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Aleksandras Stulginskis
Aleksandras Stulginskis
[ɐlʲɛkˈsɐ̂ˑndrɐs stʊlʲˈɡʲɪ̂nʲsʲkʲɪs] ( listen) (February 26, 1885 – September 22, 1969) was the second President
President
of Lithuania (1920–1926). Stulginskis was also acting President of Lithuania
President of Lithuania
for a few hours later in 1926, following a military coup that was led by his predecessor as President
President
(Antanas Smetona) and which had brought down Stulginskis's successor, Kazys Grinius. The coup returned Smetona to office after Stulginskis's brief formal assumption of the Presidency. He began his theological studies in Kaunas
Kaunas
and continued in Innsbruck, Austria. However, he decided not to become a priest and moved to the Institute of Agricultural Sciences in University of Halle. He graduated in 1913 and returned to Lithuania. There he started to work as a farmer. He published many articles on agronomy in Lithuanian press. In 1918 he started to publish journals Ūkininkas ("Farmer") and Ūkininko kalendorius ("Farmer's Calendar"). During World War I
World War I
he moved to Vilnius. He was one of the founders of the Lithuanian Christian Democratic Party and the head of its Central Committee in 1917. He signed the memorandum for the president Woodrow Wilson, addressing the question of the recognition of the Lithuanian statehood by the U.S.. Contrary to the Antanas Smetona's views, Stulginskis was oriented towards the Entente. He was one of co-organizers of the Vilnius
Vilnius
Conference. After, he was elected to the Council of Lithuania. On February 16, 1918, he signed the Act of Independence of Lithuania. He was an advocate of the democratic republic as the form of the Lithuanian state. Thus, he strongly opposed the idea of monarchy (actually, Mindaugas II
Mindaugas II
was the King of Lithuania
Lithuania
from 11 July to 2 November 1918). In independent Lithuania
Lithuania
Stulginskis was in charge of organizing the national army to defend the country against the aggressions of Bolsheviks and Poles. Many times served as a minister, May 1920 – 1922 he was Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of Lithuania
Lithuania
and thus acting president of the republic. 1922-1926 he was the second President
President
of Lithuania. Stulginskis was Speaker of the Seimas
Speaker of the Seimas
1926-1927. He withdrew from politics in 1927, and worked on his farm. In 1941 Stulginskis and his wife were arrested by the Soviet NKVD
NKVD
and deported to a gulag in the Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
region, while his wife was deported to the Komi area. After World War II
World War II
in 1952 he was officially sentenced by the Soviet authorities to 25 years in prison for his anti-socialist and clerical policies in pre-war Lithuania. Released after Joseph Stalin's death in 1956, he was allowed to emigrate, yet he refused and returned to Lithuanian SSR. Stulginskis settled in Kaunas, where he died on September 22, 1969, aged 84, the last of the Signatories of the Act of Independence of Lithuania.

Aleksandras Stulginskis
Aleksandras Stulginskis
in a Lithuanian poster.

See also[edit]

List of Presidents of Lithuania

References[edit]

Stulginskis, Aleksandras. Encyclopedia Lituanica V: 314-316. (1970–1978). Ed. Simas Sužiedėlis. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. LCC 74-114275. President
President
of Lithuania: Prisoner of the Gulag
Gulag
a Biography of Aleksandras Stulginskis
Aleksandras Stulginskis
by Afonsas Eidintas Genocide and Research Center of Lithuania
Lithuania
ISBN 9986-757-41-X.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Aleksandras Stulginskis

Aleksandras Stulginskis
Aleksandras Stulginskis
information Additional information

Preceded by Antanas Smetona President
President
of Lithuania 19 June 1920 – 7 June 1926 Succeeded by Kazys Grinius

Preceded by Jonas Staugaitis (acting) President
President
of Lithuania (acting) 19 December 1926 Succeeded by Antanas Smetona

v t e

Leaders of Lithuania
Lithuania
since 1919

Presidents (1919–1940)

Antanas Smetona Aleksandras Stulginskis Kazys Grinius Jonas Staugaitis Aleksandras Stulginskis Antanas Smetona Antanas Merkys1 Justas Paleckis1 Jonas Žemaitis4

LKP First Secretaries2

Antanas Sniečkus Petras Griškevičius Ringaudas Songaila Algirdas Brazauskas

Presidents (since 1990)

Vytautas Landsbergis3 Algirdas Brazauskas Valdas Adamkus Rolandas Paksas Artūras Paulauskas Valdas Adamkus Dalia Grybauskaitė

1 Not recognized as a legitimate president 2 De facto heads of state; de jure heads of state were Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR 3 Was head of state, but not recognized as president 4 Posthumously recognized in March 2009 Italics denote acting leaders

v t e

Council of Lithuania

Act of Independence

Members

Saliamonas Banaitis Jonas Basanavičius Mykolas Biržiška Kazys Bizauskas Pranas Dovydaitis Steponas Kairys Petras Klimas Donatas Malinauskas Vladas Mironas Stanisław Narutowicz Alfonsas Petrulis Antanas Smetona Jonas Smilgevičius Justinas Staugaitis Aleksandras Stulginskis Jurgis Šaulys Kazimieras Steponas Šaulys Jokūbas Šernas Jonas Vailokaitis Jonas Vileišis

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 59914527 LCCN: n80131991 ISNI: 0000 0000 5539 3439 GND: 120398664 SE

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