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Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
(Aï Khānum, also Ay Khanum, lit. “Lady Moon” in Uzbek),[1] possibly the historical Alexandria
Alexandria
on the Oxus, also possibly later named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia) was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kingdom. Previous scholars have argued that Ai Khanoum was founded in the late 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great. Recent analysis now strongly suggests that the city was founded c. 280 BC by the Seleucid king Antiochus I.[2][3] The city is located in Takhar Province, northern Afghanistan, at the confluence of the Oxus
Oxus
river (today's Amu Darya) and the Kokcha
Kokcha
river, and at the doorstep of the Indian subcontinent. Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was one of the focal points of Hellenism in the East for nearly two centuries, until its annihilation by nomadic invaders around 145 BC about the time of the death of Eucratides.[4] The site was excavated through archaeological work by a French Archaeological Delegation in Afghanistan (fr; es) (DAFA) mission under Paul Bernard (fr) between 1964 and 1978, as well as Russian scientists. The work had to be abandoned with the onset of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, during which the site was looted and used as a battleground, leaving very little of the original material.

Contents

1 Strategic location 2 Greek city in Bactria

2.1 Architecture 2.2 Sculptural remains 2.3 Epigraphic remains 2.4 Artefacts

3 Trade with the Mediterranean 4 Contacts with India

4.1 Influence on Indian art

5 Numismatics 6 Nomadic invasions 7 Significance 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Strategic location[edit]

Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was located at the extreme east of Bactria, at the doorstep of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
in India.

The choice of this site for the foundation of a city was probably guided by several factors. The region, irrigated by the Oxus, had a rich agricultural potential. Mineral resources were abundant in the back country towards the Hindu Kush, especially the famous so-called "rubies" (actually, spinel) from Badakshan, and gold. Its location at the junction between Bactrian territory and nomad territories to the north, ultimately allowed access to commerce with the Chinese empire. Lastly, Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was located at the very doorstep of Ancient India, allowing it interact directly with the Indian subcontinent. Greek city in Bactria[edit]

Plan of Ai-Khanoum

Numerous artefacts and structures were found, pointing to a high Hellenistic culture, combined with Eastern influences. "It has all the hallmarks of a Hellenistic city, with a Greek theatre, gymnasium and some Greek houses with colonnaded courtyards" (Boardman). Overall, Aï-Khanoum was an extremely important Greek city (1.5 sq kilometer), characteristic of the Seleucid
Seleucid
Empire and then the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. It seems the city was destroyed, never to be rebuilt, about the time of the death of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king Eucratides
Eucratides
around 145 BC. Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
may have been the city in which Eucratides
Eucratides
was besieged by Demetrius, before he successfully managed to escape to ultimately conquer India
India
(Justin). Architecture[edit]

Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
in the citadel by the troops of Commander Massoud, 2nd century BC.

Ai- Khanoum mosaic (central detail in color).

The mission unearthed various structures, some of them perfectly Hellenistic, some other integrating elements of Persian architecture:

Two-miles long ramparts, circling the city A citadel with powerful towers (20 × 11 metres at the base, 10 meters in height) and ramparts, established on top of the 60 meters-high hill in the middle of the city A Classical theater, 84 meters in diameter with 35 rows of seats, that could sit 4,000-6,000 people, equipped with three loges for the rulers of the city. Its size was considerable by Classical standards, larger than the theater at Babylon, but slightly smaller than the theater at Epidaurus. A huge palace in Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
architecture, somehow reminiscent of formal Persian palatial architecture A gymnasium (100 × 100m), one of the largest of Antiquity. A dedication in Greek to Hermes
Hermes
and Herakles
Herakles
was found engraved on one of the pillars. The dedication was made by two men with Greek names (Triballos and Strato, son of Strato). Various temples, in and outside the city. The largest temple in the city apparently contained a monumental statue of a seated Zeus, but was built on the Zoroastrian model (massive, closed walls instead of the open column-circled structure of Greek temples). A mosaic representing the Macedonian sun, acanthus leaves and various animals (crabs, dolphins etc...) Numerous remains of Classical Corinthian columns

Architectural antefixae with Hellenistic "Flame palmette" design, Ai-Khanoum.

Sun dial within two sculpted lion feet.

Winged antefix, a type only known from Ai-Khanoum.

Sculptural remains[edit]

Stucco
Stucco
face, Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC

Various sculptural fragments were also found, in a rather conventional, classical style, rather impervious to the Hellenizing innovations occurring at the same time in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Of special notice, a huge foot fragment in excellent Hellenistic style was recovered, which is estimated to have belonged to a 5-6 meter tall statue (which had to be seated to fit within the height of the columns supporting the Temple). Since the sandal of the foot fragment bears the symbolic depiction of Zeus' thunderbolt, the statue is thought to have been a smaller version of the Statue of Zeus
Zeus
at Olympia. Also found among the sculptural remains were:

A statue of a standing female in a rather archaic chiton The face of a man, sculpted in stucco An unfinished statue of a young naked man with wreath A gargoyle head representing the Greek cook-slave A frieze of a naked man, possibly the god Hermes, wearing a chlamys A hermaic sculpture of an old man thought to be a master of the gymnasium, where it was found. He used to hold a long stick in his left hand, symbol of his function.

Due to the lack of proper stones for sculptural work in the area of Ai-Khanoum, unbaked clay and stucco modeled on a wooden frame were often used, a technique which would become widespread in Central Asia and the East, especially in Buddhist
Buddhist
art. In some cases, only the hands and feet would be made in marble.

Sculpture of an old man. Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC.

Bust of the same man.

Frieze of a naked man wearing a chlamys. Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC.

Same frieze, seen from the side.

Hellenistic gargoyle. Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC.

Epigraphic remains[edit] Various inscriptions in Classical, non-barbarized, Greek have been found in Ai-Khanoum.

On a Herõon
Herõon
(funerary monument), identified in Greek as the tomb of Kineas (also described as the oikistes (founder) of the Greek settlement) and dated to 300-250 BC, an inscription has been found describing Delphic precepts:

Stone block with the inscriptions of Kineas. Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC.

παῖς ὢν κόσμιος γίνου, ἡβῶν ἐγκρατής, μέσος δίκαιος, πρεσβύτης εὔβουλος, τελευτῶν ἄλυπος.[5]

'"Païs ôn kosmios ginou (As children, learn good manners) hèbôn enkratès, (as young men, learn to control the passions) mesos dikaios (in middle age, be just) presbutès euboulos (in old age, give good advice) teleutôn alupos. (then die, without regret.)"

The precepts were placed by a Greek named Clearchos, who may or may not have been Clearchus of Soli the disciple of Aristotle,[6] who, according to the same inscription, had copied them from Delphi:

ἀνδρῶν τοι σοφὰ ταῦτα παλαιοτέρων ἀνάκει[τα]ι ῥήματα ἀριγνώτων Πυθοὶ ἐν ἠγαθέαι· ἔνθεν ταῦτ[α] Κλέαρχος ἐπιφραδέως ἀναγράψας εἵσατο τηλαυγῆ Κινέου ἐν τεμένει.[5]

"These wise commandments of men of old - Words of well-known thinkers - stand dedicated In the most holy Pythian shrine From there Klearchos, having copied them carefully, set them up, shining from afar, in the sanctuary of Kineas"

Remains of some papyrus manuscripts, the imprint of which were left in the thin earth of brick walls, containing unknown philosophical dialogues on the theory of ideas, thought to be the only surviving remain of an Aristotelian dialogue, possibly the Sophist, where Xenocrates, another philosopher, present his theory of ideas.[7] Various Greek inscriptions were also found in the Treasury of the palace, indicating the contents (money, imported olive oil...) of various vases, and names of the administrators in charge of them. The hierarchy of these administrators appears to be nearly identical to that in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Greek areas. From the names mentioned in these inscriptions, it appears that the directors of the Treasury were Greek, but that lower administrators had Bactrian names.[7] Three signatories had Greek names (Kosmos, Isidora, Nikeratos), one a Macedonian or Thracian name (Lysanias), and two Bactrian names (Oxuboakes, Oxubazes).

One of these economic inscriptions relates in Greek the deposit of olive oil jars in the treasury:

"In the year 24, on ....; an olive oil (content); the partially empty (vase) A (contains) oil transferred from two jars by Hippias the hemiolios; and did seal: Molossos (?) for jar A, and Strato (?) for jar B (?)"[7]

The last of the dates on these jars has been computed to 147 BC, suggesting that Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was destroyed soon after that date. Artefacts[edit]

Plate depicting Cybele
Cybele
pulled by lions, a votive sacrifice and the Sun God. Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC.

Numerous Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
coins were found, down to Eucratides, but none of them later. Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
also yielded unique Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
coins of Agathocles, consisting of six Indian-standard silver drachms depicting Hindu deities. These are the first known representations of Vedic deities on coins, and they display early Avatars of Vishnu: Balarama- Samkarshana
Samkarshana
and Vasudeva-Krishna, and are thought to correspond to the first Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
attempts at creating an Indian-standard coinage as they invaded northern India. Among other finds:

A round medallion plate describing the goddess Cybele
Cybele
on a chariot, in front of a fire altar, and under a depiction of Helios A fully preserved bronze statue of Herakles Various golden serpentine arm jewellery and earrings Some Indian artefacts, found in the treasure room of the city, probably brought back by Eucratides
Eucratides
from his campaigns A toilet tray representing a seated Aphrodite A mold representing a bearded and diademed middle-aged man

Various artefacts of daily life are also clearly Hellenistic: sundials, ink wells, tableware. An almost life-sized dark green glass phallus with a small owl on the back side and other treasures are said to have been discovered at Ai-Khanoum, possibly along with a stone with an inscription, which was not recovered. The artefacts have now been returned to the Kabul Museum
Kabul Museum
after several years in Switzerland by Paul Bucherer-Dietschi, Director of the Swiss Afghanistan Institute.[8]

Bronze Herakles
Herakles
statuette. Ai-Khanoum. 2nd century BC.

Bracelet with horned female busts. Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC.

Stone recipients from Ai-Khanoum. 3rd-2nd century BC.

Imprint from a mold found in Ai-Khanoum. 3rd-2nd century BC.

Trade with the Mediterranean[edit] The presence of olive oil jars at Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
indicates that this oil was imported from the Mediterranean, as its only possible source would have been the Aegean Basin or Syria. This suggests important trade contacts with the Mediterranean, through long and expensive land routes.[9] Contacts with India[edit]

The Indian plate found in Ai-Khanoum, thought to represent the myth of Kunala.

Coin of Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
king Agathocles with Indian deities.

Several Indian artefacts were found among the archaeological remains of Ai-Khanoum, especially a narrative plate made of shell inlaid with various materials and colors, thought to represent the Indian myth of Kuntala.[10] Also, numerous Indian punch-marked coins were found.[11]

The equatorial sun dial adjusted to the latitude of Ujjain, Ai-Khanoum, 3rd-2nd century BC.

In Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
remarkable Greek coins were also found, of one of the last Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
kings, Agathocles of Bactria
Bactria
(ruled 190-180 BCE). They are Indian-standard square coins bearing the representations of Indian deities, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Buddha
Buddha
or Balarama. Altogether, six such Indian-standard silver drachmas in the name of Agathocles were discovered at Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
in 1970.[12][13][14] Some other coins by Agathocles are also thought to represent the Buddhist
Buddhist
lion and the Indian goddess Lakshmi.[14] Influence on Indian art[edit]

One of the Hellenistic-inspired "flame palmettes" and lotus designs, which may have been transmitted through Ai-Khanoum. Rampurva
Rampurva
bull capital, India, circa 250 BCE.

Main article: Hellenistic influence on Indian art According to John Boardman, Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
may have been one of the conduits for some art influence into ancient India, though these influences and their sources are "not always properly identified or yet identifiable".[15] There are three competing scholarly views: one originated by early scholars such as Percy Brown where Indian architecture was due to immigration of western craftsmen, second by later scholars such as John Irwin who favor mostly indigenous inspiration and third such as S.P. Gupta who favor a combination.[15] Persia, states Boardman, did not have a stone tradition of its own that can be traced, but there is evidence that "Persian bases of a plain half round torus" combined with Corinthian capitals existed there, and there is evidence that India
India
had an intricate wooden architecture tradition about the same time. It is possible that Ai-Khanoum, a Greek city of Bactria
Bactria
in 3rd-century BCE, could have provided the conduit to connect the Hellenistic and Indian artists. However, Persepolis fell about 80 years before the first Buddhist stone architecture appeared, which leaves the question whether knowledge was preserved over the generations between Persepolis to the west of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
and the Mauryans to its east.[15] Numismatics[edit]

Gold
Gold
stater of the Seleucid
Seleucid
king Antiochus I
Antiochus I
Soter minted at Ai-Khanoum, c. 275 BCE. Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochus. Reverse: Nude Apollo
Apollo
seated on omphalos, leaning on bow and holding two arrows. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of King Antiochos). Δ monogram of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
in left field.

The symbol found on a brick in Ai-Khanoum.

Many Seleucid
Seleucid
and Bactrian coins were found at Ai-Khanoum, as were ten blank planchets, indicating that there was a mint in the city.[16] Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
apparently had a city symbol (a triangle within a circle, with various variations), which was found imprinted on bricks coming from the oldest buildings of the city. The same symbol was used on various Seleucid
Seleucid
eastern coins, suggesting that they were probably minted in Ai-Khanoum. Numerous Seleucid
Seleucid
coins were thus reattributed to the Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
mint rather recently, with the conclusion that Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was probably a larger minting center than even Bactra.[17] The coins found in Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
start with those of Seleucus, but end abruptly with those of Eucratides, suggesting that the city was conquered at the end of his rule. Nomadic invasions[edit] The invading Indo-European nomads from the north (the Scythians and then the Yuezhi) crossed the Oxus
Oxus
and subdued Bactria
Bactria
about 135 BC. It seems the city was totally abandoned between 140 and 120 BC following the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
invasion. There is evidence of huge fires in all the major buildings of the city. Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was likely affected as many nomadic invasions passed through across through the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
passes. In 1838 a Lieutenant Wood heard local people refer to the site as "Barbarrah".[18] As with other archaeological sites such as Begram
Begram
or Hadda, the Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
site has been pillaged during the long phase of war in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
since the fall of the Communist government.[citation needed] Significance[edit]

Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was located at the very doorstep of India.

Indian Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
addressed the Greeks
Greeks
of the region circa 258 BC in the Kandahar
Kandahar
Edict of Ashoka, a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic. Kabul Museum.

The findings are of considerable importance, as no remains of the Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
and Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
civilizations had been uncovered in the East (beyond the abundant coinage) until this discovery, which led some to speak of a "Bactrian mirage." Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
was a center of Hellenistic culture at the doorstep of India, and there was a strong reciprocal awareness between the two areas. A few years after the foundation of the city, around 258 BC, the Indian Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
was carving a rock inscription in Greek and Aramaic
Aramaic
addressed to the Greeks
Greeks
in the region, the Kandahar
Kandahar
Edict of Ashoka, in the nearby city of Kandahar. The discovery of Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
also gives a new perspective on the influence of Greek culture in the East, and reaffirms the influence of the Greeks
Greeks
on the development of Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ai-Khanoum.

Seleucid
Seleucid
Empire Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Yuezhi Kushan Empire Indo-Scythians

Notes[edit]

^ Bell, George. "Journal of the Royal Society of Arts". Royal Society of Arts, 1970. p. 445 ^ Lyonnet, Bertille. "Questions on the Date of the Hellenistic Pottery from Central Asia (Ai Khanoum, Marakanda and Koktepe)". Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia". vol. 18. 2012. pp. 143-173. ^ Martinez-Seve, Laurianne. "The Spatial Organization of Ai Khanoum, a Greek City in Afghanistan". American Journal of Archaeology 118.2. 2014. pp 267-283. ^ Bernard, P. (1994): "The Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 92-3-102846-4, p. 103. ^ a b Greek Culture in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India: Old Evidence and New Discoveries, Shane Wallace, 2016, p.215 ^ Greek Culture in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India: Old Evidence and New Discoveries, Shane Wallace, 2016, p.217 ^ a b c Claude Rapin, "De l'Indus à l'Oxus", p375. Also full description of the papyrii (French)original text and French translation ^ Source, BBC News, Another article. German story with photographs here (translation here). ^ Frölich, p.10 ^ "Afghanistan, tresors retrouves", p150 ^ Joe Cribb, Investigating the introduction of coinage in India, Journal of the Numismatic Society of India
India
xlv Varanasi 1983 pp.89 ^ Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and Bactria: The Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia, Frank Lee Holt, Brill Archive, 1988, p.2 ^ Iconography of Balarāma, Nilakanth Purushottam Joshi, Abhinav Publications, 1979, p.22 ^ a b The Hellenistic World: Using Coins as Sources, Peter Thonemann, Cambridge University Press, 2016, p.101 ^ a b c John Boardman (1998), "The Origins of Indian Stone Architecture", Bulletin of the Asia Institute, p.13-22 ^ Brian Kritt: Seleucid
Seleucid
Coins of Bactria, p. 22. ^ " Seleucid
Seleucid
coins of Bactria", Brian Kritt ^ Llewelyn Morgan, " Greeks
Greeks
on the Edge" (review of Rachel Mairs, The Hellenistic Far East: archaeology, language and identity in Greek Central Asia), Times Literary Supplement 11 September 2015 page 25.

References[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Afghanistan

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus
Oxus
civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid
Seleucid
Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian
Greco-Bactrian
Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

Medieval

Kabul Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

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Tahirids 821–873

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Ghurids before 879–1215

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Ilkhanate 1258–1353

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Karts 1245–1381

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Modern

Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

Durrani Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

Book Category Portal

v t e

Tarn, W. W. (1984). The Greeks
Greeks
in Bactria
Bactria
and India. Chicago: Ares. ISBN 0-89005-524-6.  Bopearachchi, Osmund (2003). De l'Indus à l'Oxus, Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale (in French). Lattes: Association imago-musée de Lattes. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2.  Frölich, Pierre (2004). Les Grecs en Orient. L'heritage d'Alexandre. La Documentation photographique, n.8040 (in French). Paris: La Documentation Francaise.  Afghanistan: Hidden Treasures from the National Museum, Kabul (2008). Eds., Friedrik Hiebert and Pierre Cambon. National Geographic, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-1-4262-0374-9.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ai-Khanoum.

Ai-Khanum, the Capital of Eucratides
Eucratides
on Ancient History Encyclopedia Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
archaeological site photographs Ai-Khanoum
Ai-Khanoum
and vandalization during the Afghan war page not found The Hellenistic Age Afghan Treasures 3-D reconstruction of Ai-Khanoum Livius.org: Alexandria
Alexandria
on Oxus Afghanistan: Crossroads of the Ancient World Surviving treasures from the National Museum of Afghanistan, at The British Museum, 3 March – 17 July 2011

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