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The Info List - Alphonse Juin





Zaian War First World War:

First Battle of the Marne First Battle of Champagne Nivelle Offensive

Rif War Second World War:

Battle of France Tunisia Campaign Italian Campaign

Awards

Marshal of France Grand Croix de la Légion d'honneur Médaille militaire Croix de guerre

(more, see below)

Alphonse Pierre Juin (French pronunciation: ​[alfɔ̃s ʒɥɛ̃]; 16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France. A graduate of the Saint-Cyr class of 1912, he served in Morocco
Morocco
in 1914 in command of native troops. Upon the outbreak of the First World War, he was sent to the Western Front in France, where he was gravely wounded in 1915. As a result of this wound, he lost the use of his right arm. After the war, he attended the École Supérieure de Guerre. He chose to serve in North Africa again. After the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, he assumed command of a division, the 15e Division d'Infantrie Motorisée (fr). The division was encircled in the Lille pocket during the Battle of France
France
and Juin was captured. He was a prisoner of war until he was released at the behest of the Vichy Government
Vichy Government
in 1941, and was assigned to command French forces in North Africa. After Operation Torch, the invasion of Algeria and Morocco
Morocco
by British and American forces in November 1942, Juin ordered French forces in Tunisia to resist the Germans and the Italians. His great skills were exhibited during the Italian campaign as commander of the French Expeditionary Corps. His expertise in mountain warfare was crucial in breaking the Gustav Line, which had held up the Allied advance for six months. Following this assignment he was Chief of Staff of French forces, and represented France
France
at the San Francisco Conference. In 1947 he returned to Africa as the Resident General in Morocco, where he opposed Moroccan attempts to gain independence. Next came a senior NATO
NATO
position as he assumed command of CENTAG until 1956. During his NATO
NATO
command, he was promoted to Marshal of France
France
in 1952. He was greatly opposed to Charles De Gaulle's decision to grant independence to Algeria, and was "retired" in 1962 as a result. He was the French Army's last living Marshal of France
France
until his death in Paris
Paris
in 1967, when he was buried in Les Invalides.

Contents

1 Early years 2 First World War 3 Interwar Period 4 Second World War

4.1 Fall of France 4.2 North African campaign 4.3 Italian campaign 4.4 Chief of Staff

5 Later life 6 Decorations

6.1 French 6.2 Foreign

7 Bibliography 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Early years[edit] Alphonse Juin
Alphonse Juin
was born at Bône
Bône
in French Algeria
French Algeria
on 16 December 1888, the only son of Victor Pierre Juin, a soldier who became a gendarme after 15 years of military service, mostly in Algeria, and his wife Précieuse Salini,[1] the daughter of another soldier and who had become a gendarme. He was named after his paternal grandfather. When he was six, his family moved to Constantine, where he went to primary school, and learnt Arabic from the local boys. In 1902 he was awarded a bursary to study at the Lycée d'Aumale in Constantine.[2] In 1909 he passed the entrance examination for the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr. At that time cadets were required to spend a year in the Army before commencing the course, so he enlisted in an Algerian regiment, the 1er régiment (fr) de Zouaves, quickly rising to corporal and then sergeant. He entered Saint-Cyr in 1910.[2] Classes are named, and his class, the 94th, was known as promotion de Fès
Fès
after the Moroccan city of Fès
Fès
that was at the centre of the Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
of 1911. Among the class of 223, which included eight foreigners from China, Turkey, Iran and Algeria, were future général d'armée Antoine Béthouart, three future généraux de corps d'armée, four future généraux de division and eighteen future généraux de brigade, including Charles de Gaulle. There would remain a special bond between members of the class, and de Gaulle would always address Juin using the personal pronoun tu. Juin, de Gaulle and Béthouart would give their names to the Saint-Cyr classes of 1966–68, 1970–72 and 2000–03 respectively.[3] After graduating on 1 October 1912, Juin was commissioned as a sous-lieutenant in an Algerian regiment, the 1er régiment de tirailleurs algériens (fr). He soon saw service in Morocco
Morocco
in the Zaian War, participating in the fighting around Taza.[4][5] First World War[edit] Upon the outbreak of the First World War
First World War
in August 1914, a brigade of five battalions known as the Brigade des Chasseurs Indigènes was formed from Moroccan troops and sent to the Western Front in France. Juin joined Chef de Bataillon
Chef de Bataillon
Joseph-François Poeymirau's 2e Régiment des Chasseurs Indigènes as a lieutenant.[6] On 5 September, the brigade joined the fighting in the First Battle of the Marne. Juin was wounded in his left hand the following day, but refused evacuation to hospital, remaining at the front with his arm in a sling. He was awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honour. The brigade was withdrawn from the line in January 1915, but committed to battle again in March in the First Battle of Champagne. In this battle Juin was again wounded, this time in his upper right arm. The damage was permanent, and he was given permission to henceforth salute with his left.[7] Juin found Poeymirau, who had also been wounded, in the hospital, and Poeymirau arranged for Juin to be sent back to Morocco
Morocco
in December 1915 to convalesce. Promoted to capitaine, Juin joined Moroccan troops preparing to go to France, but he accepted an offer from Général de division Hubert Lyautey, the Resident-General
Resident-General
in Morocco, to become his aide-de-camp for six months. Juin returned to France
France
towards the end of 1916 in command of a company of the 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains (fr), participating in the Nivelle Offensive in April 1917.[5][8] He was selected for staff training February 1918. When he returned in October 1918, he was initially posted to the staff of his division, but then joined the French Mission to the United States Army, where he was serving when the fighting ended in November 1918.[7] Interwar Period[edit] After the war, Juin returned to the 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains, but was seconded to Lyautey's staff, and then sent to École Supérieure de Guerre
École Supérieure de Guerre
for more staff training. After graduating in 1921, he was posted to the headquarters of the division in Tunisia. He turned down an offer of a staff appointment in Paris
Paris
to serve under Poeymirau in Morocco, but Poeymirau died suddenly in 1924. Lyautey then divided Morocco
Morocco
into two commands. When Juin arrived at the new headquarters in Fès, he found Captaine Jean de Lattre de Tassigny occupying the position of G-3 (Operations) that Juin had expected. Since Juin was staff trained and de Lattre was not, Juin became G-4 (Logistics). His principal task was supplying the forts in the Ouergha River area. During the Rif War
Rif War
he served on the staff of Colonel Charles Noguès. For his services leading troops in the field, Juin was made an officer of the Légion d'honneur
Légion d'honneur
and promoted to commandant.[9] Lyautey was blamed for the French lack of preparedness for the war and relieved of his command. As a marshal, Lyautey was member of the conseil supérieur de la guerre, and as such was entitled to a small staff of three officers. He asked Juin to be its head, and Juin accepted, even though it was a desk job in Paris
Paris
for an officer with little influence who refused to even attend the infrequent conseil meetings due to the presence of Maréchal Philippe Pétain. Juin was best man at de Lattre's wedding to Simonne Calary de Lamazière in March 1927. [10] Juin returned to North Africa in September 1927 to assume command of a battalion of the 7e Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens (fr). He married Marie Gabrielle Cécile Bonnefoy, the daughter of an Army veterinary surgeon who had moved to Constantine and become a businessman, in 1928. They had two sons, Pierre and Michel. The following year he became military secretary to Noguès, who was now the Director of Political Affairs in Morocco. Due to an army requirement that officers complete six months in command of a battalion before they could be promoted, Juin spent six months in command of a battalion of the 1er Régiment de Zouaves.[11] He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel in March 1932,[12] returning to his previous post in time for active operations that year. They were successful, and he was posted to the École supérieure de guerre
École supérieure de guerre
as an instructor in 1933. Once again he chafed under the prevailing linear defence doctrine, and he returned to North Africa in 1935 to become second in command, and then commander, of the 3e Régiment de Zouaves (fr).[13][11] He was promoted to colonel in June 1935.[12] Noguès became Resident-General
Resident-General
in Morocco
Morocco
in 1937, with the expectation that he would become commander in chief in North Africa in the event Of hostilities with Nazi Germany. If this happened, Noguès wanted Juin for his chief of staff, but since Juin was only a colonel, it was arranged for him to attend a senior officers course at the Centre des hautes études militaires. On graduation he returned to Algiers, where he was promoted to the rank of général de brigade on 26 December 1938.[14][12] Second World War[edit] Fall of France[edit] After the Second World War
Second World War
broke out in September 1939, Juin helped arrange the despatch of units from the Armée d'Afrique to help defend metropolitan France. on 4 December, he was given command of the 15e Division d'Infantrie Motorisée (fr) (15e DIM). After the German attack began on 10 May 1940, the 15e DIM was ordered into Belgium to hold the area around Gembloux. This was held against German attacks on 14 and 15 May, before the defenders were compelled to retreat to Valenciennes. The 15e DIM came under heavy German attack on 24 May, and retreated into the Lille pocket, where it covered the British and French forces fighting in the Battle of Dunkirk. Some units of his division managed to escape to Dunkirk; the remainder fought until their ammunition ran out. Juin surrendered on 29 May.[12][15] Juin became a prisoner of war, and was held in Oflag IV-B Koenigstein, a prison camp for officers in Königstein Fortress
Königstein Fortress
in Saxony. While in prison he was promoted to général de division. He was released in June 1941 at the request of Pétain, now the head of the Vichy Government, in exchange for thirty German sailors, as a specialist in North African affairs. He was promoted to Général de corps d'armée on 16 July, and became commander of the troops in Morocco. Admiral François Darlan offered him the post of Minister for War following the death of Général d'armée
Général d'armée
Charles Huntziger
Charles Huntziger
in November 1941, but Juin turned down the offer, saying that he only wished to serve in North Africa. On 20 November, he was promoted to Général de corps d'armée, replacing Weygand as commander of French land forces in North Africa. In December he led a French mission to Germany that met with Reichsmarschall
Reichsmarschall
Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
to discuss what would happen if the German-Italian Panzerarmee Afrika was driven out of Libya by Operation Crusader. This did not occur, but a dispute over what should be done led to Juin relieving de Lattre of command of the forces in Tunisia, permanently damaging their friendship.[12][16] North African campaign[edit] Operation Torch, the invasion of Algeria and Morocco
Morocco
by British and American forces, came as a complete surprise to Juin, who had not been brought into secret discussions concerning the operation.[17] He was informed of the landings by Robert Daniel Murphy, the American consul-general in Algiers, on the morning of on 8 November 1942 as the first waves were heading toward the beaches. Juin had previously told Murphy that his orders were to resist an invasion of North Africa, but he agreed to immediately consult with Darlan, who arrived at Juin's villa within minutes. Darlan, in turn, sent a message to Pétain in Vichy. Murphy was placed under house arrest in Juin's villa, the pro-Allied troops who had surrounded the villa were driven away, and Général de division Charles Mast, who had collaborated with the Allies, was relieved by Général de division Louis Koeltz (fr).[18]

American Major General Geoffrey Keyes
Geoffrey Keyes
(left) with British Major General A. L. Collier (centre), and Juin (right). Note how he salutes with his left arm.

Juin did not want Algeria occupied by the Americans any more than he wanted France
France
occupied by the Germans, but he recognised the reality of the situation.[19] Darlan authorised Juin to negotiate a local ceasefire in Algiers, so Juin met with American Major General Charles W. Ryder, commander of the U.S. 34th Infantry Division, and the two arranged for an end to the fighting. Algiers was handed over to the Americans, French troops were confined to barracks but retained their weapons, and French police maintained law and order.[20] French resistance to the Allies continued elsewhere in North Africa until Darlan issued a ceasefire on 10 November, and directed Juin to order French forces in Tunisia to resist the Germans and the Italians. Juin's orders were not always obeyed by his subordinates in Tunisia, many of whom believed that Darlan and Juin were being held prisoner by the Americans,[21] but he was able to personally persuade Noguès to work with the Allies.[19] In the reorganisation of French forces in North Africa on 13 November, Juin became commander of the Eastern Sector.[21] His command, known as the Détachement d'armée Français, held two distinct sectors on the Tunisian front, one in the north under Général de brigade
Général de brigade
Fernand Barré, and one in the south under Koeltz.[22] His forces were poorly equipped, and when the Germans and Italians counter-attacked, he had to call on the British and Americans for assistance. In January, Juin agreed to a more regular command arrangement, with French forces being concentrated in Koeltz's XIX Corps, which was placed under Lieutenant General Kenneth Anderson's British First Army.[23] Juin was promoted to Général d'armée.[24] He was given a tumultuous welcome from the populace when he entered Tunis after the Allies captured the city in May.[25] De Gaulle appointed Mast as Resident-General
Resident-General
in Tunisia, but Mast was injured in an air crash, and Juin was asked to fill in for him.[24] In this role, Juin joined General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Général d'armée
Général d'armée
Henri Giraud, Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder and Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Kenneth Anderson on the review stand for the victory parade on 20 May.[26] A less savoury part of the job was informing the Muhammad VII al-Munsif, the Bey of Tunisia, that he was being deposed. When Juin was informed that Pétain had stripped him of his French nationality and membership in the legion of honour, he merely noted that he was grateful he had not been sentenced to death.[24] Italian campaign[edit] In July 1943, General Eisenhower, now the Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Mediterranean Theater of Operations
(MTO), raised the possibility of French troops being used in the upcoming Italian campaign with Juin, who accepted on behalf of Giraud, who was in Washington, D.C..[27] Juin was placed in charge of a force known as Détachement d'armée A, which was intended to eventually grow into an army headquarters. Since it would form part of the U.S. Fifth Army, under the lower-ranking American Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Mark W. Clark, Juin styled his command the Corps Expéditionnaire Français (CEF), and took a reduction in rank to Général de corps d'armée. When the first division of the CEF, the 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division (fr) (2e DIM), arrived in November 1943, it was initially placed under the command of American Major General John P. Lucas's U.S. VI Corps. In his diary Lucas noted that Juin "turned out to be not only a splendid soldier but a fine and courteous gentleman as well."[28]

Clark (left) and Juin (right) in Siena, Italy, July 1944.

Juin's CEF relieved Lucas's VI Corps in the line when the CEF's second division, the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division
(3e DIA) arrived in December.[29] For the CEF, the First Battle of Monte Cassino
Battle of Monte Cassino
began on 12 January 1944, with the CEF advancing four miles to the upper Rapido River and the main defences of the German Gustav Line.[30] After the Allied landings at Anzio, codenamed Operation Shingle, on 22 January 1944, he began an attack on Monte Belvedere, about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Monte Cassino.[31] On 29 January, he reported to Clark that "At the cost of unbelievable efforts and great losses," the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division
had "accomplished the mission which you gave them."[32] After three unsuccessful attempts to break the Gustav Line, British General Sir Harold Alexander, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the Allied Armies in Italy
Italy
(AAI, later designated 15th Army Group), decided to make a coordinated attack with both the U.S. Fifth Army and Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Sir Oliver Leese's British Eighth Army,[33] codenamed Operation Diadem.[34] As was the British custom, General Alexander gave his subordinates considerable latitude in how they went about implementing his orders. This allowed Juin to put forward a major modification to the plan. He proposed that the CEF, now increased to four divisions, advance through the rugged Aurunci Mountains and outflank the German positions. He was aware of the difficulty of trying to advance, much less exploit a breakthrough over the mountain trails, but felt that the 4th Moroccan Mountain Division (fr) and Moroccan Goumiers could do it.[35]

A Moroccan Goumier.

According to Clark:

Meantime, the French forces had crossed the Garigliano
Garigliano
(River) and moved forward into the mountainous terrain lying south of the Liri River. It was not easy. As always, the German veterans reacted strongly and there was bitter fighting. The French surprised the enemy and quickly seized key terrain including Mounts Faito Cerasola and high ground near Castelforte. The 1st Motorized Division helped the 2nd Moroccan division take key Mount Girofano and then advanced rapidly north to S. Apollinare and S. Ambrogio. In spite of the stiffening enemy resistance, the 2nd Moroccan Division penetrated the Gustav Line in less than two day's fighting. The next 48 hours on the French front were decisive. The knife-wielding Goumiers swarmed over the hills, particularly at night, and General Juin's entire force showed an aggressiveness hour after hour that the Germans could not withstand. Cerasola, San Giogrio, Mt. D'Oro, Ausonia and Esperia
Esperia
were seized in one of the most brilliant and daring advances of the war in Italy, and by May 16 the French Expeditionary Corps had thrust forward some ten miles on their left flank to Mount Revole, with the remainder of their front slanting back somewhat to keep contact with the British Eighth Army. Only the most careful preparations and the utmost determination made this attack possible, but Juin was that kind of a fighter. Mule pack trains, skilled mountain fighters, and men with the strength to make long night marches through treacherous terrain were needed to succeed in the all-but-impregnable mountain ranges. The French displayed that ability during their sensational advance which Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Siegfried Westphal, the chief of staff to Kesselring, later described as a major surprise both in timing and in aggressiveness. For this performance, which was to be a key to the success of the entire drive on Rome, I shall always be a grateful admirer of General Juin and his magnificent FEC.[36]

Alphonse Juin
Alphonse Juin
Memorial in the Place du Maréchal-Juin in Paris, France.

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Clark made a triumphal entry into Rome, with Juin sitting next to him. For Juin, the experience was bittersweet. He felt that the fruits of his victory had been lost through British caution, and the American obsession with the capture of Rome. His support for continuing the campaign in Italy
Italy
now that the Allies were winning was rejected by the French command. On 4 July, the CEF captured Siena, where it celebrated Bastille Day, and then was withdrawn to participate in Operation Dragoon, codename for the Allied invasion of Southern France. In the wake of allegations of raping and pillaging by his North African troops in the Marocchinate, he took steps to curtail the abuses,[37] with drastic measures, including the death penalty, that were not entirely successful owing to the animosity between the French and Italian people over the events of 1940.[38] Chief of Staff[edit] Following this assignment Juin was appointed Chief of Staff of French forces ("Chef d'État-Major de la Défense Nationale"). He helped persuade Eisenhower to allow Philippe Leclerc's 2nd Armoured Division to carry out the liberation of Paris, and he entered the city with de Gaulle on 25 August 1944. He restored order to the liberated areas, suppressing elements of the French Forces of the Interior
French Forces of the Interior
(FFI) that refused to disband with Spahis that he brought in from North Africa. He arranged with Eisenhower for FFI personnel to be absorbed into four new divisions that guarded the German forces that remained in bypassed garrisons along the Atlantic coast, and the frontier with Italy. [39] During the German Operation Northwind
Operation Northwind
in January 1945, he clashed with Eisenhower's chief of staff, Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Walter B. Smith, over a proposed Allied withdrawal from Alsace and Lorraine. In the event, Eisenhower gave way to political pressure from the British and the French, and the withdrawal was not carried out. Juin also opposed the attack on Royan
Royan
in April 1945, but it was carried out anyway over his objections.[39] Later life[edit] At the time of the end of the war in Europe, Juin was in the United States, where he represented France
France
at the San Francisco Conference.[39] In the immediate post-war period he continued with his task of rebuilding France's armed forces. This was made difficult by the ending of American Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
aid, and the military commitments to the Allied occupation of Germany, and in North Africa, Syria and Italy, where the 1947 Paris
Paris
Peace Treaties made some adjustments to the border. The major looming crisis, though, was the Indochina War. Juin lost his direct access to the President when de Gaulle left office in 1946, and his plans for an Army large enough to handle France's commitments had to be scaled back.[40] In January 1947 Juin returned to Africa as the Resident-General
Resident-General
in Morocco. He opposed Moroccan attempts to gain independence, and worked uneasily with Mohammed V, the Sultan of Morocco, whom Juin correctly suspected of harbouring nationalist sympathies. Juin forbade religious schools and certain gatherings, which he felt were being taken over by nationalists.[41] During his tenure he instituted many administrative reforms, and greatly expanded opportunities for Moroccans, but it was overshadowed by the growing drift to independence.[42] Although Juin visited Indochina in April 1946, and met with Ho Chi Minh, he was not interested in a command there.[40] He likewise turned down an offer in 1948 to command the Western European Union
Western European Union
land forces.[43] He returned to Indochina in October 1950, when he was sent to report on the state of France's efforts there. He produced a damning report, in which he criticised both the strategy and tactics being employed. But he again turned down an offer to command the French forces in Indochina, being far more concerned about the situation in North Africa.[44] In 1952 Juin took up a senior NATO
NATO
position as he assumed command of CENTAG. Once again he served under Eisenhower. He also got along well with his successors, Generals Matthew Ridgway
Matthew Ridgway
and Alfred Gruenther, whom he had known from the campaign in Italy. During his NATO
NATO
command, he was made a Marshal of France
France
in May 1952, the only living holder of that rank. After the French defeat in Indochina in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, Juin was again asked if he would take over command in Indochina. He was greatly moved by the disaster, in which his former aide was killed, but in the end turned the job down again.[45] He retired on 1 October 1956, coinciding with Gruenther's retirement, as he did not wish to serve under any other American general.[46] Juin was greatly opposed to de Gaulle's decision to grant independence to Algeria, although he remained steadfastly loyal to de Gaulle. In the wake of the Algiers putsch of 1961
Algiers putsch of 1961
and the Organisation Armée Secrète terrorist campaign, he was placed under house arrest. He was "retired" and his special privileges as a marshal were taken away. In December 1963, he suffered a thrombosis and was hospitalised in the Val-de-Grâce, where he was visited by de Gaulle.[47] Delirious, Juin spoke of "Constantine, Algeria, my country", to which de Gaulle embraced him and replied "Yes, I know, your country is there".[48] In the event, Juin did not die, but remained frail for the rest of his life. He suffered a heart attack November 1966, and was again taken to the Val-de-Grâce, where he died on 22 January 1967. A funeral was held at Notre Dame de Paris, which was attended by old comrades including Alexander, Ridgway, Béthouart, Marcel Carpentier and de Gaulle, after which Juin was interred in Les Invalides
Les Invalides
with full military honours.[47][49] Decorations[edit] French[edit]

Légion d'honneur

Knight: 10 December 1914 Officer: 28 December 1924 Commander: 1 October 1940 Grand Officer: 25 June 1944 Grand Cross: 8 May 1945

Médaille Militaire[3] Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre
1914–1918 (with 1 palm, 2 silver stars and 1 bronze star) Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre
1939–1945 (with 5 palms) Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre
des Théatres d'Opérations Exterieures Médaille Interalliée de la Victoire Médaille commémorative de la guerre 1914-1918 Médaille Coloniale
Médaille Coloniale
avec agrafes "Maroc" "Tunisie".

Foreign[edit]

Malta: Grand Cross of the Order of Malta[3] Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of Léopold; Croix de Guerre 40 with 1 palm. United States: Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit, Distinguished Service Medal[3] Morocco: Grand Cordon of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite
Order of Ouissam Alaouite
Chérifien, Médaille du Mérite Militaire Chérifien. United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)[3] Poland: Order of the Cross of Grunwald
Order of the Cross of Grunwald
1st class (16 July 1946)[50]

Bibliography[edit]

Le Maghreb en feu, 1957. L'Europe en question, 1958, avec Henri Massis. Mémoires, 1959–60. Je suis soldat, 1960. La Campagne d'Italie, 1962 C'étaient nos frères, 1962. Histoire parallèle – La France
France
en Algérie 1830–1962, 1963. La Brigade marocaine à la bataille de la Marne, 1964. Trois siècles d’obéissance militaire, 1650–1963, 1964.

Notes[edit]

^ "Le Maréchal Juin par André Flori". Corsicatheque. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 10–12. ^ a b c d e "Historique de la 94e promotion (1909–12)" (PDF) (in French). École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr. Retrieved 3 June 2014.  ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 13–15. ^ a b "Maréchal Alphonse Juin" (in French). bone.piednoir.net. Retrieved 3 June 2014.  ^ Juin, Alphonse. "La Brigade Marocaine à la Bataille de la Marne (30 août au 17 septembre 1914)" (in French). 1914ancien.free. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 14–16. ^ Juin, Alphonse. "Historique du 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains" (in French). perso.neuf. Retrieved 7 June 2014.  ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 17–18. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 18–19, 31. ^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. xi, 19–21. ^ a b c d e "Alphonse Juin" (in French). Ministère de la Défense. Retrieved 11 June 2014.  ^ "Juin" (in French). geneanet. Retrieved 10 June 2014.  ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 21–22. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 65–66. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 66–67. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 70–71. ^ Howe 1957, pp. 249–250. ^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 70–72. ^ Howe 1957, pp. 250–251. ^ a b Howe 1957, pp. 262–265. ^ Howe 1957, p. 351. ^ Howe 1957, pp. 376–383. ^ a b c Clayton 1992, pp. 74–77. ^ Howe 1957, p. 650. ^ Howe 1957, p. 669. ^ Vigneras 1957, p. 94. ^ Blumenson 1969, pp. 254–255. ^ Blumenson 1969, p. 289. ^ Blumenson 1969, pp. 314–315. ^ Blumenson 1969, p. 366. ^ Blumenson 1969, p. 372. ^ Fisher 1977, p. 19. ^ Fisher 1977, p. 26. ^ Fisher 1977, pp. 32–34. ^ Clark 1950, p. 348. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 85–87. ^ Baris 2007, p. 56. ^ a b c Clayton 1992, pp. 88–91. ^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 166–168. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 168–172. ^ Clayton 1992, p. 175. ^ Clayton 1992, p. 179. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 172–173. ^ Clayton 1992, pp. 179–181. ^ Clayton 1992, p. 189. ^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 194–197. ^ Clayton 1992, p. 196. ^ "Alphonse Juin, Marshal of France
France
dies at 78". St. Petersburg Times. 28 January 1967. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Monitor Polski" (in Polish) (27). 1947: 188. 

References[edit]

Baris, Tommaso (January 2007). "Le corps expéditionnaire français en Italie. Violences des " libérateurs " durant l'été 1944". Vingtième Siècle (in French) (93): 47–61. ISSN 0294-1759. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  Blumenson, Martin (1969). Salerno to Cassino (PDF). United States Army in World War II: The War in the Mediterranean. Washington DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army. OCLC 22107. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  Clark, Mark (1950). Calculated Risk. New York City: Harper & Brothers. OCLC 358946.  Clayton, Anthony (1992). Three Marshals of France. London: Brassey's. ISBN 0-08-040707-2. OCLC 25026611.  Fisher, Ernest F. (1977). Cassino to the Alps (PDF). United States Army in World War II: The War in the Mediterranean. Washington DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army. OCLC 2463467.  Howe, George F. (1957). Northwest Africa: Seizing the Initiative in the West (PDF). United States Army in World War II: The War in the Mediterranean. Washington DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army. OCLC 23304011.  Vigneras, Marcel (1957). Rearming the French (PDF). Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army. 

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Video: Allies Liberate Island of Elba Etc. (1944). Universal Newsreel. 1944. Retrieved 21 February 2012. 

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Académie française
Académie française
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Jean Desmarets
Jean Desmarets
(1634) Jean-Jacques de Mesmes (1676) Jean Testu de Mauroy (1688) Camille le Tellier de Louvois
Camille le Tellier de Louvois
(1706) Jean Baptiste Massillon
Jean Baptiste Massillon
(1718) Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini
Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini
(1742) Gabriel-Marie Legouvé (1803) Alexandre-Vincent Pineux Duval (1812) Pierre-Simon Ballanche
Pierre-Simon Ballanche
(1842) Jean Vatout
Jean Vatout
(1848) Alexis Guignard, comte de Saint-Priest
Alexis Guignard, comte de Saint-Priest
(1849) Pierre-Antoine Berryer
Pierre-Antoine Berryer
(1852) François-Joseph de Champagny
François-Joseph de Champagny
(1869) Charles de Mazade (1882) José-Maria de Heredia
José-Maria de Heredia
(1894) Maurice Barrès
Maurice Barrès
(1906) Louis Bertrand (1925) Jean Tharaud
Jean Tharaud
(1946) Alphonse Juin
Alphonse Juin
(1952) Pierre Emmanuel
Pierre Emmanuel
(1968) Jean Hamburger (1985) Albert Decourtray (1993) Jean-Marie Lustiger
Jean-Marie Lustiger
(1995) Jean-Luc Marion
Jean-Luc Marion
(2008)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49251788 LCCN: n83216382 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 0867 GND: 118879049 SUDOC: 029204240 BNF: cb120879635 (data) BNE: XX1238980 SNAC: w6rz21pf

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