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Amir
Amir
al-Mu'minin (Arabic: أمير المؤمنين‎), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim
Muslim
rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims. It has been claimed as the title of rulers in Muslim
Muslim
countries and empires and is still used for some Muslim
Muslim
leaders. The use of the title does not necessarily signify a claim to caliphate as it is usually taken to be, but described a certain form of activist leadership which may have been attached to a caliph but also could signify a level of authority beneath that. The Ottoman sultans, in particular, made scant use of it. Moreover, the term was used by men who made no claim to be caliphs.[1]

Contents

1 Term 2 Sunni view 3 Shia view 4 Current usage 5 Past usage 6 Non- Muslim
Muslim
usage 7 See also 8 References

Term[edit]

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Amir
Amir
al-Mu'minin is latinized as Miramolinus, hence Italian Miramolino, French Miramolin, Spanish Miramolín and Portuguese Miramolim, in Byzantine Greek: ἀμερμουμνῆς amermoumnês. It is also translated as "Prince of the believers" since "Amir" or "Emir" is also used as a princely title in states ruled by the royalty or monarchies. Sunni view[edit] Sunnis generally consider Umar
Umar
the first person given the title, although according to several famous Sunni scholars such as Ibn al-Jawzi, Al-Dhahabi, Ibn 'Asakir, etc. the Prophet (Muhammad) called just Ali
Ali
as Amir
Amir
al-Muminin.[2][3][4] But about the first view, according to the Islamic scholar as-Suyuti (1445–1505):

Umar
Umar
ibn Abd al-Aziz asked Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
ibn Sulayman ibn Abi Hathamah what was the reason that it used to be written, "From the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace," in the time of Abu Bakr, then later Umar
Umar
used to write at first, "From the Khalifah of Abu Bakr."? Then who was the first to write, "From the Amir
Amir
al-Muminin (the Commander of the Believers)"? He said, "Ash-Shifa, who was one of the women of the Muhajirun, told me that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
used to write, "From the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah", and Umar
Umar
used to write, "From the Khalifah of the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah," until one day Umar
Umar
wrote to the governor of Iraq, to send him two strong men whom he could ask about Iraq
Iraq
and its inhabitants. He sent to him Labid ibn Rabi'ah and Adi ibn Hatim, and they came to Madinah
Madinah
and entered the mosque where they found Amr ibn al-'As. They said, "Get permission for us (to visit) the Amir
Amir
al-Muminin." Amr said, "You two, by Allah, have hit upon his name!" Then Amr went in to him and said, "Peace be upon you, Amir
Amir
al-Mu'minin." He said, "What occurred to you about this name? You must explain what you have said." He told him and said, "You are the amir (commander) and we are the muminun (the believers)." Thus letters have continued to be written with that from that day. An-Nawawi
An-Nawawi
said in his Tahdhib: Adi ibn Hatim and Labid ibn Rabi'ah named him thus when they came as a deputation from 'Iraq. It has been said that al-Mughirah ibn Shu'bah named him with this name. It has also been said that ' Umar
Umar
said to people, 'You are the believers and I am your amir,' and so he was called Amir
Amir
al-Muminin, and before that he was known as the Khalifah of the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah, but they changed from that expression because of its length. Mu'awiyyah ibn Qurrah said: It used to be written 'From Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah,' and then when it was ' Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab they wanted to say, 'The Khalifah of the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah.' ' Umar
Umar
said, 'This is lengthy.' They said, 'No. But we have appointed you as amir over us, so you are our amir.' He said, 'Yes, and you are the believers, and I am your amir.' Then it became written Amir
Amir
al-Muminin.[5]

Shia view[edit] Shias view that Ali, the son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of his only continuing lineage, was given the title during Muhammad's era. [6][7] Shias believe the title is exclusive to Ali.[8]:276[9]:600 Being called the commander of the faithful does not entail only political authority, but spiritual and religious authority as well.[citation needed] Current usage[edit]

The Ahmadiyya Muslim
Muslim
Caliph, Mirza Masroor Ahmad.[10] According to the Moroccan constitution the King of Morocco
Morocco
is also Amir
Amir
al-Mu'minin. The Sultan of Sokoto The supreme leaders of the Afghan Taliban

Past usage[edit]

Muhammad Umar
Umar
Khan of the Kokand Khanate took on the title.[11] Abdelkader El Djezairi
Abdelkader El Djezairi
assumed the title in 1834.[12] Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan
was conferred the title in 1836 by the ulama of Kabul, granting legitimacy to his Emirate and his jihad against the Sikh Empire.[13] Mullah Mohammed Omar
Mohammed Omar
was conferred the title in April 1996 by a Taliban-convened shura (assembly) of approximately 1000-1500 Afghan ulama in Kandahar, when he displayed the Cloak of the Prophet before the crowd. The title granted legitimacy to Omar's leadership of Afghanistan and his declared jihad against the government led by Burhanuddin Rabbani. Omar was still referred to as Amir
Amir
al-Mu'minin by his followers and other jihadists, notably al-Qaeda leader Ayman az-Zawahiri. Mullah Akhtar Mohammad Mansoor, the successor of Mullah Omar, was conferred the title in July 2015 upon his appointment as the new leader of the Taliban.[14] He was killed in a US drone attack in May 2016. Molavee Haibatullah Akhunzada, the successor of Mullah Mansoor as the Taliban
Taliban
supreme commander, was also conferred the title upon his election in 2016.[15] Abu Umar
Umar
al-Baghdadi was conferred the title after his appointment in October 2006 by the Mujahideen Shura
Shura
Council as the first Emir
Emir
of the newly declared Islamic State of Iraq.[16][17]

Non- Muslim
Muslim
usage[edit] The Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Bahá'í Faith, applies the title Commander of the Faithful to Ali, the son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[18] A similar (but not the same) title was afforded to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's monarch as the Grand Duke of Lithuania by the Lipka Tatars, who used to speak a Turkic language. The title of sire was used "Vatad", as in "homeland" ("Vatan"), which meant "defender of the rights of Muslims in non-Islamic countries". The Grand Duchy was viewed as a new homeland. Vatad was viewed as variation on the name Vytautas
Vytautas
in Lithuanian or Władysław in Polish, which was known in the diplomatic notes between the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and the countries of Poland (Lechistan) and Lithuania (Lipka) as "Dawood". One can claim that, since Casimir the Great, the Polish-Lithuanian monarch as the King of Poland was tasked with the protection of the rights of the Jews and other non-Christians. See also[edit]

Islam portal

Almami Sunni view of the Sahaba Compare

Fidei defensor Holy Roman Emperor

Selim I

References[edit]

^ Pennell, Richard (11 March 2016). "What is the significance of the title 'Amīr al-mu'minīn?'". The Journal of North African Studies. 21 (4): 623–644. doi:10.1080/13629387.2016.1157482.  ^ Ibn al-Jawzi, Al-Mozooat, Vol. 1, PP. 376-377 ^ Ibn 'Asakir , The history of Medina Damascus, Vol. 42, P. 386 ^ Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-E’tedaal,Vol.1 P. 64 ^ History of the Caliphs by Suyuti ^ Majlesi, Bahar al-Anwar, Vol. 37, P. 339, hadith 81 ^ Shia Encyclopedia, Vol. 2 ^ Muhammad Ibn Masoud Ayyashi. Tasfir Al Ayashi. 1. this is a title only suitable for Imam Ali  ^ Shaikh al-Hur al-Aamili. Wasā'il al-Shīʿa. 14. this is a title only suitable for Imam Ali  ^ Valentine, Simon, Ross. Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jamaʻat: History, Belief, Practice. Columbia University Press. p. 208.  ^ Sobolev, Leonid Nikolaevich (1876). Latest History of the Khanates of Bokhara and Kokand. Foreign Department Press.  ^ Esposito, John L. (2003). "Abd al-Qadir". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 1.  ^ Shahrani, M. Nazif (1986). "State Building and Social Fragmentation in Afghanistan: A Historical Perspective". In Banuazizi, Ali; Weiner, Myron. The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Syracuse University Press. p. 35.  ^ Roggio, Bill; Joscelyn, Thomas. "The Taliban's new leadership is allied with al Qaeda". The Long War Journal.  ^ "Statement by the Leadership Council of Islamic Emirate regarding the martyrdom of Amir
Amir
ul Mumineen Mullah Akhtar Muhammad Mansour and the election of the new leader". Voice of Jihad. 25 May 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016. [permanent dead link] ^ Kohlmann, Evan (15 October 2006). "Controversy Grows Over Supposed Unity of Iraqi Mujahideen as Al-Qaida Announces Founding of Sunni Islamic State". Counterterrorism Blog. Archived from the original on 13 October 2009.  ^ Bunzel, Cole (March 2015). "From Paper State to Caliphate: The Ideology of the Islamic State" (PDF). The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. Washington, D.C.: Center for Middle East Policy, Brookings Institution (Analysis Paper No. 19).  ^ [1] "The Kitáb-i-Íqán
Kitáb-i-Íqán
PART ONE". BAHA'I REFERENCE LIBRARY. Ret

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