patiala Rupnagar Sangrur Tarn Taran

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State of Punjab, India

Capital: Chandigarh

Topics

Demographics Economy Education History

King Porus

People Tourism Music

Administration

Government Legislative Assembly Chief Ministers Governors Raj Bhavan Police

Culture

Cinema Cuisine

Folk dances Bhangra Giddha Aawat pauni

Folklore Punjabi folk religion

Sanjhi Gugga Chhapar Mela Sakhi Sarwar Saint Punjabi fasts

Bhangala Language

Gurmukhī

Music

Bhangra Folk music

Dress

Salwar (Punjabi) Suit Punjabi ghagra Patiala
Patiala
salwar Punjabi Tamba and Kurta Phulkari Jutti

Calendars

Punjabi calendar Nanakshahi calendar Bikrami calendar

Fairs and Festival of Punjab India Punjabi festivals

Lohri Basant Kite Festival (Punjab) Maghi Holi, Punjab Teeyan Rakhri Vaisakhi

Religious festivals

Hindu
Hindu
Punjabi Festivals Sikh
Sikh
festivals

Sports

Kabaddi Kabaddi
Kabaddi
in India Kila Raipur
Raipur
Sports Festival Punjabi Kabaddi

Punjabi Suba movement

Regions

Majha Malwa Doaba Powadh

Districts

SAS Nagar Sri Amritsar Barnala Bathinda Faridkot Fatehgarh Sahib Fazilka Firozpur Gurdaspur Hoshiarpur Jalandhar Kapurthala Ludhiana Mansa Moga Pathankot Patiala Sri Muktsar Sahib Rupnagar Sangrur Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar Tarn Taran Sahib

Major Cities

Ludhiana Amritsar Jalandhar Patiala Bathinda Hoshiarpur Mohali Batala Pathankot Moga

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141852370 GND: 4079760-0 BNF: cb1196

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