Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (/ˈpʊʃkɪn/; Russian:
Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, tr.
Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr
sʲɪˈrɡʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn] ( listen);
6 June [O.S. 26 May] 1799 – 10
February [O.S. 29 January] 1837) was a Russian poet,
playwright, and novelist of the Romantic era who is considered by
many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of
modern Russian literature.
Pushkin was born into
Russian nobility in Moscow. Нis father, Sergey
Lvovich Pushkin, belonged to Pushkin noble families. His matrilineal
great-grandfather was Abram Petrovich Gannibal. He published his first
poem at the age of fifteen and was widely recognized by the literary
establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo
Lyceum. Upon graduation from the Lycee Pushkin recited his
controversial poem "Ode to Liberty" one of several that led to his
being exiled by
Tsar Alexander the First. While under the strict
surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish,
Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov. His novel
in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832.
Pushkin was fatally wounded in a duel with his brother-in-law,
Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès, also known as Dantes-Gekkern,
a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment, who
attempted to seduce the poet's wife, Natalia Pushkina.
2 Early life
3 Social activism
7.4 Russian language
10.1 Narrative poems
10.4 Fairy tales in verse
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Pushkin's father, Sergei Lvovich Pushkin (1767–1848), was descended
from a distinguished family of the
Russian nobility that traced its
ancestry back to the 12th century.
Pushkin's mother, Nadezhda (Nadya) Ossipovna Gannibal (1775–1836),
was descended through her paternal grandmother from German and
Scandinavian nobility. She was the daughter of Ossip
Abramovich Gannibal (1744–1807) and his wife, Maria Alekseyevna
Major S. L. Pushkin – father of the poet
Ossip Abramovich Gannibal's father, Pushkin's great-grandfather, was
Abram Petrovich Gannibal
Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696–1781), an African page kidnapped to
Constantinople as a gift to the
Ottoman Sultan and later transferred
to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. Abram wrote in a letter to
Empress Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter, that Gannibal was from
the town of "Lagon". Largely on the basis of a mythical biography by
Gannibal's son-in-law Rotkirkh, some historians concluded from this
that Gannibal was born in a part of what was then the Abyssinian
Empire. Vladimir Nabokov, when researching Eugene Onegin, cast
serious doubt on this origin theory. Later research by the scholars
Dieudonné Gnammankou and
Hugh Barnes eventually conclusively
established that Gannibal was instead born in Central Africa, in an
Lake Chad in modern-day Cameroon. After
education in France as a military engineer, Gannibal became governor
of Reval and eventually Général en Chef (the third most senior army
rank) in charge of the building of sea forts and canals in Russia.
Nadezhda Gannibalova – mother of the poet
Pushkin exam at lyceum
Born in Moscow, Pushkin published his first poem at 15. When he
finished school, as part of the first graduating class of the
Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg,
his talent was already widely recognized within the Russian literary
scene. After school, Pushkin plunged into the vibrant and raucous
intellectual youth culture of the capital, Saint Petersburg. In 1820,
he published his first long poem, Ruslan and Ludmila, with much
controversy about its subject and style.
Pushkin gradually became committed to social reform and emerged as a
spokesman for literary radicals. That angered the government and led
to his transfer from the capital in May 1820. He went to the
Caucasus and to
Crimea and then to Kamianka and Chișinău, where he
became a Freemason.
Pushkin's married lover, Anna Petrovna Kern, for whom he probably
wrote the most famous love poem in Russian.
He joined the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was
to overthrow Ottoman rule in Greece and establish an independent Greek
state. He was inspired by the
Greek Revolution and when the war
Ottoman Turks broke out, he kept a diary recording the
events of the great national uprising.
He stayed in
Chișinău until 1823 and wrote two Romantic poems,which
brought him acclaim: The Captive of the
Caucasus and The Fountain of
Bakhchisaray. In 1823, Pushkin moved to Odessa, where he again clashed
with the government, which sent him into exile on his mother's rural
estate of Mikhailovskoye (near Pskov) from 1824 to 1826.
In Mikhaylovskoye, Pushkin wrote nostalgic love poems which he
dedicated to Elizaveta Vorontsova, wife of Malorossia's
General-Governor. Then Pushkin continued work on his verse-novel
In Mikhaylovskoye, in 1825, Pushkin wrote the poem To***. It is
generally believed that he dedicated this poem to Anna Kern, but there
are other opinions.
Poet Mikhail Dudin believed that the poem was
dedicated to the serf Olga Kalashnikova. Pushkinist Kira Victorova
believed that the poem was dedicated to the Empress Elizaveta
Alekseyevna. Vadim Nikolayev argued that the idea about the
Empress was marginal and refused to discuss it, while trying to prove
that poem had been dedicated to Tatyana Larina, the heroine of Eugene
Authorities summoned Pushkin to
Moscow after his poem "Ode to Liberty"
was found among the belongings of the rebels from the Decembrist
Uprising (1825). Being exiled in 1820, Pushkin's friends and family
continually petitioned for his release, sending letters and meeting
Tsar Alexander I and then
Tsar Nicholas I on the heels of the
Decembrist Uprising. Upon meeting with
Tsar Nicholas I Pushkin
obtained his release from exile and began to work as the tsar's
Titular Counsel of the National Archives. However, because insurgents
in the Decembrist Uprising (1825) in
Saint Petersburg had kept some of
Pushkin's earlier political poems the tsar retained strict control of
everything Pushkin published and he was unable to travel at will.
During that same year (1825), Pushkin also wrote what would become his
most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, while at his mother's
estate. He could not however, gain permission to publish it until five
years later. The original and uncensored version of the drama was not
staged until 2007.
Around 1825–1829 he met and befriended the Polish poet Adam
Mickiewicz, during exile in central Russia. In 1829 he travelled
Erzurum to visit friends fighting in the
Russian army during the Russo-Turkish War. In the end of 1829
Pushkin wanted to set off on a journey abroad, the desire reflected in
his poem Poedem, ia gotov; kuda by vy, druz’ia... He applied for
permission for the journey, but received negative response from
Nicholas I on January 17, 1830.
Around 1828, Pushkin met Natalia Goncharova, then 16 years old and one
of the most talked-about beauties of Moscow. After much hesitation,
Natalia accepted a proposal of marriage from Pushkin in April 1830,
but not before she received assurances that the Tsarist government had
no intentions to persecute the libertarian poet. Later, Pushkin and
his wife became regulars of court society. They officially became
engaged on 6 May 1830, and sent out wedding invitations. Due to an
outbreak of cholera and other circumstances, the wedding was delayed
for a year. The ceremony took place on 18 February 1831 (Old Style) in
Great Ascension Church
Great Ascension Church on
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street
Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street in Moscow.
Tsar gave Pushkin the lowest court title; Gentlemen of the
Chamber, the poet became enraged, feeling that the
Tsar intended to
humiliate him by implying that Pushkin was being admitted to court not
on his own merits but solely so that his wife, who had many admirers
Tsar himself, could properly attend court balls.
In the year 1831, during the period of Pushkin's growing literary
influence, he met one of Russia's other great early writers, Nikolai
Gogol. After reading Gogol's 1831–1832 volume of short stories
Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, Pushkin supported him and would
feature some of Gogol's most famous short stories in the magazine The
Contemporary, which he founded in 1836.
By the autumn of 1836, Pushkin was falling into greater and greater
debt and faced scandalous rumours that his wife had a love affair. On
4 November he sent a challenge to a duel for Georges d'Anthès
(Dantes-Gekkern). Jacob van Heeckeren, d'Anthès' adoptive father,
asked the duel be delayed by two weeks. With efforts by the poet's
friends, the duel was cancelled. On 17 November Georges d'Anthès made
a proposal to Natalia Goncharova's (Pushkina's) sister – Ekaterina
Goncharova. The same day Pushkin sent the letter to refuse the duel.
The marriage didn't resolve the conflict. Georges d'Anthès continued
to pursue Natalia Goncharova in public. Rumours that Georges married
Natalia's sister just to save her reputation started to spread. On
January 26 (7 February) of 1837 Pushkin sent a "highly insulting
letter" to Heeckeren. The only answer for that letter could be a
challenge to a duel, and Pushkin knew it. Pushkin received the formal
challenge to a duel through his sister-in-law, Ekaterina Gekkerna,
approved by d'Anthès, on the same day through the attaché of the
French Embassy Viscount d'Archiac. Since Dantes-Gekkern was the
ambassador of a foreign country, he could not fight a duel – it
would mean the immediate collapse of his career. The duel with
d'Anthès took place on January 27 at the Black River. Pushkin was
wounded in a hip and the bullet penetrated into the abdomen. At that
time that kind of wound was fatal. Pushkin learned about it from the
medic Arendt, who did not conceal the true state of affairs. Two days
later, on January 29 (February 10) at 14:45 Pushkin died of
By Pushkin's wife's request he was put in the coffin in an evening
dress – not in chamber-cadet uniform, the uniform provided by the
tsar. The funeral service was assigned to the St. Isaac's Cathedral,
but it was moved to Konyushennaya church. The ceremony took place at a
large gathering of people. After the funeral, the coffin was lowered
into the basement, where it stayed until 3 February, before the
departure to Pskov.
Alexander Pushkin was buried on the territory of
the monastery Svyatogorsk
Pskov province beside his mother. His last
home is now a museum.
Natalia Goncharova, Pushkin's wife. Painted by
Ivan Makarov (1849).
Alexander Pushkin's ancestry.
Pushkin had four children from his marriage to Natalia: Maria (b.
1832), Alexander (b. 1833), Grigory (b. 1835) and Natalia (b. 1836)
the last of whom married morganatically into the royal house of Nassau
Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau
Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau and became the Countess of Merenberg.
Only the lines of Alexander and Natalia still remain. Natalia's
granddaughter, Nadejda, married into the British royal family (her
husband was the uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh).
Descendants of the poet now live around the globe in the United
Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Germany, Belgium and the United States.
Critics consider many of his works masterpieces, such as the poem The
Bronze Horseman and the drama The Stone Guest, a tale of the fall of
Don Juan. His poetic short drama Mozart and Salieri (like The Stone
Guest, one of the so-called four Little Tragedies, a collective
characterization by Pushkin himself in 1830 letter to Pyotr
Pletnyov) was the inspiration for Peter Shaffer's
Amadeus as well
as providing the libretto (almost verbatim) to Rimsky-Korsakov's opera
Mozart and Salieri. Pushkin is also known for his short stories. In
particular his cycle The Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin,
including "The Shot", were well received. Pushkin himself preferred
his verse novel Eugene Onegin, which he wrote over the course of his
life and which, starting a tradition of great Russian novels, follows
a few central characters but varies widely in tone and focus.
Onegin is a work of such complexity that, while only about a hundred
pages long, translator
Vladimir Nabokov needed two full volumes of
material to fully render its meaning in English. Because of this
difficulty in translation, Pushkin's verse remains largely unknown to
English readers. Even so, Pushkin has profoundly influenced western
writers like Henry James. Pushkin wrote The Queen of Spades, which
is included in Black Water, a collection of short stories of a
fantastic nature by major writers, compiled by Alberto Manguel.
Pushkin's works also provided fertile ground for Russian composers.
Glinka's Ruslan and Lyudmila is the earliest important
Pushkin-inspired opera, and a landmark in the tradition of Russian
music. Tchaikovsky's operas
Eugene Onegin (1879) and The Queen of
Spades (La Dame de Pique, 1890) became perhaps better known outside of
Russia than Pushkin's own works of the same name.
Boris Godunov (two versions, 1868–9 and
1871–2) ranks as one of the very finest and most original of Russian
operas. Other Russian operas based on Pushkin include Dargomyzhsky's
Rusalka and The Stone Guest; Rimsky-Korsakov's Mozart and Salieri,
Tsar Saltan, and The Golden Cockerel; Cui's Prisoner of the
Caucasus, Feast in Time of Plague, and The Captain's Daughter;
Tchaikovsky's Mazeppa; Rachmaninoff's one-act operas Aleko (based on
The Gypsies) and The Miserly Knight; Stravinsky's Mavra, and
Additionally, ballets and cantatas, as well as innumerable songs, have
been set to Pushkin's verse (including even his French-language poems,
in Isabelle Aboulker's song cycle "Caprice étrange"). Suppé,
Leoncavallo and Malipiero have also based operas on his works.
The Desire of Glory, which has been dedicated to Elizaveta Vorontsova,
was set to music by
David Tukhmanov (Vitold Petrovsky – The Desire
of Glory on YouTube), as well as Keep Me, Mine Talisman – by
Alexander Barykin (
Alexander Barykin – Keep Me, Mine Talisman on
YouTube) and later by Tukhmanov.
Pushkin is considered by many to be the central representative of
Russian literature although he was not unequivocally
known as a Romantic. Russian critics have traditionally argued that
his works represent a path from
Realism. An alternative assessment suggests that "he had an ability to
entertain contrarities [sic] which may seem Romantic in origin, but
are ultimately subversive of all fixed points of view, all single
outlooks, including the Romantic" and that "he is simultaneously
Romantic and not Romantic".
According to Vladimir Nabokov,
Pushkin's idiom combined all the contemporaneous elements of Russian
with all he had learned from Derzhavin, Zhukovsky, Batyushkov,
Karamzin and Krylov:
The poetical and metaphysical strain that still lived in Church
Slavonic forms and locutions
Abundant and natural gallicisms
Everyday colloquialisms of his set
Stylized popular speech by making a salad of the famous three styles
(low, medium elevation, high) dear to the pseudoclassical archaists
and adding the ingredients of Russian romanticists with a pinch of
Pushkin is usually credited with developing Russian literature. He is
seen as having originated the highly-nuanced level of language which
Russian literature after him, and he is also credited
with substantially augmenting the Russian lexicon. Whenever he found
gaps in the Russian vocabulary, he devised calques. His rich
vocabulary and highly-sensitive style are the foundation for modern
Russian literature. His accomplishments set new records for
development of the
Russian language and culture. He became the father
Russian literature in the 19th century, marking the highest
achievements of the 18th century and the beginning of literary process
of the 19th century. He introduced Russia to all the European literary
genres as well as a great number of West European writers. He brought
natural speech and foreign influences to create modern poetic Russian.
Though his life was brief, he left examples of nearly every literary
genre of his day: lyric poetry, narrative poetry, the novel, the short
story, the drama, the critical essay and even the personal letter.
His work as a critic and as a journalist marked the birth of Russian
magazine culture which included him devising and contributing heavily
to one of the most influential literary magazines of the 19th century,
Sovremennik (The Contemporary, or Современник). Pushkin
inspired the folk tales and genre pieces of other authors: Leskov,
Yesenin and Gorky. His use of
Russian language formed the basis of the
style of novelists Ivan Turgenev,
Ivan Goncharov and Leo Tolstoy, as
well as that of subsequent lyric poets such as Mikhail Lermontov.
Pushkin was analysed by Nikolai Gogol, his successor and pupil, and
the great Russian critic Vissarion Belinsky. The last mentioned also
produced the fullest and deepest critical study of Pushkin's work,
which still retains much of its relevance.
In 1929, Soviet writer, Leonid Grossman, published a novel, The
d'Archiac Papers, telling the story of Pushkin's death from the
perspective of a French diplomat, being a participant and a witness of
the fatal duel. The book describes him as a liberal and a victim of
the Tsarist regime. In Poland the book was published under the title
Death of the Poet.
In 1937, the town of
Tsarskoye Selo was renamed Pushkin in his honour.
There are several museums in Russia dedicated to Pushkin, including
two in Moscow, one in Saint Petersburg, and a large complex in
Pushkin's death was portrayed in the 2006 biographical film Pushkin:
The Last Duel. The film was directed by Natalya Bondarchuk. Pushkin
was portrayed on screen by Sergei Bezrukov.
The Pushkin Trust was established in 1987 by the Duchess of Abercorn
to commemorate the creative legacy and spirit of her ancestor and to
release the creativity and imagination of the children of Ireland by
providing them with opportunities to communicate their thoughts,
feelings and experiences.
A minor planet, 2208 Pushkin, discovered in 1977 by Soviet astronomer
Nikolai Chernykh, is named after him. A crater on Mercury is also
named in his honour.
MS Aleksandr Pushkin, second ship of the Russian Ivan Franko class
(also referred to as "poet" or "writer" class).
A station of Tashkent metro was named in his honour.
The Pushkin Hills and Pushkin Lake were named in his honour in
Ben Nevis Township, Cochrane District, in Ontario, Canada.
UN Russian Language Day, established by the United Nations in 2010 and
celebrated each year on 6 June, was scheduled to coincide with
A statue of Pushkin was unveiled inside the
Mehan Garden in Manila,
Philippines to commemorate the
Philippines–Russia relations in
Alexander Pushkin diamond, the second largest found in Russia and
the former territory of the USSR, was named after him.
On November 28, 2009, a Pushkin Monument was erected in Asmara,
capital of Eritrea.
In 2005 a monument to Pushkin and his grandmother Maria Hannibal was
commissioned by an enthusiast of Russian culture Just Rugel in
Zakharovo, Russia. Sculptor V. Kozinin
Portrait of Pushkin 1800–1802 by Xavier de Maistre
Portrait of A. Pushkin by Pyotr Sokolov (1831)
Portrait of A. Pushkin by Pyotr Sokolov (1836)
Portrait of A. Pushkin by Carl Mazer (1839)
"Pushkin's Farewell to the Sea" by
Ivan Aivazovsky and Ilya Repin
Portrait of A. Pushkin by
Konstantin Somov (1899)
Portrait of Pushkin by
Vasily Mate (1899)
Pushkin's room while he was a student at the
Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum
Pushkin's writing table
Alexander Pushkin and Georges d'Anthès
The vest Pushkin wore during his fatal duel in 1837
Alexander Pushkin in Bakhchysarai, Crimea
Alexander Pushkin statue, St. Petersburg, Russia.
1820 – Ruslan i Ludmila (Руслан и Людмила);
English translation: Ruslan and Ludmila
1820–21 – Cawcazskiy plennik (Кавказский
пленник); English translation: The Prisoner of the Caucasus
1821 – Gavriiliada (Гавриилиада) ; English
translation: The Gabrieliad
1821–22 – Bratia razboyniki (Братья
разбойники); English translation: The Robber Brothers
1823 – Bahchisarayskiy fontan (Бахчисарайский
фонтан); English translation: The Fountain of Bakhchisaray
1824 – Tsygany (Цыганы); English translation: The Gypsies
1825 – Graf Nulin (Граф Нулин); English translation:
1829 – Poltava (Полтава)
1830 – Domik v Kolomne (Домик в Коломне); English
translation: The Little House in Kolomna
1833 – Anjelo (Анджело); English translation: Angelo
1833 – Medny vsadnik (Медный всадник); English
translation: The Bronze Horseman
1825–1832 (1833) – Evgeniy Onegin (Евгений
Онегин); English translation: Eugene Onegin
Boris Godunov (Борис Годунов); English
translation by Alfred Hayes: Boris Godunov
1830 – Malenkie tragedii (Маленькие трагедии);
English translation: The Little Tragedies
Kamenny gost (Каменный гость); English translation: The
Motsart i Salieri (Моцарт и Сальери); English
translation: Mozart and Salieri
Skupoy rytsar (Скупой рыцарь); English translations: The
Miserly Knight, The Covetous Knight
Pir vo vremya chumy (Пир во время чумы); English
translation: A Feast in Time of Plague
1828 – Arap Petra Velikogo (Арап Петра Великого);
English translation: The Moor of Peter the Great, unfinished novel
1831 – Povesti pokoynogo Ivana Petrovicha Belkina
(Повести покойного Ивана Петровича
Белкина); English translation: The Tales of the Late Ivan
Vystrel (Выстрел); English translation: The Shot, short story
Metel (Метель); English translation: The Blizzard, short story
Grobovschik (Гробовщик); English translation: The Undertaker,
Stantsionny smotritel (Станционный смотритель);
English translation: The Stationmaster, short story
Baryshnya-krestianka (Барышня-крестьянка); English
translation: The Squire's Daughter, short story
1834 – Pikovaa dama (Пиковая дама); English translation:
The Queen of Spades, short story
1834 – Kirjali (Кирджали); English translation: Kirdzhali,
1834 – Istoria Pugachyova (История Пугачева); English
translation: A History of Pugachev, study of the Pugachev's Rebellion
1836 – Capitanskaa dochka (Капитанская дочка);
English translation: The Captain's Daughter, novel
1836 – Puteshestvie v Arzrum (Путешествие в
Арзрум); English translation: A Journey to Arzrum, travel
1836 – Roslavlyov (Рославлев); English translation:
Roslavlev, unfinished novel
1837 – Istoria sela Goryuhina (История села
Горюхина); English translation: The Story of the Village of
Goryukhino, unfinished short story
1837 – Egypetskie nochi (Египетские ночи); English
translation: Egyptian Nights, unfinished short story
1841 – Dubrovsky (Дубровский); English translation:
Dubrovsky, unfinished novel
Fairy tales in verse
1825 – Жених; English translation: The Bridegroom
1830 – Сказка о попе и о работнике его
Балде; English translation: The Tale of the Priest and of His
1830 – Сказка о медведихе; English translation: The
Tale of the Female Bear (was not finished)
1831 – Сказка о царе Салтане; English translation:
The Tale of
1833 – Сказка о рыбаке и рыбке; English
translation: The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish
1833 – Сказка о мертвой царевне; English
translation: The Tale of the Dead Princess
1834 – Сказка о золотом петушке; English
translation: The Tale of the Golden Cockerel
Children's literature portal
Anna Petrovna Kern
Fyodor Petrovich Tolstoy
Kapiton Zelentsov, contemporary illustrator of Pushkin's novels
UN Russian Language Day
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The Mississippi Quarterly p. 75(11) Vol. 55 No. 1
ISSN 0026-637X. 22 December 2001.
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Don Juan List of A. S. Pushkin. Petrograd,
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^ a b (in Russian) Vadim Nikolayev. To whom «Magic Moment» has been
dedicated? Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ (in Russian) In an interview with Kira Victorova Archived 7 May 2013
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Kazimierz Wyka, Mickiewicz Adam Bernard, Polski Słownik
Biograficzny, Tome XX, 1975, p. 696
^ Wilson, Reuel K. (1974). Pushkin's Journey to Erzurum. Springer.
^ Poedem, ia gotov; kuda by vy, druz’ia...(in Russian)
^ Pushkin, A.S. (1974). Sobranie sochinenii. Vol. 2. Moscow:
Khudozhestvennaya Literatura. p. 581.
^ Pushkin Genealogy. PBS.
^ Anderson, Nancy K. (trans. & ed.) (2000). The Little Tragedies
by Alexander Pushkin. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 1
& 213 n.1. ISBN 0300080255. .
^ Joseph S. O'Leary, Pushkin in 'The Aspern Papers', the Henry James
E-Journal Number 2, March 2000, retrieved on 24 November 2006.
^ Taruskin R. Pushkin in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. London
& New York, Macmillan, 1997.
^ Vladimir Nabokov, Verses and Versions, page 72.
^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th
ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 179.
^ "Pushkin Hills". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources
Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ "Pushkin Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources
Canada. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
^ Wagner, Ashley (6 June 2013). "Celebrating Russian Language Day".
Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837). Plaque on the pedestal of Pushkin's
statue at the Mehan Garden, Manila. Archived from the original on 27
^ (in Russian) "В Эритрее появится памятник
Пушкину". Vesti. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 23 April
Binyon, T. J. (2002) Pushkin: A Biography. London: HarperCollins
ISBN 0-00-215084-0; US edition: New York: Knopf, 2003
Yuri Druzhnikov (2008) Prisoner of Russia:
Alexander Pushkin and the
Political Uses of Nationalism, Transaction Publishers
Dunning, Chester, Emerson, Caryl, Fomichev, Sergei, Lotman, Lidiia,
Wood, Antony (Translator) (2006) The Uncensored Boris Godunov: The
Case for Pushkin's Original Comedy University of Wisconsin Press
Feinstein, Elaine (ed.) (1999) After Pushkin: versions of the poems of
Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin by contemporary poets. Manchester:
Carcanet Press; London: Folio Society ISBN 1-85754-444-7
Pogadaev, Victor (2003) Penyair Agung Rusia Pushkin dan Dunia Timur
(The Great Russian
Poet Pushkin and the Oriental World). Monograph
Series. Centre For Civilisational Dialogue. University Malaya. 2003,
Vitale, Serena (1998) Pushkin's button; transl. from the Italian by
Ann Goldstein. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux
DuVernet, M. A. (2014) Pushkin's Ode to Liberty. US edition: Xlibris
Телетова, Н. К. (Teletova, N. K.) (2007) Забытые
родственные связи А.С. Пушкина (The forgotten
family connections of A. S. Pushkin). Saint Petersburg: Dorn
Wolfe, Markus (1998) Freemasonry in life and literature. Munich: Otto
Sagner ltd. ISBN 3-87690-692-X
Wachtel, Michael. "Pushkin and the" Pushkin Review 12–13:
Jakowlew, Valentin. "Pushkin's Farewell Dinner in Paris" (Text in
Russian) Koblenz (Germany): Fölbach, 2006, ISBN 3-934795-38-2.
Galgano Andrea (2014). The affective dynamics in the work and thought
of Alexandr Pushkin, Conference Proceedings, 17th World Congress of
the World Association for Dynamic Psychiatry. Multidisciplinary
Approach to and Treatment of Mental Disorders: Myth or Reality?, St.
Petersburg, May 14–17, 2014, In Dynamische Psychiatrie.
Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychotherapie, Psychoanalyse und
Psychiatrie – International Journal for Psychoanalysis,
Psychotherapy, and Psychiatry, Berlin: Pinel Verlag GmbH, 1-3, Nr.
266-268, 2015, pp. 176–191.
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Media from Wikimedia Commons
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Data from Wikidata
Alexander Pushkin at Encyclopædia Britannica
Works by Aleksandr Pushkin at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin at Internet Archive
Alexander Pushkin at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Biographical essay on Pushkin. By Mike Phillips, British Library
The Pushkin Review, annual journal of North American Pushkin Society.
English translations of Pushkin's poems Retrieved 2013-04-26
English translation of "The Tale of the Female Bear"
List of English translations of
Eugene Onegin with extracts
List of English translations of The Bronze Horseman with extracts
Alexander Pushkin. Mozart and Saliery in English
Boris Godunov in English
Alexander Pushkin. The Bronze Horseman in English
Alexander Pushkin poetry(rus)
Pushkin's poetry translated to English by Margaret Wettlin
Ruslan and Ludmila
Ruslan and Ludmila (1820)
The Prisoner of the
The Gabrieliad (1821)
The Fountain of Bakhchisaray
The Fountain of Bakhchisaray (1823)
The Gypsies (1827)
The Bronze Horseman (1833)
"I Loved You" (1830)
"To the Slanderers of Russia" (1831)
Verse fairy tales
The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda
The Tale of the Priest and of His Workman Balda (1830)
The Tale of
Tsar Saltan (1831)
The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish
The Tale of the Fisherman and the Fish (1833)
The Tale of the Dead Princess
The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights (1833)
The Tale of the Golden Cockerel
The Tale of the Golden Cockerel (1834)
Eugene Onegin (1833)
The Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin
The Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin (1830)
The Moor of
Peter the Great
Peter the Great (1827)
The Queen of Spades (1834)
A Journey to Arzrum
A Journey to Arzrum (1835–1836)
The Captain's Daughter
The Captain's Daughter (1836)
Boris Godunov (1825)
The Little Tragedies
A Feast in Time of Plague
A Feast in Time of Plague (1830)
Mozart and Salieri (1830)
The Stone Guest (1830)
Abram Petrovich Gannibal
Abram Petrovich Gannibal (great-grandfather)
Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès
Anna Petrovna Kern
Vasily Pushkin (uncle)
Natalia Pushkina (wife)
Mikhaylovskoye Museum Reserve
Pushkin is Our Everything
Gothic Revival (architecture)
Hudson River School
Romanticism in science
Opium and Romanticism
A. v. Arnim
B. v. Arnim
P. B. Shelley
« Age of Enlightenment
Alexander Pushkin's "The Queen of Spades" (1833)
The Queen of Spades (1916, Russia)
The Queen of Spades (1927, Germany)
The Queen of Spades (1949, Great Britain)
The Queen of Spades (1960, USSR)
The Queen of Spades (1982, USSR)
The Queen of Spades (Tchaikovsky)
Pique Dame (Suppé)
Eugene Onegin by Alexander Pushkin
Eugene Onegin (1958)
Eugene Onegin (opera)
Boris Godunov by
Alexander Pushkin (1825)
Feodor II of Russia
Tsarevna Xenia Borisovna of Russia
False Dmitriy I
Patriarch Job of Moscow
Boris Godunov (1954)
Boris Godunov (1986)
Boris Godunov (1989)
Boris Godunov (1872 opera)
Alexander Pushkin (1841)
The Eagle (1925)
Black Eagle (1946)
Revenge of Black Eagle
Revenge of Black Eagle (1951)
Alexander Pushkin's "Ruslan and Ludmila"
Ruslan and Lyudmila (1842 opera)
Ruslan and Ludmila
Ruslan and Ludmila (1972 film)
Alexander Pushkin's "The Gypsies"
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