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The Info List - Amarna Letters





The Amarna
Amarna
letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna
Amarna
correspondence or Amarna
Amarna
tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan
Canaan
and Amurru during the New Kingdom. The letters were found in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
at Amarna, the modern name for the ancient Egyptian capital of Akhetaten (el-Amarna), founded by pharaoh Akhenaten
Akhenaten
(1350s – 1330s BC) during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. The Amarna
Amarna
letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt. The known tablets total 382: 24 tablets had been recovered since the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's landmark edition of the Amarna
Amarna
letters, Die El-Amarna-Tafel, published in two volumes (1907 and 1915).[1] The written correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years. The Amarna
Amarna
letters are of great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times. The letters, though written in Akkadian, are heavily colored by the mother tongue of their writers, who spoke an early form of Canaanite, the language family which would later evolve into its daughter languages, Hebrew and Phoenician. These "Canaanisms" provide valuable insights into the proto-stage of those languages several centuries prior to their first actual manifestation.[2][3]

Contents

1 The letters

1.1 Letter summary

2 Amarna
Amarna
letters list

2.1 Chronology

3 Quotations and phrases

3.1 Bird in a Cage 3.2 "A brick may move.." 3.3 "For the lack of a cultivator.." 3.4 "Hale like the Sun..." 3.5 "I looked this way, and I looked..." 3.6 "May the Lady of Gubla.." 3.7 a pot held in pledge 3.8 7 times and 7 times again 3.9 I fall ... 7 times and 7..."on the back and on the stomach" 3.10 when an ant is struck..

4 Example, single letter photo gallery, multiple sides 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

The letters[edit]

Amarna
Amarna
letter EA 153 from Abimilku.

These letters, comprising cuneiform tablets written primarily in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered around 1887 by local Egyptians who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city of Amarna, and sold them in the antiquities market. They had originally been stored in an ancient building that archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh. Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who successfully recovered more tablets was Flinders Petrie, who in 1891 and 1892 uncovered 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat, then director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums.[4] The initial group of letters recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Germany, England, Egypt, France, Russia, and the United States. Either 202 or 203 tablets are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum
Vorderasiatisches Museum
in Berlin; 99 are at the British Museum
British Museum
in London;[5] 49 or 50 are at the Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
in Cairo; 7 at the Louvre
Louvre
in Paris; 3 at the Pushkin Museum
Pushkin Museum
in Moscow; and 1 in the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.[6] The archive contains a wealth of information about cultures, kingdoms, events and individuals in a period from which few written sources survive. It includes correspondence from Akhenaten's reign (Akhenaten who was also titled Amenhotep IV), as well as his predecessor Amenhotep III's reign. The tablets consist of over 300 diplomatic letters; the remainder comprise miscellaneous literary and educational materials. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Canaan, and Alashiya
Alashiya
(Cyprus) as well as relations with the Mitanni, and the Hittites. The letters have been important in establishing both the history and the chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king, Kadashman-Enlil
Kadashman-Enlil
I, anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC. They also contain the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews
Hebrews
— due to the similarity of the words and their geographic location — remains debated. Other rulers involved in the letters include Tushratta of Mitanni, Lib'ayu
Lib'ayu
of Shechem, Abdi-Heba
Abdi-Heba
of Jerusalem, and the quarrelsome king, Rib-Hadda, of Byblos, who, in over 58 letters, continuously pleads for Egyptian military help. Specifically, the letters include requests for military help in the north against Hittite invaders, and in the south to fight against the Habiru.[7]

Letter summary[edit]

Map of the ancient Near East
Near East
during the Amarna
Amarna
period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt
Egypt
(green), Mycenaean Greece (orange), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon
Babylon
(purple), Assyria (grey), and Mitanni
Mitanni
(red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence.

Amarna
Amarna
Letters are politically arranged in rough counterclockwise fashion:

001–014 Babylonia 015–016 Assyria 017–030 Mitanni 031–032 Arzawa 033–040 Alashiya 041–044 Hatti 045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/Canaan

Amarna
Amarna
Letters from Syria/Lebanon/ Canaan
Canaan
are distributed roughly:

045–067 Syria 068–227 Lebanon (where 68–140 are from Gubla aka Byblos) 227–380 Canaan
Canaan
(written mostly in the Canaano-Akkadian language).

Amarna
Amarna
letters list[edit] Note: Many assignments are tentative; spellings vary widely. This is just a guide.

EA# Letter author to recipient

EA# 1 Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
to Babylon
Babylon
king Kadashman-Enlil

EA# 2 Babylon
Babylon
king Kadashman-Enlil
Kadashman-Enlil
to Amenhotep 3

EA# 3 Babylon
Babylon
king Kadashman-Enlil
Kadashman-Enlil
to Amenhotep 3

EA# 4 Babylon
Babylon
king Kadashman-Enlil
Kadashman-Enlil
to Amenhotep 3

EA# 5 Amenhotep 3 to Babylon
Babylon
king KadashmanEnlil

EA# 6 Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash II
Burna-Buriash II
to Amenhotep 3

EA# 7 Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep IV

EA# 8 Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4

EA# 9 Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4

EA# 10 Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4

EA# 11 Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash 2 to Amenhotep 4

EA# 12 princess to her lord

EA# 13 Babylon

EA# 14 Amenhotep 4 to Babylon
Babylon
king Burna-Buriash 2

EA# 15 Assyria
Assyria
king Ashur-Uballit I to Amenhotep 4

EA# 16 Assyria
Assyria
king Ashur-Uballit 1 to Amenhotep 4

EA# 17 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 18 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 19 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 20 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 21 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 22 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 23 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 24 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3

EA# 25 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4

EA# 26 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to widow Tiy

EA# 27 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4

EA# 28 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4

EA# 29 Mitanni
Mitanni
king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4

EA# 30 Mitanni
Mitanni
king to Palestine kings

EA# 31 Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa
Arzawa
king Tarhundaraba

EA# 32 Arzawa
Arzawa
king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)

EA# 33 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #1

EA# 34 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #2

EA# 35 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #3

EA# 36 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #4

EA# 37 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #5

EA# 38 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #6

EA# 39 Alashiya
Alashiya
king to pharaoh #7

EA# 40 Alashiya
Alashiya
minister to Egypt
Egypt
minister

EA# 41 Hittite king Suppiluliuma
Suppiluliuma
to Huri[a]

EA# 42 Hittite king to pharaoh

EA# 43 Hittite king to pharaoh

EA# 44 Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh

EA# 45 Ugarit
Ugarit
king [M]istu ... to pharaoh

EA# 46 Ugarit
Ugarit
king ... to king

EA# 47 Ugarit
Ugarit
king ... to king

EA# 48 Ugarit
Ugarit
queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen

EA# 49 Ugarit
Ugarit
king Niqm-Adda II
Niqm-Adda II
to pharaoh

EA# 50 woman to her mistress B[i]...

EA#051 Nuhasse
Nuhasse
king Addunirari to pharaoh

EA#052 Qatna
Qatna
king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1

EA#053 Qatna
Qatna
king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2

EA#054 Qatna
Qatna
king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3

EA#055 Qatna
Qatna
king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4

EA#056 ... to king

EA#057 ...

EA#058

EA#058 [Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverse

EA#059 Tunip
Tunip
peoples to pharaoh

EA#060 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta
Abdi-Asirta
to pharaoh #1

EA#061 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta
Abdi-Asirta
to pharaoh #2

EA#062 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta
Abdi-Asirta
to Pahanate

EA#063 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta
Abdi-Asirta
to pharaoh #3

EA#064 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta
Abdi-Asirta
to pharaoh #4

EA#065 Amurru king Abdi-Asirta
Abdi-Asirta
to pharaoh #5

EA#066 --- to king

EA#067 --- to king

EA#068 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #1

EA#069 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Egypt
Egypt
official

EA#070 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #2

EA#071 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Haia(?)

EA#072 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #3

EA#073 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Amanappa #1

EA#074 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #4

EA#075 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #5

EA#076 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #6

EA#077 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Amanappa #2

EA#078 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #7

EA#079 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #8

EA#080 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #9

EA#081 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #10

EA#082 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Amanappa #3

EA#083 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #11

EA#084 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #12

EA#085 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #13

EA#086 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Amanappa #4

EA#087 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Amanappa #5

EA#088 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #14

EA#089 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #15

EA#090 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #16

EA#091 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #17

EA#092 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #18

EA#093 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Amanappa #6

EA#094 Gubla man to pharaoh

EA#095 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to chief

EA#096 chief to Rib-Addi

EA#097 Iapah-Addi to Sumu-Hadi

EA#098 Iapah-Addi to Ianhamu

EA#099 pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)

EA#100 Irqata
Irqata
peoples

EA#1001 Tagi to Lab-Aya

EA#101 Gubla man to Egypt
Egypt
official

EA#102 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to [Ianha]m[u]

EA#103 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #19

EA#104 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #20

EA#105 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #21

EA#106 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #22

EA#107 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #23

EA#108 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #24

EA#109 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #25

EA#110 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #26

EA#111 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #27

EA#112 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #28

EA#113 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to Egypt
Egypt
official

EA#114 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #29

EA#115 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #30

EA#116 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #31

EA#117 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #32

EA#118 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #33

EA#119 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #34

EA#120 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #35

EA#121 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #36

EA#122 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #37

EA#123 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #38

EA#124 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #39

EA#125 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #40

EA#126 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #41

EA#127 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #42

EA#128 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #43

EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #44

EA#129 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #45

EA#130 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #46

EA#131 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #47

EA#132 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #48

EA#133 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #49

EA#134 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #50

EA#135 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #51

EA#136 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #52

EA#137 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #53

EA#138 Gubal king Rib-Addi
Rib-Addi
to pharaoh #54

EA#139 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1

EA#140 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2

EA#141 Beruta king Ammunira
Ammunira
to pharaoh #1

EA#142 Beruta king Ammunira
Ammunira
to pharaoh #2

EA#143 Beruta king Ammunira
Ammunira
to pharaoh #3

EA#144 Zidon
Zidon
king Zimriddi to pharaoh

EA#145 [Z]imrid[a] to an official

EA#146 Tyre king Abi-Milki to pharaoh #1

EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2

EA#148 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3

EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4

EA#150 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5

EA#151 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6

EA#152 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7

EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8

EA#154 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9

EA#155 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10

EA#156 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1

EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2

EA#158 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1

EA#159 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3

EA#160 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4

EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5

EA#162 pharaoh to Amurra prince

EA#163 pharaoh to ...

EA#164 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2

EA#165 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6

EA#166 Amurru king Aziri to Hai

EA#167 Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)

EA#168 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7

EA#169 Amurru son of Aziri to an Egypt
Egypt
official

EA#170 Ba-Aluia & Battiilu

EA#171 Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh

EA#172 ---

EA#173 ... to king

EA#174 Bieri of Hasabu

EA#175 Ildaja of Hazi
Hazi
to king

EA#176 Abdi-Risa

EA#177 Guddasuna king Jamiuta

EA#178 Hibija to a chief

EA#179 ... to king

EA#180 ... to king

EA#181 ... to king

EA#182 Mittani
Mittani
king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1

EA#183 Mittani
Mittani
king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2

EA#184 Mittani
Mittani
king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3

EA#185 Hazi
Hazi
king Majarzana to king

EA#186 Majarzana of Hazi
Hazi
to king #2

EA#187 Satija of ... to king

EA#188 ... to king

EA#189 Qadesh mayor Etakkama

EA#190 pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)

EA#191 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king

EA#192 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2

EA#193 Dijate to king

EA#194 Damascus
Damascus
mayor Biryawaza to king #1

EA#195 Damascus
Damascus
mayor Biryawaza to king #2

EA#196 Damascus
Damascus
mayor Biryawaza to king #3

EA#197 Damascus
Damascus
mayor Biryawaza to king #4

EA#198 Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi
Kumidi
to king

EA#199 ... the king

EA#200 servant to king

EA#2001 Sealants

EA#2002 Sealants

EA#201 Artemanja of Ziribasani to king

EA#202 Amajase to king

EA#203 Abdi-Milki of Sashimi

EA#204 prince of Qanu
Qanu
to king

EA#205 Gubbu prince to king

EA#206 prince of Naziba
Naziba
to king

EA#207 Ipteh ... to king

EA#208 ... to Egypt
Egypt
official or king

EA#209 Zisamimi to king

EA#210 Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep IV

EA#2100 Carchemish
Carchemish
king to Ugarit
Ugarit
king Asukwari

EA#211 Zitrijara to king #1

EA#2110 Ewiri-Shar to Plsy

EA#212 Zitrijara to king #2

EA#213 Zitrijara to king #3

EA#214 ... to king

EA#215 Baiawa to king #1

EA#216 Baiawa to king #2

EA#217 A[h]... to king

EA#218 ... to king

EA#219 ... to king

EA#220 Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to king

EA#221 Wiktazu to king #1

EA#222 pharaoh to Intaruda

EA#222 Wik[tazu] to king #2

EA#223 En[g]u[t]a to king

EA#224 Sum-Add[a] to king

EA#225 Sum-Adda of Samhuna to king

EA#226 Sipturi_ to king

EA#227 Hazor king

EA#228 Hazor king Abdi-Tirsi

EA#229 Abdi-na-... to king

EA#230 Iama to king

EA#231 ... to king

EA#232 Acco king Zurata to pharaoh

EA#233 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1

EA#234 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2

EA#235 Zitatna/(Zatatna) to king

EA#236 ... to king

EA#237 Bajadi to king

EA#238 Bajadi

EA#239 Baduzana

EA#240 ... to king

EA#241 Rusmania to king

EA#242 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1

EA#243 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2

EA#244 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3

EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4

EA#246 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5

EA#247 Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata

EA#248 Ja[sd]ata to king

EA#248 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh

EA#249

EA#249 Addu-Ur-sag to king

EA#250 Addu-Ur-sag to king

EA#2500 Shechem

EA#251 ... to Egypt
Egypt
official

EA#252 Labaja to king

EA#253 Labaja to king

EA#254 Labaja to king

EA#255 Mut-Balu or Mut-Bahlum to king

EA#256 Mut-Balu to Ianhamu

EA#257 Balu-Mihir to king #1

EA#258 Balu-Mihir to king #2

EA#259 Balu-Mihir to king #3

EA#260 Balu-Mihir to king #4

EA#261 Dasru to king #1

EA#262 Dasru to king #2

EA#263 ... to lord

EA#264 Gezer
Gezer
leader Tagi to pharaoh #1

EA#265 Gezer
Gezer
leader Tagi to pharaoh #2

EA#266 Gezer
Gezer
leader Tagi to pharaoh #3

EA#267 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1

EA#268 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2

EA#269 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3

EA#270 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4

EA#271 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5

EA#272 Sum. .. to king

EA#273 Ba-Lat-Nese to king

EA#274 Ba-Lat-Nese to king #2

EA#275 Iahazibada to king #1

EA#276 Iahazibada to king #2

EA#277 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1

EA#278 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2

EA#279 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3

EA#280 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3

EA#281 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4

EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5

EA#283 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6

EA#284 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7

EA#285 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
king Abdi-Hiba
Abdi-Hiba
to pharaoh

EA#286 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
king AbdiHiba to pharaoh

EA#287 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
king AbdiHiba to pharaoh

EA#288 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
king AbdiHiba to pharaoh

EA#289 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
king AbdiHiba to pharaoh

EA#290 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
king AbdiHiba to pharaoh

EA#290 Qiltu king Suwardata to king

EA#291 ... to ...

EA#292 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1

EA#293 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2

EA#294 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3

EA#295 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4

EA#296 Gaza king Iahtiri

EA#297 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Iapah[i] to pharaoh #1

EA#298 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2

EA#299 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3

EA#300 Gezer
Gezer
mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4

EA#301 Subandu to king #1

EA#302 Subandu to king #2

EA#303 Subandu to king #3

EA#304 Subandu to king #4

EA#305 Subandu to king #5

EA#306 Subandu to king #6

EA#307 ... to king

EA#308 ... to king

EA#309 ... to king

EA#310 ... to king

EA#311 ... to king

EA#312 ... to king

EA#313 ... to king

EA#314 Jursa king Pu-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1

EA#315 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2

EA#316 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh

EA#317 Dagantakala to king #1

EA#318 Dagantakala to king #2

EA#319 A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to king

EA#320 Asqalon king Yidia to pharaoh #1

EA#321 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2

EA#322 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3

EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4

EA#324 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5

EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6

EA#326 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7

EA#327 ... the king

EA#328 Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh

EA#329 Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh

EA#330 Lakis mayor Sipti-Ba-Lu to pharaoh #1

EA#331 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2

EA#332 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3

EA#333 Ebi to a prince

EA#334 ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king

EA#335 --- [of Z]uhr[u] to king

EA#336 Hiziri to king #1

EA#337 Hiziri to king #2

EA#338 Zi. .. to king

EA#339 ... to king

EA#340 ...

EA#341 ...

EA#342 ...

EA#356 myth of Adapa and the South Wind

EA#357 myth the Ereskigal and Nergal

EA#358 myth fragments

EA#359 myth Epic of King of Battle

EA#360 ...

EA#361 ...

EA#362 ...

EA#364 Aiab to king

EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh

EA#366 ...

EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa

EA#xxx Amenhotep III
Amenhotep III
to Milkili

H#3100 Tell el-Hesi

P#3200 Pella prince Mut-Balu to Yanhamu

P#3210 Lion Woman to king

T#3002 Amenhotep to Taanach
Taanach
king Rewassa

T#3005 Amenhotep to Taanach
Taanach
king Rewassa

T#3006 Amenhotep to Taanach
Taanach
king Rewassa

U#4001 Ugarit
Ugarit
king Niqmaddu

Chronology[edit] William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows:

Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, and these provide only a broad framework within which many and often quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna
Amarna
letters are possible and have been defended. ...The Amarna
Amarna
archive, it is now generally agreed, spans at most about thirty years, perhaps only fifteen or so.[8]

From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC (or 1391 to 1353 BC), possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
later in the same century in 1332 BC. Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay.[9] However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna
Amarna
archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun, when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna
Amarna
to Thebes. Quotations and phrases[edit] A small number of the Amarna
Amarna
letters are in the class of poetry. An example is EA 153, (EA is for 'el Amarna'). EA 153, entitled: "Ships on hold", from Abimilku of Tyre is a short, 20-line letter. Lines 6-8, and 9-11 are parallel phrases, each ending with "...before the troops of the king, my lord."-('before', then line 8, line 11). Both sentences are identical, and repetitive, with only the subject statement changing. The entire corpus of Amarna
Amarna
letters has many standard phrases. It also has some phrases, and quotations used only once. Some are parables: (EA 252: "...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"....) Bird in a Cage[edit]

A bird in a cage (Trap)— Rib-Hadda
Rib-Hadda
subcorpus of letters. (Rib-Hadda was trapped in Gubla-(Byblos), unable to move freely.)

"A brick may move.."[edit]

A brick may move from under its partner, still I will not move from under the feet of the king, my lord.—Used in letters EA 266, 292, and 296. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.

"For the lack of a cultivator.."[edit]

"For the lack of a cultivator, my field is like a woman without a husband."— Rib-Hadda
Rib-Hadda
letter EA 75

"Hale like the Sun..."[edit]

"And know that the King-(pharaoh) is Hale like the Sun in the Sky. For his troops and his chariots in multitude all goes very well...."—See: Endaruta, for the Short Form; See: Milkilu, for a Long Form. Also found in EA 99: entitled: "From the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
to a vassal". (with addressee damaged)

"I looked this way, and I looked..."[edit]

"I looked this way, and I looked that way, and there was no light. Then I looked towards the king, my lord, and there was light."—EA 266 by Tagi (Ginti mayor); EA 296 by Yahtiru.

"May the Lady of Gubla.."[edit]

"May the Lady of Gubla grant power to the king, my lord."—varieties of the phrase in the Rib-Hadda
Rib-Hadda
letters

a pot held in pledge[edit]

a pot held in pledge—The Pot of a Debt. EA 292 by Adda-danu of Gazru.

7 times and 7 times again[edit]

7 times and 7 times—Over and over again 7 times plus 7—EA 189, See: " Etakkama of Kadesh"(title)-(Qidšu)

I fall ... 7 times and 7..."on the back and on the stomach"[edit]

I fall, at the feet, ... 7 times and 7 times, "on the back and on the stomach"—EA 316, by Pu-Ba'lu, and used in numerous letters to pharaoh. See: Commissioner: Tahmašši.

when an ant is struck..[edit]

"...when an ant is pinched (struck), does it not fight back and bite the hand of the man that struck it?"—A phrase used by Labayu defending his actions of overtaking cities, EA 252. Title: "Sparing one's enemies".

Example, single letter photo gallery, multiple sides[edit] Amarna
Amarna
letter EA 15, from Ashur-uballit I; see also Amarna
Amarna
letter EA 153.

Obverse

line drawing, Obverse

Reverse

View from bottom

See also[edit]

Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
portal Ancient Near East
Near East
portal

Abdi-Heba Labaya Ashur-uballit I Mutbaal Suwardata See the town of "Lakiša", Lachish, for "find" of one tablet, EA 333 Amarna
Amarna
letters–localities and their rulers List of artifacts significant to the Bible Mari Tablets New Chronology
Chronology
(Rohl) Foreign relations of Egypt
Egypt
during the Amarna
Amarna
period

Notes[edit]

^ Moran, William L. (1992). The Amarna
Amarna
Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. xiv. ISBN 0-8018-4251-4.  ^ F.M.T. de Liagre Böhl, Die Sprache der Amarnabriefe, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kanaanismen ('The language of the Amarna letters, with special attention to the Canaanisms'), Leipzig
Leipzig
1909. ^ Eva von Dassow, 'Canaanite in Cuneiform', Journal of the American Oriental Society 124/4 (2004): 641–674. (pdf) ^ Moran, p.xv ^ British Museum
British Museum
Collection ^ Moran, pp.xiii-xiv ^ El- Amarna
Amarna
Tablets, article at West Semitic Research Project, website of University of Southern California accessed 2/8/15. ^ Moran, p.xxxiv ^ Moran, p.xxxv, n.123

References[edit]

Smith, Janet (2011). Dust or dew: Immortality in the Ancient Near East and in Psalm 49. Eugene, OR, USA: Wipf and Stock. p. 286. ISBN 978-1-60899-661-2.  Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I. & Na'aman, N., Inscribed in Clay - Provenance Study of the Amarna
Amarna
Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004. ISBN 965-266-020-5 Knudtzon, Jørgen Alexander (1915). Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. 1. Leipzig.  Knudtzon, Jørgen Alexander (1915). Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. 2. Leipzig. 

Library resources about Amarna
Amarna
letters

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Aruz, Joan, Kim Benzel, and Jean M. Evans, eds. Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008. Cohen, Raymond, and Raymond Westbrook, eds. Amarna
Amarna
Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Moran, William L. The Amarna
Amarna
Letters. English-language ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Mynářová, Jana. Language of Amarna
Amarna
- Language of Diplomacy: Perspectives On the Amarna
Amarna
Letters. Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology; Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, 2007. Petrie, W. M. Flinders Syria
Syria
and Egypt
Egypt
From the Tell El Amarna Letters. Worcester, U.K.: Yare Egyptology, 2004. Rainey, Anson F. Canaanite in the Amarna
Amarna
Tablets: A Linguistic Analysis of the Mixed Dialect Used by Scribes from Canaan. 4 vols. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2010. Rainey, Anson F., and William M. Schniedewind. The El-Amarna Correspondence: A New Edition of the Cuneiform Letters From the Site of El- Amarna
Amarna
Based On Collations of All Extant Tablets. Boston: Brill, 2014. Vita, Juan-Pablo. Canaanite Scribes In the Amarna
Amarna
Letters. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2015.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amarna
Amarna
letters.

High-resolution images, from the Vorderasiatisches Museum
Vorderasiatisches Museum
Berlin. Mineralogical and Chemical Study of the Amarna
Amarna
Tablets - Provenance Study of the Amarna
Amarna
Tablets – University of Tel Aviv web page All 6 views on 1--Sample letter(Mesopotamian)  "The Tell el- Amarna
Amarna
Tablets". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.  Electronic version of the Amarna
Amarna
tablets, Akkadian in English transliteration. Text of some letters, archive.org

v t e

Amarna
Amarna
Period

Pharaohs

Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten Tutankhamun Ay

Royal family

Tiye Nefertiti Kiya "The Younger Lady" Tey

Children

Meritaten Meketaten Ankhesenamun Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tasherit Neferneferure Setepenre Meritaten
Meritaten
Tasherit Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

Nobles Officials

Mutbenret Aperel Bek Huya Meryre II Nakhtpaaten Panehesy Parennefer Penthu Thutmose

Locations

Akhetaten Karnak KV55 KV62 Amarna
Amarna
Tombs

Other

Amarna
Amarna
letters Amarna
Amarna
succession Aten Atenism Dakhamunzu Amar

.

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