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Alfonso XI of Castile
Alfonso XI of Castile
(13 August 1311 – 26/27 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile
Ferdinand IV of Castile
and his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313. Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power. His achievements include solving the problems of the Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Strait and the conquest of Algeciras.

Contents

1 Life 2 Marriage and issue 3 Appearance 4 Ancestry 5 Notes 6 References

Life[edit]

Alfonso XI of Castile
Alfonso XI of Castile
attacks the Muslim
Muslim
Moors
Moors
led by Muhammed IV, Sultan of the emirate of Granada.

Alfonso XI was the son of King Ferdinand IV of Castile
Ferdinand IV of Castile
and Constance of Portugal. His father died when Alfonso was one year old. His grandmother, María de Molina, his mother Constance, his granduncle Infante
Infante
John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, son of King Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile
and uncle Infante
Infante
Peter of Castile, Lord of Cameros, son of King Sancho IV assumed the regency. Queen Constance died first on 18 November 1313, followed by Infantes John and Peter during a military campaign against Granada in 1319, which left Dowager Queen María as the only regent until her death on 1 July 1321. After the death of the infantes John and Peter in 1319, Philip (son of Sancho IV and María de Molina, thus brother of Infante
Infante
Peter), Juan Manuel (the king's second-degree uncle by virtue of being Ferdinand III's grandson) and Juan el Tuerto (his second degree uncle, son of John of Castile who died in 1319) split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency, even as it was being looted by moors and the rebellious nobility. As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies. His early display of rulership skills included the unhesitant execution of possible opponents, including his uncle Juan el Tuerto in 1326.[1] He managed to extend the limits of his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
after the important victory at the Battle of Río Salado against the Marinid
Marinid
Dynasty
Dynasty
in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. Once that conflict was resolved, he redirected all his Reconquista
Reconquista
efforts to fighting the Moorish king of Granada. He is variously known among Castilian kings as the Avenger or the Implacable, and as "He of Río Salado." The first two names he earned by the ferocity with which he repressed the disorders caused by the nobles during his long minority; the third by his victory in the Battle of Río Salado
Battle of Río Salado
over the last formidable Marinid
Marinid
invasion of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in 1340. Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile, but he could be bloody in his methods. He killed for reasons of state without any form of trial. He openly neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal, and indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman, who bore him ten children. This set Peter an example which he failed to better. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of 1350, at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with Peter, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far. Marriage and issue[edit] Alfonso XI first married Constanza Manuel in 1325, but had the union annulled two years later. His second marriage, in 1328, was to Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal.[2] They had:

Ferdinand (Valladolid, 1332–1333); Peter of Castile
Peter of Castile
(1334–1369), King of Castile.

By his mistress, Eleanor of Guzman, he had ten children:

Pedro Alfonso (1330–1338), Lord of Aguilar de Campoo Sancho Alfonso (1331–1343), 1st Lord of Ledesma Henry II of Castile
Henry II of Castile
(1333–1379) King of Castile (1369-1379); Fadrique Alfonso (1333–1358), Henry's twin brother, he was Master of the Order of Santiago
Order of Santiago
and Lord of Haro; Fernando Alfonso (1336–c. 1350), 2nd Lord of Ledesma; Tello Alfonso (1337–1370), Lord of Aguilar de Campoo Juan Alfonso (1341–1359), Lord of Badajoz
Badajoz
and Jerez de la Frontera; Juana Alfonso, (born 1342), Lady of Trastámara due to her marriage in 1354 to Fernando Ruiz de Castro. The marriage was annulled and in 1366 she married Felipe de Castro; Sancho Alfonso (1343–1375), 1st Count of Alburquerque Pedro Alfonso (1345–1359)

After Alfonso's death, his widow Maria had Eleanor arrested and later killed.[3] Appearance[edit] "...King Alfonso was not very tall but well proportioned, and he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair."[4] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Alfonso XI of Castile

16. Ferdinand III of Castile

8. Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile
(=#26)

17. Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen

4. Sancho IV of Castile

18. James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
(=#28)

9. Violant of Aragon

19. Violant of Hungary (=#29)

2. Ferdinand IV of Castile

20. Alfonso IX of Leon

10. Alfonso of Molina

21. Berengaria of Castile

5. María de Molina

22. Alfonso Téllez de Meneses, 4th Lord of Meneses

11. Mayor Alfonso Tellez

23. Maria Anes de Lima

1. Alfonso XI of Castile

24. Afonso II of Portugal

12. Afonso III of Portugal

25. Urraca of Castile

6. Denis of Portugal

26. Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile
(=#8)

13. Beatrice of Castile

27. Mayor Guillén de Guzmán

3. Constance of Portugal

28. James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
(=#18)

14. Peter III of Aragon

29. Violant of Hungary (=#19)

7. Elizabeth of Aragon

30. Manfred of Sicily

15. Constance of Sicily

31. Beatrice of Savoy

Notes[edit]

^ Ruiz, Teofilo F., "Towards a Symbolic History of Alfonso XI of Castile: Power, Ceremony and Triumph", The Emergence of León-Castile c.1065–1500: Essays Presented to J.F. O'Callaghan, (James J Todesca, ed.), Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015 ISBN 9781472400444 ^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 75. ^ Chapman, Charles Edward and Rafael Altamira, A history of Spain, (The MacMillan Company, 1922), 118. ^ From 'Crónica de Pedro' by Pedro López de Ayala (1332–1407)

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alfonso XI of Castile.

Chapman, Charles Edward and Rafael Altamira, A history of Spain, The MacMillan Company, 1922.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alphonso". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, Ed. E. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead, Routledge, 2003.

Alfonso XI of Castile House of Ivrea Born: 13 August 1311 Died: 26/27 March 1350

Regnal titles

Preceded by Ferdinand IV King of Castile and León 1312–1350 Succeeded by Peter

v t e

Monarchs of Castile

House of Jiménez

Ferdinand I "the Magno" Sancho II "the Strong" Alfonso VI "the Brave" Urraca "the Reckless"

House of Burgundy

Alfonso VII "the Emperor" Sancho III "the Desired" Alfonso VIII "the Noble" Henry I Berengaria Ferdinand III "the Saint" Alfonso X "the Wise" Sancho IV "the Brave" Ferdinand IV "the Summoned" Alfonso XI "the Avenger" Peter "the Cruel"

House of Trastámara

Henry II "the Fracticidal" John I Henry III "the Mourner" John II Henry IV "the Impotent" Isabella I "the Catholic" Ferdinand V "the Catholic" Joanna "the Mad"

House of Habsburg

Philip I "the Handsome" Charles I "the Emperor" Philip II "the Prudent" Philip III "the Devotional" Philip IV "the Stunned" Charles II "the Bewitched"

v t e

Monarchs of León

Astur-Leonese house

Alfonso III García I Ordoño II Fruela II Alfonso IV Ramiro II Ordoño III Sancho I Ordoño IV Sancho I Ramiro III Bermudo II Alfonso V Bermudo III

House of Jiménez

Ferdinand I Sancho II Alfonso VI Urraca

House of Burgundy

Alfonso VII Ferdinand II Alfonso IX Ferdinand III Alfonso X Sancho IV Ferdinand IV Alfonso XI Peter

House of Trastámara

Henry II John I Henry III John II Henry IV Isabella I & Ferdinand V Joanna & Philip I

House of Habsburg

Charles I

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89811460 LCCN: n83032236 ISNI: 0000 0000 9938 944X GND: 119167573 SUDOC: 032215967 BNF: cb12240115x (data) NLA: 3576

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