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Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.[2] Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects.[3] Amber
Amber
is used in jewelry. It has also been used as a healing agent in folk medicine.

There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions.[4] Amber
Amber
occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.[5]

Etymology

The English word amber derives from Arabic Arabic
Arabic
language text">ʿanbar عنبر
[6] (cognate with Middle Persian ambar[7]) via Middle Latin ambar and Middle French ambre. The word was adopted in Middle English in the 14th century as referring to what is now known as ambergris (ambre gris or "grey amber"), a solid waxy substance derived from the sperm whale. In the Romance languages, the sense of the word had come to be extended to Baltic amber
Baltic amber
(fossil resin) from as early as the late 13th century. At first called white or yellow amber (ambre jaune), this meaning was adopted in English by the early 15th century. As the use of ambergris waned, this became the main sense of the word.[6]

The two substances ("yellow amber" and "grey amber") conceivably became associated or confused because they both were found washed up on beaches. Ambergris
Ambergris
is less dense than water and floats, whereas amber is too dense to float, though less dense than stone.[8]

The classical names for amber, Latin electrum and Ancient Greek Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
language text">ἤλεκτρον
(ēlektron), are connected to a term ἠλέκτωρ (ēlektōr) meaning "beaming Sun".[9][10] According to myth, when Phaëton son of Helios (the Sun) was killed, his mourning sisters became poplar trees, and their tears became elektron, amber.[11]

History

Theophrastus discussed amber in the 4th century BC, as did Pytheas (c. 330 BC), whose work "On the Ocean" is lost, but was referenced by Pliny the Elder (23 to 79 AD), according to whose The Natural History (in what is also the earliest known mention of the name Germania):[12]

Pytheas
Pytheas
says that the Gutones, a people of Germany, inhabit the shores of an estuary of the Ocean called Mentonomon, their territory extending a distance of six thousand stadia; that, at one day's sail from this territory, is the Isle of Abalus, upon the shores of which, amber is thrown up by the waves in spring, it being an excretion of the sea in a concrete form; as, also, that the inhabitants use this amber by way of fuel, and sell it to their neighbors, the Teutones.

Earlier[13] Pliny says that Pytheas
Pytheas
refers to a large island - three days' sail from the Scythian coast and called Balcia by Xenophon of Lampsacus (author of a fanciful travel book in Greek) - as Basilia - a name generally equated with Abalus. Given the presence of amber, the island could have been Heligoland, Zealand, the shores of Bay of Gdansk, the Sambia Peninsula or the Curonian Lagoon, which were historically the richest sources of amber in northern Europe. It is assumed[by whom?] that there were well-established trade routes for amber connecting the Baltic with the Mediterranean (known as the " Amber
Amber
Road"> Amber
Amber
Road"). Pliny states explicitly that the Germans exported amber to Pannonia, from where the Veneti distributed it onwards. The ancient Italic peoples of southern Italy used to work amber; the National Archaeological Museum of Siritide (Museo Archeologico Nazionale della Siritide) at Policoro in the province of Matera (Basilicata) displays important surviving examples. Amber
Amber
used in antiquity as at Mycenae and in the prehistory of the Mediterranean comes from deposits of Sicily.

Pliny also cites the opinion of Nicias (c. 470–413 BC), according to whom amber

is a liquid produced by the rays of the sun; and that these rays, at the moment of the sun's setting, striking with the greatest force upon the surface of the soil, leave upon it an unctuous sweat, which is carried off by the tides of the Ocean, and thrown up upon the shores of Germany.

Besides the fanciful explanations according to which amber is "produced by the Sun", Pliny cites opinions that are well aware of its origin in tree resin, citing the native Latin
Latin
name of succinum (sūcinum, from sucus "juice").[14] He writes:

Amber
Amber
is produced from a marrow discharged by trees belonging to the pine genus, like gum from the cherry, and resin from the ordinary pine. It is a liquid at first, which issues forth in considerable quantities, and is gradually hardened [...] Our forefathers, too, were of opinion that it is the juice of a tree, and for this reason gave it the name of "succinum" and one great proof that it is the produce of a tree of the pine genus, is the fact that it emits a pine-like smell when rubbed, and that it burns, when ignited, with the odour and appearance of torch-pine wood. Template
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Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]

He also states that amber is also found in Egypt and in India, and he even refers to the electrostatic properties of amber, by saying that "in Syria the women make the whorls of their spindles of this substance, and give it the name of harpax [from ἁρπάζω, "to drag"] from the circumstance that it attracts leaves towards it, chaff, and the light fringe of tissues".

Pliny says that the German name of amber was glæsum, "for which reason the Romans, when Germanicus Caesar commanded the fleet in those parts, gave to one of these islands the name of Glæsaria, which by the barbarians was known as Austeravia". This is confirmed by the recorded Old High German word glas and by the Old English word glær for "amber" (compare glass). In Middle Low German, amber was known as berne-, barn-, börnstēn (with etymological roots related to "burn" and to "stone"[15]). The Low German term became dominant also in High German by the 18th century, thus modern German Bernstein besides Dutch barnsteen.

In the Baltic languages, the Lithuanian term for amber is gintaras and the Latvian dzintars. These words, and the Slavic jantar[16] and Hungarian gyanta ('resin'), are thought[by whom?] to originate from Phoenician jainitar ("sea-resin"). Template
Template
Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]

Early in the nineteenth century, the first reports of amber found in North America
North America
came from discoveries in New Jersey along Crosswicks Creek near Trenton, at Camden, and near Woodbury.[3]

Composition and formation

Amber
Amber
is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber
Amber
is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, e.g. communic acid, cummunol, and biformene.[17][18] These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes, equipping the organic skeleton with three alkene groups for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization takes place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and cyclization.

Heated above 200 °C (392 °F), amber decomposes, yielding an oil of amber, and leaves a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac".[17]

Formation

Molecular polymerization, resulting from high pressures and temperatures produced by overlying sediment, transforms the resin first into copal. Sustained heat and pressure drives off terpenes and results in the formation of amber.[19]

For this to happen, the resin must be resistant to decay. Many trees produce resin, but in the majority of cases this deposit is broken down by physical and biological processes. Exposure to sunlight, rain, microorganisms (such as bacteria and fungi), and extreme temperatures tends to disintegrate resin. For resin to survive long enough to become amber, it must be resistant to such forces or be produced under conditions that exclude them.[20]

Botanical origin

Amber
Amber
from Bitterfeld

Fossil
Fossil
resins from Europe fall into two categories, the famous Baltic ambers and another that resembles the Agathis group. Fossil
Fossil
resins from the Americas and Africa
Africa
are closely related to the modern genus Hymenaea,[21] while Baltic ambers are thought to be fossil resins from Sciadopityaceae family plants that used to live in north Europe.[22]

Inclusions

The abnormal development of resin in living trees (succinosis) can result in the formation of amber.[23] Impurities are quite often present, especially when the resin dropped onto the ground, so the material may be useless except for varnish-making. Such impure amber is called firniss.

Such inclusion of other substances can cause amber to have an unexpected color. Pyrites may give a bluish color. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to numerous tiny bubbles inside the resin.[24] However, so-called black amber is really only a kind of jet.

In darkly clouded and even opaque amber, inclusions can be imaged using high-energy, high-contrast, high-resolution X-rays.[25]

Extraction and processing

Distribution and mining

Amber
Amber
mine "Primorskoje" in Jantarny, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Russia

Amber
Amber
is globally distributed, mainly in rocks of Cretaceous age or younger. Historically, the Samland coast west of Königsberg in Prussia
Prussia
(region)">Prussia was the world's leading source of amber. The first mentions of amber deposits here date back to the 12th century.[26] About 90% of the world's extractable amber is still located in that area, which became the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast"> Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast of Russia
Russia
in 1946.[27]

Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected by hand, dredging, or diving. Elsewhere, amber is mined, both in open works and underground galleries. Then nodules of blue earth have to be removed and an opaque crust must be cleaned off, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. Erosion removes this crust from sea-worn amber.[24]

Blue amber from Dominican Republic

Caribbean amber, especially Dominican blue amber, is mined through bell pitting, which is dangerous due to the risk of tunnel collapse.[28]

Treatment

The Vienna amber factories, which use pale amber to manufacture pipes and other smoking tools, turn it on a lathe and polish it with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil. The final luster is given by friction with flannel.[24]

When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now used on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber".[24]

The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure, the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelry and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colors in polarized light. Amber
Amber
has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri gum, as well as by celluloid and even glass. Baltic amber
Baltic amber
is sometimes colored artificially, but also called "true amber".[24]

Appearance

Amber
Amber
occurs in a range of different colors. As well as the usual yellow-orange-brown that is associated with the color "amber", amber itself can range from a whitish color through a pale lemon yellow, to brown and almost black. Other uncommon colors include red amber (sometimes known as "cherry amber"), green amber, and even blue amber, which is rare and highly sought after.[29]

Yellow amber is a hard fossil resin from evergreen trees, and despite the name it can be translucent, yellow, orange, or brown colored. Known to the Iranians by the Pahlavi compound word kah-ruba (from kah "straw" plus rubay "attract, snatch", referring to its electrical properties), which entered Arabic
Arabic
as kahraba' or kahraba (which later became the Arabic
Arabic
word for electricity, كهرباء kahrabā'), it too was called amber in Europe (Old French and Middle English
Middle English
ambre). Found along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea, yellow amber reached the Middle East and western Europe via trade. Its coastal acquisition may have been one reason yellow amber came to be designated by the same term as ambergris. Moreover, like ambergris, the resin could be burned as an incense. The resin's most popular use was, however, for ornamentation—easily cut and polished, it could be transformed into beautiful jewelry. Much of the most highly prized amber is transparent, in contrast to the very common cloudy amber and opaque amber. Opaque amber contains numerous minute bubbles. This kind of amber is known as "bony amber".[30]

Although all Dominican amber is fluorescent, the rarest Dominican amber
Dominican amber
is blue amber. It turns blue in natural sunlight and any other partially or wholly ultraviolet light source. In long-wave UV light it has a very strong reflection, almost white. Only about 100 kg (220 lb) is found per year, which makes it valuable and expensive.[31]

Sometimes amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees.[24] It is thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree, amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of amber of irregular form.

Classification

Amber
Amber
can be classified into several forms. Most fundamentally, there are two types of plant resin with the potential for fossilization. Terpenoids, produced by conifers and angiosperms, consist of ring structures formed of isoprene (C5H8) units.[2] Phenolic resins are today only produced by angiosperms, and tend to serve functional uses. The extinct medullosans produced a third type of resin, which is often found as amber within their veins.[2] The composition of resins is highly variable; each species produces a unique blend of chemicals which can be identified by the use of pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.[2] The overall chemical and structural composition is used to divide ambers into five classes.[32][33] There is also a separate classification of amber gemstones, according to the way of production.

Class I

This class is by far the most abundant. It comprises labdatriene carboxylic acids such as communic or ozic acids.[32] It is further split into three sub-classes. Classes Ia and Ib utilize regular labdanoid diterpenes (e.g. communic acid, communol, biformenes), while Ic uses enantio labdanoids (ozic acid, ozol, enantio biformenes).[34]

Ia

Includes Succinite (= 'normal' Baltic amber) and Glessite.[33] Have a communic acid base. They also include much succinic acid.[32]

Baltic amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. Baltic amber
Baltic amber
is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, hence the name succinite. Succinite
Succinite
has a hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to 1.10.[17] It can be distinguished from other ambers via IR spectroscopy due to a specific carbonyl absorption peak. IR spectroscopy
IR spectroscopy
can detect the relative age of an amber sample. Succinic acid
Succinic acid
may not be an original component of amber, but rather a degradation product of abietic acid.[35]

Ib

Like class Ia ambers, these are based on communic acid; however, they lack succinic acid.[32]

Ic

This class is mainly based on enantio-labdatrienonic acids, such as ozic and zanzibaric acids.[32] Its most familiar representative is Dominican amber.[2]

Dominican amber
Dominican amber
differentiates itself from Baltic amber by being mostly transparent and often containing a higher number of fossil inclusions. This has enabled the detailed reconstruction of the ecosystem of a long-vanished tropical forest.[36] Resin
Resin
from the extinct species Hymenaea
Hymenaea
protera"> Hymenaea
Hymenaea
protera
is the source of Dominican amber
Dominican amber
and probably of most amber found in the tropics. It is not "succinite" but "retinite".[37]

Class II

These ambers are formed from resins with a sesquiterpenoid base, such as cadinene.[32]

Class III

These ambers are polystyrenes.[32]

Class IV

Class IV is something of a wastebasket; its ambers are not polymerized, but mainly consist of cedrene-based sesquiterpenoids.[32]

Class V

Class V resins are considered to be produced by a pine or pine relative. They comprise a mixture of diterpinoid resins and n-alkyl compounds. Their main variety is Highgate copalite.[33]

Geological record

Typical amber specimen with a number of indistinct inclusions

The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper Carboniferous period (320 million years ago).[2][38] Its chemical composition makes it difficult to match the amber to its producers – it is most similar to the resins produced by flowering plants; however, there are no flowering plant fossils until the Cretaceous, and they were not common until the Upper Cretaceous. Amber
Amber
becomes abundant long after the Carboniferous, in the Early Cretaceous, 150 million years ago,[2] when it is found in association with insects. The oldest amber with arthropod inclusions comes from the Levant, from Lebanon and Jordan. This amber, roughly 125–135 million years old, is considered of high scientific value, providing evidence of some of the oldest sampled ecosystems.[39]

In Lebanon, more than 450 outcrops of Lower Cretaceous amber were discovered by Dany Azar,[40] a Lebanese paleontologist and entomologist. Among these outcrops, 20 have yielded biological inclusions comprising the oldest representatives of several recent families of terrestrial arthropods. Even older, Jurassic amber has been found recently in Lebanon as well. Many remarkable insects and spiders were recently discovered in the amber of Jordan including the oldest zorapterans, clerid beetles, umenocoleid roaches, and achiliid planthoppers.[39]

Baltic amber
Baltic amber
or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber[17]) is found as irregular nodules in marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Prussia (in historical sources also referred to as Glaesaria).[17] After 1945, this territory around Königsberg was turned into Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast"> Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, Russia, where amber is now systematically mined.[41]

It appears, however, to have been partly derived from older Eocene deposits and it occurs also as a derivative phase in later formations, such as glacial drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.[24]

Paleontological significance

Amber
Amber
is a unique preservational mode, preserving otherwise unfossilizable parts of organisms; as such it is helpful in the reconstruction of ecosystems as well as organisms;[42] the chemical composition of the resin, however, is of limited utility in reconstructing the phylogenetic affinity of the resin producer.[2]

Amber
Amber
sometimes contains animals or plant matter that became caught in the resin as it was secreted. Insects, spiders and even their webs, annelids, frogs,[43] crustaceans, bacteria and amoebae,[44] marine microfossils,[45] wood, flowers and fruit, hair, feathers[4] and other small organisms have been recovered in Cretaceous ambers (deposited c. 130 million years ago).[2] The oldest amber to bear fossils (mites) is from the Carnian (Triassic, 230 million years ago) of north-eastern Italy.[46]

Use

Solutrean of Cave
Cave
of Altamira">Altamira – MHNT

Amber
Amber
has been used since prehistory (Solutrean) in the manufacture of jewelry and ornaments, and also in folk medicine.

Jewelry

Amber
Amber
has been used as jewelry since the Stone Age, from 13,000 years ago.[2] Amber
Amber
ornaments have been found in Mycenaean tombs and elsewhere across Europe.[47] To this day it is used in the manufacture of smoking and glassblowing mouthpieces.[48][49] Amber's place in culture and tradition lends it a tourism value; Amber
Amber
Museum">Palanga Amber
Amber
Museum is dedicated to the fossilized resin.

Historic medicinal uses

Amber
Amber
has long been used in folk medicine for its purported healing properties.[50] Amber
Amber
and extracts were used from the time of Hippocrates in ancient Greece for a wide variety of treatments through the Middle Ages and up until the early twentieth century. Template
Template
Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]

Scent of amber and amber perfumery

Lithuanian amber jewelry

In ancient China, it was customary to burn amber during large festivities. If amber is heated under the right conditions, oil of amber is produced, and in past times this was combined carefully with nitric acid to create "artificial musk" – a resin with a peculiar musky odor.[51] Although when burned, amber does give off a characteristic "pinewood" fragrance, modern products, such as perfume, do not normally use actual amber due to the fact that fossilized amber produces very little scent. In perfumery, scents referred to as “amber” are often created and patented[52][53] to emulate the opulent golden warmth of the fossil.[54]

The modern name for amber is thought to come from the Arabic
Arabic
language">Arabic word, ambar, meaning ambergris.[55][56] Ambergris
Ambergris
is the waxy aromatic substance created in the intestines of sperm whales and was used in making perfumes both in ancient times as well as modern.

The scent of amber was originally derived from emulating the scent of ambergris and/or labdanum but due to the endangered species status of the sperm whale the scent of amber is now largely derived from labdanum.[57] The term “amber” is loosely used to describe a scent that is warm, musky, rich and honey-like, and also somewhat earthy. It can be synthetically created or derived from natural resins. When derived from natural resins it is most often created out of labdanum. Benzoin is usually part of the recipe. Vanilla and cloves are sometimes used to enhance the aroma.

"Amber" perfumes may be created using combinations of labdanum, Benzoin
Benzoin
resin">benzoin resin, copal (itself a type of tree resin used in incense manufacture), vanilla, Dammara resin and/or synthetic materials.[51]

Symbolism

Due to its color Amber
Amber
is associated with solar energy. It was believed in Ancient China
Ancient China
that resin was formed from tiger remains, thus it embodies courage. The word used for amber in ancient Chinese literally meant "tiger soul."

According to mythology, many deities shed tears of amber; in Greek mythology sisters of Phaeton turned into weeping pine trees as they wailed for their brother's death after he rashly drove his father's (Helio's) sun chariot. [58]

Imitation

Imitation made in natural resins

Young resins, these are used as imitations:[59]

Imitations made of plastics

Plastics, these are used as imitations:[60]

  • Stained glass (inorganic material) and other ceramic materials
  • Celluloid
  • Cellulose
    Cellulose
    nitrate (first obtained in 1833[61]) — a product of treatment of cellulose with nitration mixture.[62]
  • Acetylcellulose (not in the use at present)
  • Galalith or "artificial horn" (condensation product of casein and formaldehyde), other trade names: Alladinite, Erinoid, Lactoid.[61]
  • Casein — a conjugated protein forming from the casein precursor – caseinogen.[63]
  • Resolane (phenolic resins or phenoplasts, not in the use at present)
  • Bakelite resine (resol, phenolic resins), product from Africa are known under the misleading name "African amber".
  • Carbamide resins — melamine, formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resins.[62]
  • Epoxy novolac (phenolic resins), unofficial name "antique amber", not in the use at present
  • Polyesters (Polish amber imitation) with styrene. Ex.: unsaturated polyester resins (polymals) are produced by Chemical Industrial Works "Organika" in Sarzyna, Poland; estomal are produced by Laminopol firm. Polybern or sticked amber is artificial resins the curled chips are obtained, whereas in the case of amber – small scraps. "African amber" (polyester, synacryl is then probably other name of the same resine) are produced by Reichhold firm; Styresol trade mark or alkid resin (used in Russia, Reichhold, Inc. patent, 1948.[64]
  • Polyethylene
  • Epoxy resins
  • Polystyrene and polystyrene-like polymers (vinyl polymers).[65]
  • The resins of acrylic type (vinyl polymers[65]), especially polymethyl methacrylate PMMA (trade mark Plexiglass, metaplex).

See also

References

  1. ^ Jessamyn Reeves-Brown (November 1997). "Mastering New Materials: Commissioning an Amber
    Amber
    Bow". Strings (65). Archived from the original on 14 May 2004. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
     
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Grimaldi, D. (2009). "Pushing Back Amber
    Amber
    Production". Science. 326 (5949): 51–2. Bibcode:2009Sci...326...51G. doi:10.1126/science.1179328. PMID 19797645.
     
  3. ^ a b "Amber" (2004). In Maxine N. Lurie and Marc Mappen (eds.) Encyclopedia of New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0813533252.
  4. ^ a b St. Fleur, Nicholas (8 December 2016). "That Thing With Feathers Trapped in Amber? It Was a Dinosaur Tail". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  5. ^ Poinar GO, Poinar R. (1995) The quest for life in amber. Basic Books, ISBN 0-201-48928-7, p. 133
  6. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "amber". Online Etymology Dictionary.  and "amber". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary, D N MacKenzie, Oxford University Press, 1971, ISBN 0 19 713559 5
  8. ^ see: Abu Zaid al Hassan from Siraf & Sulaiman the Merchant (851), Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in Asia).[clarification needed]
  9. ^ Homeric (Iliad 6.513, 19.398). The feminine Ancient Greek
    Ancient Greek
    language text">ἠλεκτρίς
    being later used as a name of the Moon. King, Rev. C.W. (1867). The Natural History of Gems or Decorative Stones. Cambridge (UK). p. 315. 
  10. ^ The derivation of the modern term "electric" from the Greek word for amber dates to the 1600 (Latin electricus "amber-like", in De Magnete by William Gilbert). Heilbron, J.L. (1979). Electricity
    Electricity
    in the 17th and 18th Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics
    . University of California Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-520-03478-5.
     . The word "electron" (for the fundamental particle) was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney whilst analyzing elementary charges for the first time. Aber, Susie Ward. "Welcome to the World of Amber". Emporia State University. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. . "Origin of word Electron". Patent-invent.com. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  11. ^ Michael R. Collings, Gemlore: An Introduction to Precious and Semi-Precious Stones, 2009, p. 20
  12. ^ Natural History 37.11.
  13. ^ Natural History IV.27.13 or IV.13.95 in the Loeb edition.
  14. ^ Compare succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana
  15. ^ Bernstein
  16. ^ https://ru.wiktionary.org/php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=%D1%8F%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8C
  17. ^ a b c d e Rudler 1911, p. 792.
  18. ^ Manuel Villanueva-García, Antonio Martínez-Richa, and Juvencio Robles Assignment of vibrational spectra of labdatriene derivatives and ambers: A combined experimental and density functional theoretical study Arkivoc (EJ-1567C) pp. 449–458
  19. ^ Rice, Patty C. (2006). Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages. 4th Ed. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4259-3849-3. 
  20. ^ Poinar, George O. (1992) Life in amber. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, p. 12, ISBN 0804720010
  21. ^ Lambert, JB; Poinar Jr, GO (2002). "Amber: the organic gemstone". Accounts of Chemical Research. 35 (8): 628–36. doi:10.1021/ar0001970. PMID 12186567. 
  22. ^ Wolfe, A. P.; Tappert, R.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Boudreau, M.; McKellar, R. C.; Basinger, J. F.; Garrett, A. (30 June 2009). "A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1672): 3403–3412. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0806. PMC 2817186Freely accessible. PMID 19570786. 
  23. ^ Sherborn, Charles Davies. "Natural Science: A Monthly Review of Scientific Progress, Volume 1". 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Rudler 1911, p. 793.
  25. ^ Amos, Jonathan (1 April 2008). "BBC News, " Secret 'dino bugs' revealed", 1 April 2008". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  26. ^ "The History of Russian Amber, Part 1: The Beginning", Leta.st
  27. ^ Amber
    Amber
    Trade and the Environment in the Kaliningrad
    Kaliningrad
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Attribution
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainRudler, Frederick William (1911). " Amber
    Amber
    (resin)">Amber". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 792–794.
     

Bibliography

External links