Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its
color and natural beauty since
Neolithic times. Much valued from
antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety
of decorative objects.
Amber is used in jewelry. It has also been
used as a healing agent in folk medicine.
There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their
chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree
resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as
Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite,
and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New
Zealand coal seams.
3 Composition and formation
3.2 Botanical origin
4 Extraction and processing
4.1 Distribution and mining
6.1 Class I
6.2 Class II
6.3 Class III
6.4 Class IV
6.5 Class V
7 Geological record
7.1 Paleontological significance
8.2 Historic medicinal uses
8.3 Scent of amber and amber perfumery
10.1 Imitation made in natural resins
10.2 Imitations made of plastics
11 See also
14 External links
The English word amber derives from
Arabic ʿanbar عنبر
Middle Persian ambar) via
Middle Latin ambar and
Middle French ambre. The word was adopted in
Middle English in the
14th century as referring to what is now known as ambergris (ambre
gris or "grey amber"), a solid waxy substance derived from the sperm
whale. In the Romance languages, the sense of the word had come to be
Baltic amber (fossil resin) from as early as the late 13th
century. At first called white or yellow amber (ambre jaune), this
meaning was adopted in English by the early 15th century. As the use
of ambergris waned, this became the main sense of the word.
The two substances ("yellow amber" and "grey amber") conceivably
became associated or confused because they both were found washed up
Ambergris is less dense than water and floats, whereas
amber is too dense to float, though less dense than stone.
The classical names for amber,
Latin electrum and Ancient Greek
ἤλεκτρον (ēlektron), are connected to a term ἠλέκτωρ
(ēlektōr) meaning "beaming Sun". According to myth, when
Phaëton son of
Helios (the Sun) was killed, his mourning sisters
became poplar trees, and their tears became elektron, amber.
Theophrastus discussed amber in the 4th century BC, as did
330 BC), whose work "On the Ocean" is lost, but was referenced by
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder (23 to 79 AD), according to whose The Natural History
(in what is also the earliest known mention of the name Germania):
Pytheas says that the Gutones, a people of Germany, inhabit the shores
of an estuary of the Ocean called Mentonomon, their territory
extending a distance of six thousand stadia; that, at one day's sail
from this territory, is the Isle of Abalus, upon the shores of which,
amber is thrown up by the waves in spring, it being an excretion of
the sea in a concrete form; as, also, that the inhabitants use this
amber by way of fuel, and sell it to their neighbors, the Teutones.
Earlier Pliny says that
Pytheas refers to a large island - three
days' sail from the Scythian coast and called Balcia by Xenophon of
Lampsacus (author of a fanciful travel book in Greek) - as Basilia - a
name generally equated with Abalus. Given the presence of amber, the
island could have been Heligoland, Zealand, the shores of Bay of
Sambia Peninsula or the Curonian Lagoon, which were
historically the richest sources of amber in northern Europe. It is
assumed[by whom?] that there were well-established trade routes for
amber connecting the Baltic with the Mediterranean (known as the
Amber Road"). Pliny states explicitly that the Germans exported amber
to Pannonia, from where the Veneti distributed it onwards. The ancient
Italic peoples of southern Italy used to work amber; the National
Archaeological Museum of Siritide (Museo Archeologico Nazionale della
Policoro in the province of Matera (Basilicata) displays
important surviving examples.
Amber used in antiquity as at Mycenae
and in the prehistory of the Mediterranean comes from deposits of
Pliny also cites the opinion of
Nicias (c. 470–413 BC), according to
is a liquid produced by the rays of the sun; and that these rays, at
the moment of the sun's setting, striking with the greatest force upon
the surface of the soil, leave upon it an unctuous sweat, which is
carried off by the tides of the Ocean, and thrown up upon the shores
Besides the fanciful explanations according to which amber is
"produced by the Sun", Pliny cites opinions that are well aware of its
origin in tree resin, citing the native
Latin name of succinum
(sūcinum, from sucus "juice"). He writes:
Amber is produced from a marrow discharged by trees belonging to the
pine genus, like gum from the cherry, and resin from the ordinary
pine. It is a liquid at first, which issues forth in considerable
quantities, and is gradually hardened [...] Our forefathers, too, were
of opinion that it is the juice of a tree, and for this reason gave it
the name of "succinum" and one great proof that it is the produce of a
tree of the pine genus, is the fact that it emits a pine-like smell
when rubbed, and that it burns, when ignited, with the odour and
appearance of torch-pine wood.
He also states that amber is also found in Egypt and in India, and he
even refers to the electrostatic properties of amber, by saying that
"in Syria the women make the whorls of their spindles of this
substance, and give it the name of harpax [from ἁρπάζω, "to
drag"] from the circumstance that it attracts leaves towards it,
chaff, and the light fringe of tissues".
Pliny says that the German name of amber was glæsum, "for which
reason the Romans, when
Germanicus Caesar commanded the fleet in those
parts, gave to one of these islands the name of Glæsaria, which by
the barbarians was known as Austeravia". This is confirmed by the
Old High German
Old High German word glas and by the
Old English word glær
for "amber" (compare glass). In Middle Low German, amber was known as
berne-, barn-, börnstēn (with etymological roots related to "burn"
and to "stone"). The Low German term became dominant also in High
German by the 18th century, thus modern German Bernstein besides Dutch
In the Baltic languages, the Lithuanian term for amber is gintaras and
the Latvian dzintars. These words, and the Slavic jantar and
Hungarian gyanta ('resin'), are thought[by whom?] to originate from
Phoenician jainitar ("sea-resin").
Early in the nineteenth century, the first reports of amber found in
North America came from discoveries in
New Jersey along Crosswicks
Creek near Trenton, at Camden, and near Woodbury.
Composition and formation
Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several
resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform,
associated with an insoluble bituminous substance.
Amber is a
macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in
the labdane family, e.g. communic acid, cummunol, and
biformene. These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes,
equipping the organic skeleton with three alkene groups for
polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization
takes place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and
Heated above 200 °C (392 °F), amber decomposes, yielding
an oil of amber, and leaves a black residue which is known as "amber
colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or
in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac".
Molecular polymerization, resulting from high pressures and
temperatures produced by overlying sediment, transforms the resin
first into copal. Sustained heat and pressure drives off terpenes and
results in the formation of amber.
For this to happen, the resin must be resistant to decay. Many trees
produce resin, but in the majority of cases this deposit is broken
down by physical and biological processes. Exposure to sunlight, rain,
microorganisms (such as bacteria and fungi), and extreme temperatures
tends to disintegrate resin. For resin to survive long enough to
become amber, it must be resistant to such forces or be produced under
conditions that exclude them.
Amber from Bitterfeld
Fossil resins from Europe fall into two categories, the famous Baltic
ambers and another that resembles the
from the Americas and
Africa are closely related to the modern genus
Hymenaea, while Baltic ambers are thought to be fossil resins from
Sciadopityaceae family plants that used to live in north Europe.
Baltic amber with inclusions
The abnormal development of resin in living trees (succinosis) can
result in the formation of amber. Impurities are quite often
present, especially when the resin dropped onto the ground, so the
material may be useless except for varnish-making. Such impure amber
is called firniss.
Such inclusion of other substances can cause amber to have an
Pyrites may give a bluish color. Bony amber owes its
cloudy opacity to numerous tiny bubbles inside the resin. However,
so-called black amber is really only a kind of jet.
In darkly clouded and even opaque amber, inclusions can be imaged
using high-energy, high-contrast, high-resolution X-rays.
Extraction and processing
Distribution and mining
Amber mine "Primorskoje" in Jantarny,
Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Amber is globally distributed, mainly in rocks of Cretaceous age or
younger. Historically, the Samland coast west of
Prussia was the world's leading source of amber. The first mentions of
amber deposits here date back to the 12th century. About 90% of
the world's extractable amber is still located in that area, which
Kaliningrad Oblast of
Russia in 1946.
Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and
collected by hand, dredging, or diving. Elsewhere, amber is mined,
both in open works and underground galleries. Then nodules of blue
earth have to be removed and an opaque crust must be cleaned off,
which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water.
Erosion removes this crust from sea-worn amber.
Blue amber from Dominican Republic
Caribbean amber, especially Dominican blue amber, is mined through
bell pitting, which is dangerous due to the risk of tunnel
The Vienna amber factories, which use pale amber to manufacture pipes
and other smoking tools, turn it on a lathe and polish it with
whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil. The final luster is
given by friction with flannel.
When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible.
Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with
linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot.
Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the
numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments,
formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now used on a large
scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber".
The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then
compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure, the
softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The
product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelry and
articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference
colors in polarized light.
Amber has often been imitated by other
resins like copal and kauri gum, as well as by celluloid and even
Baltic amber is sometimes colored artificially, but also called
Amber occurs in a range of different colors. As well as the usual
yellow-orange-brown that is associated with the color "amber", amber
itself can range from a whitish color through a pale lemon yellow, to
brown and almost black. Other uncommon colors include red amber
(sometimes known as "cherry amber"), green amber, and even blue amber,
which is rare and highly sought after.
Yellow amber is a hard fossil resin from evergreen trees, and despite
the name it can be translucent, yellow, orange, or brown colored.
Known to the Iranians by the Pahlavi compound word kah-ruba (from kah
"straw" plus rubay "attract, snatch", referring to its electrical
properties), which entered
Arabic as kahraba' or kahraba (which later
Arabic word for electricity, كهرباء kahrabā'), it
too was called amber in Europe (Old French and
Middle English ambre).
Found along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, yellow amber reached
the Middle East and western Europe via trade. Its coastal acquisition
may have been one reason yellow amber came to be designated by the
same term as ambergris. Moreover, like ambergris, the resin could be
burned as an incense. The resin's most popular use was, however, for
ornamentation—easily cut and polished, it could be transformed into
beautiful jewelry. Much of the most highly prized amber is
transparent, in contrast to the very common cloudy amber and opaque
amber. Opaque amber contains numerous minute bubbles. This kind of
amber is known as "bony amber".
Dominican amber is fluorescent, the rarest Dominican
amber is blue amber. It turns blue in natural sunlight and any other
partially or wholly ultraviolet light source. In long-wave UV light it
has a very strong reflection, almost white. Only about 100 kg
(220 lb) is found per year, which makes it valuable and
Sometimes amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it
exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. It is
thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree,
amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks
within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of
amber of irregular form.
Amber can be classified into several forms. Most fundamentally, there
are two types of plant resin with the potential for fossilization.
Terpenoids, produced by conifers and angiosperms, consist of ring
structures formed of isoprene (C5H8) units. Phenolic resins are
today only produced by angiosperms, and tend to serve functional uses.
The extinct medullosans produced a third type of resin, which is often
found as amber within their veins. The composition of resins is
highly variable; each species produces a unique blend of chemicals
which can be identified by the use of pyrolysis–gas
chromatography–mass spectrometry. The overall chemical and
structural composition is used to divide ambers into five
classes. There is also a separate classification of amber
gemstones, according to the way of production.
This class is by far the most abundant. It comprises labdatriene
carboxylic acids such as communic or ozic acids. It is further
split into three sub-classes. Classes Ia and Ib utilize regular
labdanoid diterpenes (e.g. communic acid, communol, biformenes), while
Ic uses enantio labdanoids (ozic acid, ozol, enantio biformenes).
Succinite (= 'normal' Baltic amber) and Glessite. Have a
communic acid base. They also include much succinic acid.
Baltic amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion
varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or
bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning
amber are mainly due to this acid.
Baltic amber is distinguished by
its yield of succinic acid, hence the name succinite.
Succinite has a
hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many
other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to
1.10. It can be distinguished from other ambers via IR
spectroscopy due to a specific carbonyl absorption peak. IR
spectroscopy can detect the relative age of an amber sample. Succinic
acid may not be an original component of amber, but rather a
degradation product of abietic acid.
Like class Ia ambers, these are based on communic acid; however, they
lack succinic acid.
This class is mainly based on enantio-labdatrienonic acids, such as
ozic and zanzibaric acids. Its most familiar representative is
Dominican amber differentiates itself from
Baltic amber by being
mostly transparent and often containing a higher number of fossil
inclusions. This has enabled the detailed reconstruction of the
ecosystem of a long-vanished tropical forest.
Resin from the
Hymenaea protera is the source of
Dominican amber and
probably of most amber found in the tropics. It is not "succinite" but
These ambers are formed from resins with a sesquiterpenoid base, such
These ambers are polystyrenes.
Class IV is something of a wastebasket; its ambers are not
polymerized, but mainly consist of cedrene-based sesquiterpenoids.
Class V resins are considered to be produced by a pine or pine
relative. They comprise a mixture of diterpinoid resins and n-alkyl
compounds. Their main variety is Highgate copalite.
Typical amber specimen with a number of indistinct inclusions
The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper
(320 million years ago). Its chemical composition makes it
difficult to match the amber to its producers – it is most similar
to the resins produced by flowering plants; however, there are no
flowering plant fossils until the Cretaceous, and they were not common
until the Upper Cretaceous.
Amber becomes abundant long after the
Carboniferous, in the Early Cretaceous, 150 million years ago,
when it is found in association with insects. The oldest amber with
arthropod inclusions comes from the Levant, from Lebanon and Jordan.
This amber, roughly 125–135 million years old, is considered of high
scientific value, providing evidence of some of the oldest sampled
In Lebanon, more than 450 outcrops of Lower Cretaceous amber were
discovered by Dany Azar, a Lebanese paleontologist and
entomologist. Among these outcrops, 20 have yielded biological
inclusions comprising the oldest representatives of several recent
families of terrestrial arthropods. Even older,
Jurassic amber has
been found recently in Lebanon as well. Many remarkable insects and
spiders were recently discovered in the amber of Jordan including the
oldest zorapterans, clerid beetles, umenocoleid roaches, and achiliid
Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian
amber) is found as irregular nodules in marine glauconitic sand,
known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower
Oligocene strata of Sambia
Prussia (in historical sources also referred to as Glaesaria).
After 1945, this territory around
Königsberg was turned into
Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, where amber is now systematically
It appears, however, to have been partly derived from older Eocene
deposits and it occurs also as a derivative phase in later formations,
such as glacial drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions
trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting
relations with the flora of Eastern
Asia and the southern part of
Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine
of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood does not
seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called
Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of
amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of
conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the
Amber is a unique preservational mode, preserving otherwise
unfossilizable parts of organisms; as such it is helpful in the
reconstruction of ecosystems as well as organisms; the chemical
composition of the resin, however, is of limited utility in
reconstructing the phylogenetic affinity of the resin producer.
Amber sometimes contains animals or plant matter that became caught in
the resin as it was secreted. Insects, spiders and even their webs,
annelids, frogs, crustaceans, bacteria and amoebae, marine
microfossils, wood, flowers and fruit, hair, feathers and other
small organisms have been recovered in Cretaceous ambers (deposited c.
130 million years ago). The oldest amber to bear fossils
(mites) is from the Carnian (Triassic, 230 million years ago) of
Solutrean of Altamira – MHNT
Amber has been used since prehistory (Solutrean) in the manufacture of
jewelry and ornaments, and also in folk medicine.
Amber has been used as jewelry since the Stone Age, from 13,000 years
Amber ornaments have been found in Mycenaean tombs and
elsewhere across Europe. To this day it is used in the manufacture
of smoking and glassblowing mouthpieces. Amber's place in
culture and tradition lends it a tourism value; Palanga
is dedicated to the fossilized resin.
Historic medicinal uses
Amber has long been used in folk medicine for its purported healing
Amber and extracts were used from the time of
Hippocrates in ancient
Greece for a wide variety of treatments through
Middle Ages and up until the early twentieth century.[citation
Scent of amber and amber perfumery
Lithuanian amber jewelry
In ancient China, it was customary to burn amber during large
festivities. If amber is heated under the right conditions, oil of
amber is produced, and in past times this was combined carefully with
nitric acid to create "artificial musk" – a resin with a peculiar
musky odor. Although when burned, amber does give off a
characteristic "pinewood" fragrance, modern products, such as perfume,
do not normally use actual amber due to the fact that fossilized amber
produces very little scent. In perfumery, scents referred to as
“amber” are often created and patented to emulate the
opulent golden warmth of the fossil.
The modern name for amber is thought to come from the
ambar, meaning ambergris.
Ambergris is the waxy aromatic
substance created in the intestines of sperm whales and was used in
making perfumes both in ancient times as well as modern.
The scent of amber was originally derived from emulating the scent of
ambergris and/or labdanum but due to the endangered species status of
the sperm whale the scent of amber is now largely derived from
labdanum. The term “amber” is loosely used to describe a scent
that is warm, musky, rich and honey-like, and also somewhat earthy. It
can be synthetically created or derived from natural resins. When
derived from natural resins it is most often created out of labdanum.
Benzoin is usually part of the recipe.
Vanilla and cloves are
sometimes used to enhance the aroma.
"Amber" perfumes may be created using combinations of labdanum,
benzoin resin, copal (itself a type of tree resin used in incense
Dammara resin and/or synthetic materials.
Due to its color
Amber is associated with solar energy. It was
Ancient China that resin was formed from tiger remains,
thus it embodies courage. The word used for amber in ancient Chinese
literally meant "tiger soul."
According to mythology, many deities shed tears of amber; in Greek
mythology sisters of Phaeton turned into weeping pine trees as they
wailed for their brother's death after he rashly drove his father's
(Helio's) sun chariot. 
Imitation made in natural resins
Young resins, these are used as imitations:
Kauri resin from
Agathis australis trees in New Zealand.
The copals (subfossil resins). The African and American (Colombia)
copals from Leguminosae trees family (genus Hymenaea).
Amber of the
Dominican or Mexican type (Class I of fossil resins). Copals from
Manilia (Indonesia) and from
New Zealand from trees of the genus
Other fossil resins: burmite in Burma, rumenite in Romania, simetite
Other natural resins — cellulose or chitin, etc.
Imitations made of plastics
Plastics, these are used as imitations:
Stained glass (inorganic material) and other ceramic materials
Cellulose nitrate (first obtained in 1833) — a product of
treatment of cellulose with nitration mixture.
Acetylcellulose (not in the use at present)
Galalith or "artificial horn" (condensation product of casein and
formaldehyde), other trade names: Alladinite, Erinoid, Lactoid.
Casein — a conjugated protein forming from the casein precursor –
Resolane (phenolic resins or phenoplasts, not in the use at present)
Bakelite resine (resol, phenolic resins), product from
known under the misleading name "African amber".
Carbamide resins — melamine, formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde
Epoxy novolac (phenolic resins), unofficial name "antique amber", not
in the use at present
Polyesters (Polish amber imitation) with styrene. Ex.: unsaturated
polyester resins (polymals) are produced by Chemical Industrial Works
"Organika" in Sarzyna, Poland; estomal are produced by Laminopol firm.
Polybern or sticked amber is artificial resins the curled chips are
obtained, whereas in the case of amber – small scraps. "African
amber" (polyester, synacryl is then probably other name of the same
resine) are produced by Reichhold firm; Styresol trade mark or alkid
resin (used in Russia, Reichhold, Inc. patent, 1948.
Polystyrene and polystyrene-like polymers (vinyl polymers).
The resins of acrylic type (vinyl polymers), especially polymethyl
methacrylate PMMA (trade mark Plexiglass, metaplex).
List of types of amber
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^ a b "Amber" (2004). In Maxine N. Lurie and Marc Mappen (eds.)
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^ a b St. Fleur, Nicholas (8 December 2016). "That Thing With Feathers
Trapped in Amber? It Was a Dinosaur Tail". New York Times. Retrieved 8
^ Poinar GO, Poinar R. (1995) The quest for life in amber. Basic
Books, ISBN 0-201-48928-7, p. 133
^ a b Harper, Douglas. "amber". Online Etymology Dictionary. and
Oxford English Dictionary
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^ A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, D N MacKenzie, Oxford University
Press, 1971, ISBN 0 19 713559 5
^ see: Abu Zaid al Hassan from Siraf & Sulaiman the Merchant
(851), Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in Asia).[clarification needed]
^ Homeric (
Iliad 6.513, 19.398). The feminine ἠλεκτρίς being
later used as a name of the Moon. King, Rev. C.W. (1867). The Natural
History of Gems or Decorative Stones. Cambridge (UK).
^ The derivation of the modern term "electric" from the Greek word for
amber dates to the 1600 (
Latin electricus "amber-like", in De Magnete
by William Gilbert). Heilbron, J.L. (1979).
Electricity in the 17th
and 18th Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics. University of
California Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-520-03478-5. . The
word "electron" (for the fundamental particle) was coined in 1891 by
the Irish physicist George Stoney whilst analyzing elementary charges
for the first time. Aber, Susie Ward. "Welcome to the World of Amber".
Emporia State University. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007.
Retrieved 11 May 2007. . "Origin of word Electron".
Patent-invent.com. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
^ Michael R. Collings, Gemlore: An Introduction to Precious and
Semi-Precious Stones, 2009, p. 20
^ Natural History 37.11.
^ Natural History IV.27.13 or IV.13.95 in the Loeb edition.
^ Compare succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a
particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana
^ a b c d e Rudler 1911, p. 792.
^ Manuel Villanueva-García, Antonio Martínez-Richa, and Juvencio
Robles Assignment of vibrational spectra of labdatriene derivatives
and ambers: A combined experimental and density functional theoretical
Arkivoc (EJ-1567C) pp. 449–458
^ Rice, Patty C. (2006). Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages. 4th Ed.
AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4259-3849-3.
^ Poinar, George O. (1992) Life in amber. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford
University Press, p. 12, ISBN 0804720010
^ Lambert, JB; Poinar Jr, GO (2002). "Amber: the organic gemstone".
Accounts of Chemical Research. 35 (8): 628–36.
doi:10.1021/ar0001970. PMID 12186567.
^ Wolfe, A. P.; Tappert, R.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Boudreau, M.; McKellar,
R. C.; Basinger, J. F.; Garrett, A. (30 June 2009). "A new proposal
concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber". Proceedings of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1672): 3403–3412.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0806. PMC 2817186 .
^ Sherborn, Charles Davies. "Natural Science: A Monthly Review of
Scientific Progress, Volume 1".
^ a b c d e f g Rudler 1911, p. 793.
^ Amos, Jonathan (1 April 2008). "BBC News, " Secret 'dino bugs'
revealed", 1 April 2008". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28
August 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
^ "The History of Russian Amber, Part 1: The Beginning", Leta.st
Amber Trade and the Environment in the
Kaliningrad Oblast Archived 6
July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Gurukul.ucc.american.edu. Retrieved
on 19 September 2012.
^ Wichard, Wilfred and Weitschat, Wolfgang (2004) Im Bernsteinwald.
– Gerstenberg Verlag, Hildesheim, ISBN 3-8067-2551-9
^ "Amber: Natural Organic
GemSelect". www.gemselect.com. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
^ "Amber". (1999). In G. W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, Oleg Grabar (eds.)
Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, Harvard University
Press, ISBN 0674511735.
^ Manuel A. Iturralde-Vennet (2001). "Geology of the Amber-Bearing
Deposits of the Greater Antilles" (PDF). Caribbean Journal of Science.
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