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The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from 16 January to 7 April. The purpose of the conference was to find a solution to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905 between France and Germany, which arose as Germany responded to France's effort to establish a protectorate over the independent state of Morocco.[1] Germany was not trying to stop French expansion – its goal was to enhance its own international prestige, and it failed badly. The result was a much closer relationship between France and Britain, thus strengthening the Entente Cordiale, with both London and Paris increasingly suspicious and distrustful of Berlin.[2] An even more momentous consequence was the heightened sense of frustration and readiness for war in Germany. It spread beyond the political elite to much of the press and most of the political parties except for the Liberals and Social Democrats on the left. The Pan-German element grew in strength and denounced their government's retreat as treason, stepping up chauvinistic support for war. [3]

Contents

1 Background 2 Outcome 3 Attendees at the conference 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Background[edit] Britain and France's Entente Cordiale of 1904 had defined diplomatic cooperation between them and recognized British authority over Egypt and French control in Morocco (with some Spanish concessions). Germany saw this development putting an end to the rivalry between Britain and France, which would further isolate Germany in European affairs. On 31 March 1905, Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II visited Morocco's capital, Tangier, and delivered a sabre-rattling speech calling for an international conference to ensure Morocco's independence, with war the alternative. Historian Heather Jones argues that Germany's use of warlike rhetoric was a deliberate diplomatic ploy:

Another German strategy was to stage dramatic gestures, and dangerously play up the threat of war, in the belief that this would impress upon other European powers the importance of consultation with Germany on imperial issues: the fact that France had not considered it necessary to make a bilateral agreement with Germany over Morocco rankled, especially given Germany was deeply insecure about its newly acquired Great Power status. Hence Germany opted for an increase in belligerent rhetoric and, theatrically, Kaiser Wilhelm II dramatically interrupted a Mediterranean cruise to visit Tangier, where he declared Germany's support for the Sultan's independence and integrity of his kingdom, turning Morocco overnight into an international 'crisis.' [4]

German diplomats believed they could convince U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt to challenge French intervention in Morocco. Roosevelt — at that time mediating the Russo-Japanese War, and aware of the U.S. Senate's stance to avoid involvement in European affairs — was disinclined to become involved in the Moroccan crisis. However, with the situation in June 1905 worsening to the point of war between Germany and France (and possibly Britain), in July Roosevelt persuaded the French to attend a January peace conference in Algeciras. Germany had hoped that the Conference would weaken the entente cordial. Wilhelm II had thought he could form an alliance with France, if most of their demands were met.[1] He also thought that better relations with Russia were possible, due to the Revolution of 1905 and Russo-Japanese War putting them in a weak, ally-hungry position. However, due to Germany being somewhat excluded in the initial decisions,[1] and Britain's Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey showing Britain's support of France in the Conference via meetings with French ambassador Jules Cambon, the Entente Cordiale actually grew stronger. Following their failed attempt to isolate Britain, Germany furthered the growing Anglo-German Naval Race with passage of the Third Naval Law in 1906. The overall contribution towards the outbreak of the First World War can then seen to be the separation of Germany and her allies (Triple Alliance) and Britain, France and Russia, who in the following year would become the Triple Entente. The next major event to thicken the tension between these two would be the Bosnian Crisis.[5] Outcome[edit] The final Act of the conference of Algeciras, signed on 7 April 1906, covered the organisation of Morocco's police and customs, regulations concerning the repression of the smuggling of armaments, and concessions to the European bankers from a newly formed State Bank of Morocco, issuing banknotes backed by gold, with a 40-year term. The new state bank was to act as Morocco's Central Bank, with a strict cap on the spending of the Sherifian Empire, and administrators appointed by the national banks which guaranteed the loans: the German Empire, United Kingdom, France and Spain. Spanish coinage continued to circulate. The right of Europeans to own land was established, whilst taxes were to be levied towards public works.[6] The Sultan of Morocco retained control of a police force in the six port cities, which was to be composed entirely of Moroccan Muslims (budgeted at an average salary of a mere 1000 pesetas a year) — but now to be instructed by French and Spanish officers, who would oversee the paymaster (the Amin), regulate discipline, and could be recalled and replaced by their governments. The Inspector-General in charge would be Swiss and reside in Tangiers. At the last moment, the Moroccan delegates found that they were unable to sign the final Act, but a decree of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco on 18 June finally ratified it. Attendees at the conference[edit]

Germany - Joseph de Radowitz and Christian, Count of Tattenbach Austro-Hungary - Rudolph, Count of Welsersheimb and Leopold, Count Bolesta-Koziebrodzki Belgium - baron Maurice Joostens and Conrad, Count of Buisseret Steenbecque Spain - Don Juan Pérez-Caballero y Ferrer US - Henry White and Samuel R Gummere France - Paul Révoil and Eugène Regnault Great Britain - Arthur Nicolson Italy - Emilio, Marquis Visconti Venosta and Giulio Malmusi Morocco - El Hadj Mohammed Ben-el Arbi Ettorres and El Hadj Mohammed Ben Abdesselam El Mokri Netherlands - Jonkheer Hannibal Testa Portugal - António Maria Tovar de Lemos Pereira (Count of Tovar) and Francisco Roberto da Silva Ferrão de Carvalho Martens (Count of Martens Ferrão) Russia - Arthur, Count Cassini and Basile de Bacheracht Sweden - Robert Sager

See also[edit]

International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) Entente Cordiale 1904 First Moroccan Crisis March 1905–May 1906 Second Moroccan Crisis 1911 Causes of World War I

References[edit]

^ a b c "The Algeciras Conference of 1906". History Learning Site. May 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ Jones, 2006) ^ Immanuel Geiss, German Foreign Policy 1871 – 1914 (1976) 133-36. ^ Heather Jones, "Algeciras Revisited: European Crisis and Conference Diplomacy, 16 January-7 April 1906." (EUI WorkingPaper MWP 2009/1, 2009), p 5online ^ Margaret MacMillan, The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914(2012) pp 378--398. ^ "Algeciras Conference". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Anderson, Eugene N. The First Moroccan Crisis, 1904-1906 (1930) Eastman, Anthony F. "The Algeciras Conference, 1906." The Southern Quarterly 1 (January 1969):185-205 online Esthus, Raymond A, Theodore Roosevelt and the International Rivalries (1970) pp 88–111 Geiss, Immanuel. German Foreign Policy 1871 – 1914 (1976) 133-36. Jones, Heather. "Algeciras Revisited: European Crisis and Conference Diplomacy, 16 January-7 April 1906." (EUI WorkingPaper MWP 2009/1, 2009). online MacMillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914(2012) pp 378--398

External links[edit]

v t e

Diplomacy of the Great Powers 1871–1913

Great powers

Austria–Hungary France Germany Italy Japan Russia United Kingdom United States

Alliances

Triple Alliance

Dual Alliance

Triple Entente

Franco-Russian Alliance Entente Cordiale Anglo-Russian Entente

Anglo-Japanese Alliance

Trends

Ottoman Decline

Eastern Question

Revanchism New Imperialism

Scramble for Africa

Pan-Slavism The Great Game The Great Rapprochement

Treaties and agreements

Treaty of Frankfurt League of the Three Emperors Treaty of Berlin Reinsurance Treaty Treaty of Paris Treaty of Björkö Taft–Katsura Agreement Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty Racconigi agreement

Events

Congress of Berlin Berlin Conference Weltpolitik German Naval Laws Anglo-German naval arms race

Dreadnought

Fashoda Incident Annexation of Hawaii First Moroccan Crisis Algeciras Conference Agadir Crisis Bosnian crisis

Wars

Russo-Turkish First Sino-Japanese Spanish–American Banana Wars Philippine–American Boxer Rebellion Second Boer Russo-Japanese Italo-Turkish Balkan Wars

v t e

Algeciras

History

History of Algeciras Algeciras Campaign Algeciras Conference Battle of Río Palmones Caetaria Roman fish salting factory Fuerte de San Diego Fuerte de San García Roman kilns of El Rinconcillo Siege of Algeciras (1278–79) Battle of Algeciras (1278) Siege of Algeciras (1309) Siege of Algeciras (1342–44) Siege of Algeciras (1369) Battle of Algeciras (1801) Taifa of Algeciras

Geography

Bay of Gibraltar Cala Arenas Parque del Centenario Parque de las Acacias de Algeciras Parque de la Conferencia Parque María Cristina Paseo Cornisa El Pelayo Playa del Barranco Playa de El Chinarral Playa de Getares Playa de Los Ladrillos Playa de El Rinconcillo Río de la Miel Río Pícaro Río Palmones

Buildings

Algeciras Heliport Algeciras Municipal Library Algeciras Town Hall Aqueduct of Algeciras Bahia Park Capilla de la Caridad Capilla del Cristo de la Alameda Chapel of Our Lady of Europe Ermita Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Fuerte de Isla Verde Hospital de la Caridad Hospital Punta de Europa Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Palma Kursaal of Algeciras La Villa Vieja Lighthouse of Isla Verde Lighthouse of Punta Carnero Marinid Walls of Algeciras Municipal Museum of Algeciras Teatro Florida Torre de los Adalides Tower of Almirante Torre del Arroyo del Lobo Torre del Fraile

Economy

Economy of Algeciras Hotel AC Algeciras Hotel Anglo-Hispano Hotel Reina Cristina Hotel Sevilla Mercado de abastos de Algeciras Mezquita Aljama de Algeciras Patio del Coral Plaza Alta Plaza de Andalucía Plaza de toros de Las Palomas Polígono Industrial Cortijo Real Port of Algeciras

Culture

Escuela de Artes y Oficios de Algeciras Fiestas of Algeciras Orquesta Sinfónica de Algeciras Royal Fair of Algeciras

Sport

Algeciras CF Algeciras Balonmano Balonmano Ciudad de Algeciras Club Baloncesto Ciudad de Algeciras Estadio Nuevo Mirador

v t e

Franco-Spanish conquest of Morocco (1893–1932)

French protectorate in Morocco Spanish protectorate in Morocco

Major conflicts

Rif War (1920–26) Zaian War (1914–21)

Battles

Tetuan War (1859–60) Melilla War (1893–94) Battle of Casablanca (1908) Melilla War (1909–10) Battle of Sidi Bou Othman (1912) Battle of El Ksiba (1913) Battle of El Herri (1914) Battle of Annual (1921)

Key people

Moroccans

Mohammed Ameziane Mulai Ahmed er Raisuni Mouha ou Hammou Zayani Moha ou Said Mhand n'Ifrutant Ali Amhaouch Sidi Ahmed El Hiba Ma al-'Aynayn Abd el-Krim Assou Oubasslam Aït Atta Zayanes Beni Ouryaghel

French

General Mangin General Lyautey General Henrys General Poeymirau Marshal Pétain Henry de Bournazel

French allies

Thami El Glaoui Sultan Moulay Youssef

Spaniards

Juan García y Margallo Martínez-Campos Manuel Fernández Silvestre Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera José Sanjurjo Generalísimo Francisco Franco

Spanish allies

Mohamed Meziane

Treaties

Treaty of Fez (1894) Algeciras Conference (1906) Pact of Cartagena (1907) Treaty of Fes (1912) Franco-Spanish Treaty (1912)

Crises

First Moroccan Crisis (1905) Agadir Crisis (1911)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146990205 LCCN: no95055835 GND: 4141863-3 SUDOC: 076981541 BNF:

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