First World War:
First Battle of the Marne
First Battle of Champagne
Second World War:
Battle of France
Marshal of France
Grand Croix de la Légion d'honneur
Croix de guerre
(more, see below)
Alphonse Pierre Juin (French pronunciation: [alfɔ̃s
ʒɥɛ̃]; 16 December 1888 – 27 January 1967) was a senior French
Army officer who became a Marshal of France. A graduate of the
Saint-Cyr class of 1912, he served in
Morocco in 1914 in command of
native troops. Upon the outbreak of the First World War, he was sent
to the Western Front in France, where he was gravely wounded in 1915.
As a result of this wound, he lost the use of his right arm.
After the war, he attended the École Supérieure de Guerre. He chose
to serve in North Africa again. After the outbreak of the Second World
War in September 1939, he assumed command of a division, the 15e
Division d'Infantrie Motorisée (fr). The division was encircled
in the Lille pocket during the Battle of
France and Juin was captured.
He was a prisoner of war until he was released at the behest of the
Vichy Government in 1941, and was assigned to command French forces in
After Operation Torch, the invasion of Algeria and
Morocco by British
and American forces in November 1942, Juin ordered French forces in
Tunisia to resist the Germans and the Italians. His great skills were
exhibited during the Italian campaign as commander of the French
Expeditionary Corps. His expertise in mountain warfare was crucial in
breaking the Gustav Line, which had held up the Allied advance for six
Following this assignment he was Chief of Staff of French forces, and
France at the San Francisco Conference. In 1947 he
returned to Africa as the Resident General in Morocco, where he
opposed Moroccan attempts to gain independence. Next came a senior
NATO position as he assumed command of CENTAG until 1956. During his
NATO command, he was promoted to Marshal of
France in 1952. He was
greatly opposed to Charles De Gaulle's decision to grant independence
to Algeria, and was "retired" in 1962 as a result. He was the French
Army's last living Marshal of
France until his death in
Paris in 1967,
when he was buried in Les Invalides.
1 Early years
2 First World War
3 Interwar Period
4 Second World War
4.1 Fall of France
4.2 North African campaign
4.3 Italian campaign
4.4 Chief of Staff
5 Later life
10 External links
Alphonse Juin was born at
French Algeria on 16 December 1888,
the only son of Victor Pierre Juin, a soldier who became a gendarme
after 15 years of military service, mostly in Algeria, and his wife
Précieuse Salini, the daughter of another soldier and who had
become a gendarme. He was named after his paternal grandfather. When
he was six, his family moved to Constantine, where he went to primary
school, and learnt Arabic from the local boys. In 1902 he was awarded
a bursary to study at the Lycée d'Aumale in Constantine.
In 1909 he passed the entrance examination for the École spéciale
militaire de Saint-Cyr. At that time cadets were required to spend a
year in the Army before commencing the course, so he enlisted in an
Algerian regiment, the 1er régiment (fr) de Zouaves, quickly
rising to corporal and then sergeant. He entered Saint-Cyr in 1910.
Classes are named, and his class, the 94th, was known as promotion de
Fès after the Moroccan city of
Fès that was at the centre of the
Agadir Crisis of 1911. Among the class of 223, which included eight
foreigners from China, Turkey, Iran and Algeria, were future général
d'armée Antoine Béthouart, three future généraux de corps
d'armée, four future généraux de division and eighteen future
généraux de brigade, including Charles de Gaulle. There would remain
a special bond between members of the class, and de Gaulle would
always address Juin using the personal pronoun tu. Juin, de Gaulle and
Béthouart would give their names to the Saint-Cyr classes of
1966–68, 1970–72 and 2000–03 respectively.
After graduating on 1 October 1912, Juin was commissioned as a
sous-lieutenant in an Algerian regiment, the 1er régiment de
tirailleurs algériens (fr). He soon saw service in
the Zaian War, participating in the fighting around Taza.
First World War
Upon the outbreak of the
First World War
First World War in August 1914, a brigade of
five battalions known as the Brigade des Chasseurs Indigènes was
formed from Moroccan troops and sent to the Western Front in France.
Chef de Bataillon
Chef de Bataillon Joseph-François Poeymirau's 2e
Régiment des Chasseurs Indigènes as a lieutenant. On 5 September,
the brigade joined the fighting in the First Battle of the Marne. Juin
was wounded in his left hand the following day, but refused evacuation
to hospital, remaining at the front with his arm in a sling. He was
awarded the Cross of the Legion of Honour. The brigade was withdrawn
from the line in January 1915, but committed to battle again in March
in the First Battle of Champagne. In this battle Juin was again
wounded, this time in his upper right arm. The damage was permanent,
and he was given permission to henceforth salute with his left.
Juin found Poeymirau, who had also been wounded, in the hospital, and
Poeymirau arranged for Juin to be sent back to
Morocco in December
1915 to convalesce. Promoted to capitaine, Juin joined Moroccan troops
preparing to go to France, but he accepted an offer from Général de
division Hubert Lyautey, the
Resident-General in Morocco, to become
his aide-de-camp for six months. Juin returned to
France towards the
end of 1916 in command of a company of the 1er Régiment de
Tirailleurs Marocains (fr), participating in the Nivelle
Offensive in April 1917. He was selected for staff training
February 1918. When he returned in October 1918, he was initially
posted to the staff of his division, but then joined the French
Mission to the United States Army, where he was serving when the
fighting ended in November 1918.
After the war, Juin returned to the 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs
Marocains, but was seconded to Lyautey's staff, and then sent to
École Supérieure de Guerre
École Supérieure de Guerre for more staff training. After graduating
in 1921, he was posted to the headquarters of the division in Tunisia.
He turned down an offer of a staff appointment in
Paris to serve under
Poeymirau in Morocco, but Poeymirau died suddenly in 1924. Lyautey
Morocco into two commands. When Juin arrived at the new
headquarters in Fès, he found Captaine Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
occupying the position of G-3 (Operations) that Juin had expected.
Since Juin was staff trained and de Lattre was not, Juin became G-4
(Logistics). His principal task was supplying the forts in the Ouergha
River area. During the
Rif War he served on the staff of Colonel
Charles Noguès. For his services leading troops in the field, Juin
was made an officer of the
Légion d'honneur and promoted to
Lyautey was blamed for the French lack of preparedness for the war and
relieved of his command. As a marshal, Lyautey was member of the
conseil supérieur de la guerre, and as such was entitled to a small
staff of three officers. He asked Juin to be its head, and Juin
accepted, even though it was a desk job in
Paris for an officer with
little influence who refused to even attend the infrequent conseil
meetings due to the presence of Maréchal Philippe Pétain. Juin was
best man at de Lattre's wedding to Simonne Calary de Lamazière in
March 1927. 
Juin returned to North Africa in September 1927 to assume command of a
battalion of the 7e Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens (fr). He
married Marie Gabrielle Cécile Bonnefoy, the daughter of an Army
veterinary surgeon who had moved to Constantine and become a
businessman, in 1928. They had two sons, Pierre and Michel. The
following year he became military secretary to Noguès, who was now
the Director of Political Affairs in Morocco. Due to an army
requirement that officers complete six months in command of a
battalion before they could be promoted, Juin spent six months in
command of a battalion of the 1er Régiment de Zouaves. He was
promoted to lieutenant-colonel in March 1932, returning to his
previous post in time for active operations that year. They were
successful, and he was posted to the
École supérieure de guerre
École supérieure de guerre as
an instructor in 1933. Once again he chafed under the prevailing
linear defence doctrine, and he returned to North Africa in 1935 to
become second in command, and then commander, of the 3e Régiment de
Zouaves (fr). He was promoted to colonel in June
Morocco in 1937, with the
expectation that he would become commander in chief in North Africa in
the event Of hostilities with Nazi Germany. If this happened, Noguès
wanted Juin for his chief of staff, but since Juin was only a colonel,
it was arranged for him to attend a senior officers course at the
Centre des hautes études militaires. On graduation he returned to
Algiers, where he was promoted to the rank of général de brigade on
26 December 1938.
Second World War
Fall of France
Second World War
Second World War broke out in September 1939, Juin helped
arrange the despatch of units from the Armée d'Afrique to help defend
metropolitan France. on 4 December, he was given command of the 15e
Division d'Infantrie Motorisée (fr) (15e DIM). After the German
attack began on 10 May 1940, the 15e DIM was ordered into Belgium to
hold the area around Gembloux. This was held against German attacks on
14 and 15 May, before the defenders were compelled to retreat to
Valenciennes. The 15e DIM came under heavy German attack on 24 May,
and retreated into the Lille pocket, where it covered the British and
French forces fighting in the Battle of Dunkirk. Some units of his
division managed to escape to Dunkirk; the remainder fought until
their ammunition ran out. Juin surrendered on 29 May.
Juin became a prisoner of war, and was held in Oflag IV-B Koenigstein,
a prison camp for officers in
Königstein Fortress in Saxony. While in
prison he was promoted to général de division. He was released in
June 1941 at the request of Pétain, now the head of the Vichy
Government, in exchange for thirty German sailors, as a specialist in
North African affairs. He was promoted to Général de corps d'armée
on 16 July, and became commander of the troops in Morocco. Admiral
François Darlan offered him the post of Minister for War following
the death of
Charles Huntziger in November 1941,
but Juin turned down the offer, saying that he only wished to serve in
North Africa. On 20 November, he was promoted to Général de corps
d'armée, replacing Weygand as commander of French land forces in
North Africa. In December he led a French mission to Germany that met
Hermann Göring to discuss what would happen if
Panzerarmee Afrika was driven out of Libya by
Operation Crusader. This did not occur, but a dispute over what should
be done led to Juin relieving de Lattre of command of the forces in
Tunisia, permanently damaging their friendship.
North African campaign
Operation Torch, the invasion of Algeria and
Morocco by British and
American forces, came as a complete surprise to Juin, who had not been
brought into secret discussions concerning the operation. He was
informed of the landings by Robert Daniel Murphy, the American
consul-general in Algiers, on the morning of on 8 November 1942 as the
first waves were heading toward the beaches. Juin had previously told
Murphy that his orders were to resist an invasion of North Africa, but
he agreed to immediately consult with Darlan, who arrived at Juin's
villa within minutes. Darlan, in turn, sent a message to Pétain in
Vichy. Murphy was placed under house arrest in Juin's villa, the
pro-Allied troops who had surrounded the villa were driven away, and
Général de division Charles Mast, who had collaborated with the
Allies, was relieved by
Général de division Louis
American Major General
Geoffrey Keyes (left) with British Major
General A. L. Collier (centre), and Juin (right). Note how he salutes
with his left arm.
Juin did not want Algeria occupied by the Americans any more than he
France occupied by the Germans, but he recognised the reality
of the situation. Darlan authorised Juin to negotiate a local
ceasefire in Algiers, so Juin met with American Major General Charles
W. Ryder, commander of the U.S. 34th Infantry Division, and the two
arranged for an end to the fighting. Algiers was handed over to the
Americans, French troops were confined to barracks but retained their
weapons, and French police maintained law and order. French
resistance to the Allies continued elsewhere in North Africa until
Darlan issued a ceasefire on 10 November, and directed Juin to order
French forces in Tunisia to resist the Germans and the Italians.
Juin's orders were not always obeyed by his subordinates in Tunisia,
many of whom believed that Darlan and Juin were being held prisoner by
the Americans, but he was able to personally persuade Noguès to
work with the Allies.
In the reorganisation of French forces in North Africa on 13 November,
Juin became commander of the Eastern Sector. His command, known as
the Détachement d'armée Français, held two distinct sectors on the
Tunisian front, one in the north under
Général de brigade
Général de brigade Fernand
Barré, and one in the south under Koeltz. His forces were poorly
equipped, and when the Germans and Italians counter-attacked, he had
to call on the British and Americans for assistance. In January, Juin
agreed to a more regular command arrangement, with French forces being
concentrated in Koeltz's XIX Corps, which was placed under Lieutenant
General Kenneth Anderson's British First Army.
Juin was promoted to Général d'armée. He was given a tumultuous
welcome from the populace when he entered Tunis after the Allies
captured the city in May. De Gaulle appointed Mast as
Resident-General in Tunisia, but Mast was injured in an air crash, and
Juin was asked to fill in for him. In this role, Juin joined
General Dwight D. Eisenhower,
Général d'armée Henri Giraud, Admiral
Sir Andrew Cunningham, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder and
Lieutenant General Kenneth Anderson on the review stand for the
victory parade on 20 May. A less savoury part of the job was
informing the Muhammad VII al-Munsif, the Bey of Tunisia, that he was
being deposed. When Juin was informed that Pétain had stripped him of
his French nationality and membership in the legion of honour, he
merely noted that he was grateful he had not been sentenced to
In July 1943, General Eisenhower, now the
Supreme Allied Commander in
Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO), raised the possibility
of French troops being used in the upcoming Italian campaign with
Juin, who accepted on behalf of Giraud, who was in Washington,
D.C.. Juin was placed in charge of a force known as Détachement
d'armée A, which was intended to eventually grow into an army
headquarters. Since it would form part of the U.S. Fifth Army, under
the lower-ranking American
Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, Juin
styled his command the Corps Expéditionnaire Français (CEF), and
took a reduction in rank to Général de corps d'armée. When the
first division of the CEF, the 2nd Moroccan Infantry
Division (fr) (2e DIM), arrived in November 1943, it was
initially placed under the command of American Major General John P.
Lucas's U.S. VI Corps. In his diary Lucas noted that Juin "turned out
to be not only a splendid soldier but a fine and courteous gentleman
Clark (left) and Juin (right) in Siena, Italy, July 1944.
Juin's CEF relieved Lucas's VI Corps in the line when the CEF's second
3rd Algerian Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division (3e DIA) arrived in
December. For the CEF, the First
Battle of Monte Cassino
Battle of Monte Cassino began on
12 January 1944, with the CEF advancing four miles to the upper Rapido
River and the main defences of the German Gustav Line. After the
Allied landings at Anzio, codenamed Operation Shingle, on 22 January
1944, he began an attack on Monte Belvedere, about 5 miles
(8.0 km) north of Monte Cassino. On 29 January, he reported
to Clark that "At the cost of unbelievable efforts and great losses,"
3rd Algerian Infantry Division
3rd Algerian Infantry Division had "accomplished the mission which
you gave them."
After three unsuccessful attempts to break the Gustav Line, British
General Sir Harold Alexander, Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of the
Allied Armies in
Italy (AAI, later designated 15th Army Group),
decided to make a coordinated attack with both the U.S. Fifth Army and
Lieutenant General Sir Oliver Leese's British Eighth Army,
codenamed Operation Diadem. As was the British custom, General
Alexander gave his subordinates considerable latitude in how they went
about implementing his orders. This allowed Juin to put forward a
major modification to the plan. He proposed that the CEF, now
increased to four divisions, advance through the rugged Aurunci
Mountains and outflank the German positions. He was aware of the
difficulty of trying to advance, much less exploit a breakthrough over
the mountain trails, but felt that the 4th Moroccan Mountain
Division (fr) and Moroccan Goumiers could do it.
A Moroccan Goumier.
According to Clark:
Meantime, the French forces had crossed the
Garigliano (River) and
moved forward into the mountainous terrain lying south of the Liri
River. It was not easy. As always, the German veterans reacted
strongly and there was bitter fighting. The French surprised the enemy
and quickly seized key terrain including Mounts Faito Cerasola and
high ground near Castelforte. The 1st Motorized Division helped the
2nd Moroccan division take key Mount Girofano and then advanced
rapidly north to S. Apollinare and S. Ambrogio. In spite of the
stiffening enemy resistance, the 2nd Moroccan Division penetrated the
Gustav Line in less than two day's fighting.
The next 48 hours on the French front were decisive. The
knife-wielding Goumiers swarmed over the hills, particularly at night,
and General Juin's entire force showed an aggressiveness hour after
hour that the Germans could not withstand. Cerasola, San Giogrio, Mt.
D'Oro, Ausonia and
Esperia were seized in one of the most brilliant
and daring advances of the war in Italy, and by May 16 the French
Expeditionary Corps had thrust forward some ten miles on their left
flank to Mount Revole, with the remainder of their front slanting back
somewhat to keep contact with the British Eighth Army.
Only the most careful preparations and the utmost determination made
this attack possible, but Juin was that kind of a fighter. Mule pack
trains, skilled mountain fighters, and men with the strength to make
long night marches through treacherous terrain were needed to succeed
in the all-but-impregnable mountain ranges. The French displayed that
ability during their sensational advance which
Siegfried Westphal, the chief of staff to Kesselring, later described
as a major surprise both in timing and in aggressiveness. For this
performance, which was to be a key to the success of the entire drive
on Rome, I shall always be a grateful admirer of General Juin and his
Alphonse Juin Memorial in the Place du Maréchal-Juin in Paris,
Lieutenant General Clark made a triumphal entry into Rome, with Juin
sitting next to him. For Juin, the experience was bittersweet. He felt
that the fruits of his victory had been lost through British caution,
and the American obsession with the capture of Rome. His support for
continuing the campaign in
Italy now that the Allies were winning was
rejected by the French command. On 4 July, the CEF captured Siena,
where it celebrated Bastille Day, and then was withdrawn to
participate in Operation Dragoon, codename for the Allied invasion of
Southern France. In the wake of allegations of raping and pillaging by
his North African troops in the Marocchinate, he took steps to curtail
the abuses, with drastic measures, including the death penalty,
that were not entirely successful owing to the animosity between the
French and Italian people over the events of 1940.
Chief of Staff
Following this assignment Juin was appointed Chief of Staff of French
forces ("Chef d'État-Major de la Défense Nationale"). He helped
persuade Eisenhower to allow Philippe Leclerc's 2nd Armoured Division
to carry out the liberation of Paris, and he entered the city with de
Gaulle on 25 August 1944. He restored order to the liberated areas,
suppressing elements of the
French Forces of the Interior
French Forces of the Interior (FFI) that
refused to disband with Spahis that he brought in from North Africa.
He arranged with Eisenhower for FFI personnel to be absorbed into four
new divisions that guarded the German forces that remained in bypassed
garrisons along the Atlantic coast, and the frontier with Italy. 
During the German
Operation Northwind in January 1945, he clashed with
Eisenhower's chief of staff,
Lieutenant General Walter B. Smith, over
a proposed Allied withdrawal from Alsace and Lorraine. In the event,
Eisenhower gave way to political pressure from the British and the
French, and the withdrawal was not carried out. Juin also opposed the
Royan in April 1945, but it was carried out anyway over his
At the time of the end of the war in Europe, Juin was in the United
States, where he represented
France at the San Francisco
Conference. In the immediate post-war period he continued with his
task of rebuilding France's armed forces. This was made difficult by
the ending of American
Lend-Lease aid, and the military commitments to
the Allied occupation of Germany, and in North Africa, Syria and
Italy, where the 1947
Paris Peace Treaties made some adjustments to
the border. The major looming crisis, though, was the Indochina War.
Juin lost his direct access to the President when de Gaulle left
office in 1946, and his plans for an Army large enough to handle
France's commitments had to be scaled back.
In January 1947 Juin returned to Africa as the
Morocco. He opposed Moroccan attempts to gain independence, and worked
uneasily with Mohammed V, the Sultan of Morocco, whom Juin correctly
suspected of harbouring nationalist sympathies. Juin forbade religious
schools and certain gatherings, which he felt were being taken over by
nationalists. During his tenure he instituted many administrative
reforms, and greatly expanded opportunities for Moroccans, but it was
overshadowed by the growing drift to independence.
Although Juin visited Indochina in April 1946, and met with Ho Chi
Minh, he was not interested in a command there. He likewise turned
down an offer in 1948 to command the
Western European Union
Western European Union land
forces. He returned to Indochina in October 1950, when he was sent
to report on the state of France's efforts there. He produced a
damning report, in which he criticised both the strategy and tactics
being employed. But he again turned down an offer to command the
French forces in Indochina, being far more concerned about the
situation in North Africa.
In 1952 Juin took up a senior
NATO position as he assumed command of
CENTAG. Once again he served under Eisenhower. He also got along well
with his successors, Generals
Matthew Ridgway and Alfred Gruenther,
whom he had known from the campaign in Italy. During his
he was made a Marshal of
France in May 1952, the only living holder of
that rank. After the French defeat in Indochina in the Battle of Dien
Bien Phu in 1954, Juin was again asked if he would take over command
in Indochina. He was greatly moved by the disaster, in which his
former aide was killed, but in the end turned the job down again.
He retired on 1 October 1956, coinciding with Gruenther's retirement,
as he did not wish to serve under any other American general.
Juin was greatly opposed to de Gaulle's decision to grant independence
to Algeria, although he remained steadfastly loyal to de Gaulle. In
the wake of the
Algiers putsch of 1961
Algiers putsch of 1961 and the Organisation Armée
Secrète terrorist campaign, he was placed under house arrest. He was
"retired" and his special privileges as a marshal were taken away. In
December 1963, he suffered a thrombosis and was hospitalised in the
Val-de-Grâce, where he was visited by de Gaulle. Delirious, Juin
spoke of "Constantine, Algeria, my country", to which de Gaulle
embraced him and replied "Yes, I know, your country is there".
In the event, Juin did not die, but remained frail for the rest of his
life. He suffered a heart attack November 1966, and was again taken to
the Val-de-Grâce, where he died on 22 January 1967. A funeral was
held at Notre Dame de Paris, which was attended by old comrades
including Alexander, Ridgway, Béthouart,
Marcel Carpentier and de
Gaulle, after which Juin was interred in
Les Invalides with full
Knight: 10 December 1914
Officer: 28 December 1924
Commander: 1 October 1940
Grand Officer: 25 June 1944
Grand Cross: 8 May 1945
Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (with 1 palm, 2 silver stars and 1 bronze
Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre 1939–1945 (with 5 palms)
Croix de guerre
Croix de guerre des Théatres d'Opérations Exterieures
Médaille Interalliée de la Victoire
Médaille commémorative de la guerre 1914-1918
Médaille Coloniale avec agrafes "Maroc" "Tunisie".
Malta: Grand Cross of the Order of Malta
Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of Léopold; Croix de Guerre 40 with
United States: Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit, Distinguished
Morocco: Grand Cordon of the
Order of Ouissam Alaouite
Order of Ouissam Alaouite Chérifien,
Médaille du Mérite Militaire Chérifien.
United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Cross of Grunwald
Order of the Cross of Grunwald 1st class (16 July 1946)
Le Maghreb en feu, 1957.
L'Europe en question, 1958, avec Henri Massis.
Je suis soldat, 1960.
La Campagne d'Italie, 1962
C'étaient nos frères, 1962.
Histoire parallèle – La
France en Algérie 1830–1962, 1963.
La Brigade marocaine à la bataille de la Marne, 1964.
Trois siècles d’obéissance militaire, 1650–1963, 1964.
^ "Le Maréchal Juin par André Flori". Corsicatheque. Retrieved 2
^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 10–12.
^ a b c d e "Historique de la 94e promotion (1909–12)" (PDF) (in
French). École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr. Retrieved 3 June
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 13–15.
^ a b "Maréchal Alphonse Juin" (in French). bone.piednoir.net.
Retrieved 3 June 2014.
^ Juin, Alphonse. "La Brigade Marocaine à la Bataille de la Marne (30
août au 17 septembre 1914)" (in French). 1914ancien.free. Retrieved 7
^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 14–16.
^ Juin, Alphonse. "Historique du 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs
Marocains" (in French). perso.neuf. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 17–18.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 18–19, 31.
^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. xi, 19–21.
^ a b c d e "Alphonse Juin" (in French). Ministère de la Défense.
Retrieved 11 June 2014.
^ "Juin" (in French). geneanet. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 21–22.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 65–66.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 66–67.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 70–71.
^ Howe 1957, pp. 249–250.
^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 70–72.
^ Howe 1957, pp. 250–251.
^ a b Howe 1957, pp. 262–265.
^ Howe 1957, p. 351.
^ Howe 1957, pp. 376–383.
^ a b c Clayton 1992, pp. 74–77.
^ Howe 1957, p. 650.
^ Howe 1957, p. 669.
^ Vigneras 1957, p. 94.
^ Blumenson 1969, pp. 254–255.
^ Blumenson 1969, p. 289.
^ Blumenson 1969, pp. 314–315.
^ Blumenson 1969, p. 366.
^ Blumenson 1969, p. 372.
^ Fisher 1977, p. 19.
^ Fisher 1977, p. 26.
^ Fisher 1977, pp. 32–34.
^ Clark 1950, p. 348.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 85–87.
^ Baris 2007, p. 56.
^ a b c Clayton 1992, pp. 88–91.
^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 166–168.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 168–172.
^ Clayton 1992, p. 175.
^ Clayton 1992, p. 179.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 172–173.
^ Clayton 1992, pp. 179–181.
^ Clayton 1992, p. 189.
^ a b Clayton 1992, pp. 194–197.
^ Clayton 1992, p. 196.
^ "Alphonse Juin, Marshal of
France dies at 78". St. Petersburg Times.
28 January 1967. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
^ "Monitor Polski" (in Polish) (27). 1947: 188.
Baris, Tommaso (January 2007). "Le corps expéditionnaire français en
Italie. Violences des " libérateurs " durant l'été 1944".
Vingtième Siècle (in French) (93): 47–61. ISSN 0294-1759.
Retrieved 14 June 2014.
Blumenson, Martin (1969). Salerno to Cassino (PDF). United States Army
in World War II: The War in the Mediterranean. Washington DC: Office
of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army.
OCLC 22107. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
Clark, Mark (1950). Calculated Risk. New York City: Harper &
Brothers. OCLC 358946.
Clayton, Anthony (1992). Three Marshals of France. London: Brassey's.
ISBN 0-08-040707-2. OCLC 25026611.
Fisher, Ernest F. (1977). Cassino to the Alps (PDF). United States
Army in World War II: The War in the Mediterranean. Washington DC:
Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army.
Howe, George F. (1957). Northwest Africa: Seizing the Initiative in
the West (PDF). United States Army in World War II: The War in the
Mediterranean. Washington DC: Office of the Chief of Military History,
U.S. Department of the Army. OCLC 23304011.
Vigneras, Marcel (1957). Rearming the French (PDF). Office of the
Chief of Military History, U.S. Department of the Army.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alphonse Juin.
Video: Allies Liberate Island of Elba Etc. (1944). Universal Newsreel.
1944. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
Académie française seat 4
Jean Desmarets (1634)
Jean-Jacques de Mesmes (1676)
Jean Testu de Mauroy (1688)
Camille le Tellier de Louvois
Camille le Tellier de Louvois (1706)
Jean Baptiste Massillon
Jean Baptiste Massillon (1718)
Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini
Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini (1742)
Gabriel-Marie Legouvé (1803)
Alexandre-Vincent Pineux Duval (1812)
Pierre-Simon Ballanche (1842)
Jean Vatout (1848)
Alexis Guignard, comte de Saint-Priest
Alexis Guignard, comte de Saint-Priest (1849)
Pierre-Antoine Berryer (1852)
François-Joseph de Champagny
François-Joseph de Champagny (1869)
Charles de Mazade (1882)
José-Maria de Heredia
José-Maria de Heredia (1894)
Maurice Barrès (1906)
Louis Bertrand (1925)
Jean Tharaud (1946)
Alphonse Juin (1952)
Pierre Emmanuel (1968)
Jean Hamburger (1985)
Albert Decourtray (1993)
Jean-Marie Lustiger (1995)
Jean-Luc Marion (2008)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 0867
BNF: cb120879635 (data)
World War I
World War I portal