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Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island (/ˈælkəˌtræz/) is located in San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, 1.25 miles (2.01 km) offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.[2] The small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison (1868), and a federal prison from 1934 until 1963.[5] Beginning in November 1969, the island was occupied for more than 19 months by a group of Native Americans from San Francisco, who were part of a wave of Native activism across the nation, with public protests through the 1970s. In 1972, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
became part of a national recreation area and received designation as a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
in 1986. Today, the island's facilities are managed by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area; it is open to tours. Visitors can reach the island in a little under 15 minutes by ferry ride from Pier 33, located between the San Francisco Ferry
Ferry
Building and Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco. Hornblower Cruises and Events, operating under the name Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Cruises, is the official ferry provider to and from the island. Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island is home to the abandoned prison, the site of the oldest operating lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States, early military fortifications, and natural features such as rock pools and a seabird colony (mostly western gulls, cormorants, and egrets). According to a 1971 documentary on the history of Alcatraz, the island measures 1,675 feet (511 m) by 590 feet (180 m) and is 135 feet (41 m) at highest point during mean tide.[6] However, the total area of the island is reported to be 22 acres (8.9 ha).[2] Landmarks on the island include the Main Cellhouse, Dining Hall, Library, Lighthouse, the ruins of the Warden's House and Officers' Club, Parade Grounds, Building 64, Water Tower, New Industries Building, Model Industries Building, and the Recreation Yard.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Military garrison

1.1.1 Military prison

1.2 Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Federal Penitentiary

2 Post-prison years

2.1 Native American occupation

3 Landmarks 4 Development 5 Art 6 Fauna and flora

6.1 Habitat 6.2 Flora

7 In popular culture 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island, 1895.

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
in the dawn mist, from the east. The "parade ground" is at left.

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island and lighthouse at sunset

The water tower and powerhouse (at right), which generated electricity for the island.

A model of Military Point Alcatraz, 1866–1868, now on display at Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island

The first Spaniard
Spaniard
to document the island was Juan Manuel Diaz, who charted San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
and named one of the three islands he identified as the "La Isla de los Alcatraces," which translates as "The Island of the Pelicans,"[1][7][8][9][10][11] from the archaic Spanish alcatraz ("pelican"). Over the years, the Spanish version "Alcatraz" became popular and is now widely used. In August 1827, French Captain Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly wrote "... running past Alcatraze's (Pelicans) Island ... covered with a countless number of these birds. A gun fired over the feathered legions caused them to fly up in a great cloud and with a noise like a hurricane."[12] The California
California
brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis californicus) is not known to nest on the island today. The Spanish built several small buildings on the island and other minor structures.[6] Military garrison[edit] The earliest recorded owner of the island of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
is Julian Workman, to whom it was given by Mexican governor Pio Pico
Pio Pico
in June 1846, with the understanding that Workman would build a lighthouse on it.[13] Julian Workman is the baptismal name of William Workman, co-owner of Rancho La Puente and personal friend of Pio Pico. Later in 1846, acting in his capacity as Military Governor of California, John C. Frémont, champion of Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny
and leader of the Bear Flag Republic, bought the island for $5,000 in the name of the United States government from Francis Temple.[6][14][15][16] In 1850, President Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
ordered that Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island be set aside specifically as a United States
United States
military reservation,[10] for military purposes based upon the U.S. acquisition of California
California
from Mexico following the Mexican–American War.[17] Frémont had expected a large compensation for his initiative in purchasing and securing Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island for the U.S. government, but the U.S. government later invalidated the sale and paid Frémont nothing. Frémont and his heirs sued for compensation during protracted but unsuccessful legal battles that extended into the 1890s.[15][17]

The lighthouse tower adjacent to the prison cell house

Following the acquisition of California
California
by the United States
United States
as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) which ended the Mexican–American War, and the onset of the California
California
Gold Rush the following year, the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
began studying the suitability of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island for the positioning of coastal batteries to protect the approaches to San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. In 1853, under the direction of Zealous B. Tower, the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers began fortifying the island, work which continued until 1858, eventuating in Fortress Alcatraz. The island's first garrison at Camp Alcatraz, numbering about 200 soldiers and 11 cannons, arrived at the end of that year. When the American Civil War
American Civil War
broke out in 1861, the island mounted 85 cannons (increased to 105 cannons by 1866) in casemates around its perimeter, though the small size of the garrison meant only a fraction of the guns could be used at one time. At this time it also served as the San Francisco
San Francisco
Arsenal for storage of firearms to prevent them falling into the hands of Confederate sympathizers.[18] Alcatraz, built as a "heavily fortified military site on the West Coast", formed a "triangle of defense" along with Fort Point and Lime Point, and ensured security to the bay. The island was also the site of the first operational lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States.[10] Alcatraz
Alcatraz
never fired its guns offensively, though during the war it was used to imprison Confederate sympathizers and privateers on the west coast.[19] Military prison[edit] Main article: Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Citadel Because of its isolation from the outside by the cold, strong, hazardous currents of the waters of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
was used to house Civil War prisoners of war (POWs) as early as 1861. Following the war in 1866, the army determined the fortifications and guns were being rapidly rendered obsolete by advances in military technology. Modernization efforts, including an ambitious plan to level the entire island and construct shell-proof underground magazines and tunnels, were undertaken between 1870 and 1876 but never completed (the so-called "parade ground" on the southern tip of the island represents the extent of the flattening effort).[20] Instead, the army switched the focus of its plans for Alcatraz
Alcatraz
from coastal defense to detention, a task for which it was well suited because of its isolation. In 1867, a brick jailhouse was built (previously inmates had been kept in the basement of the guardhouse), and in 1868, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
was officially designated a long-term detention facility for military prisoners. The facility was later discontinued for POWs in 1946. Among those incarcerated at Alcatraz
Alcatraz
were Confederates caught on the West Coast,[6] and some Hopi
Hopi
Native American men in the 1870s.[21] In 1898, the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
increased the prison population from 26 to over 450, and from 1905 to 1907 it was commanded by U.S. Army General George W. McIver. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, civilian prisoners were transferred to Alcatraz
Alcatraz
for safe confinement. On March 21, 1907, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
was officially designated as the Western U.S. Military Prison, later Pacific Branch, U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, 1915.[18] In 1909 construction began on the huge concrete main cell block, designed by Major Reuben Turner, which remains the island's dominant feature. It was completed in 1912. To accommodate the new cell block, the Citadel, a three-story barracks, was demolished down to the first floor, which was actually below ground level. The building had been constructed in an excavated pit (creating a dry "moat") to enhance its defensive potential. The first floor was then incorporated as a basement to the new cell block, giving rise to the popular legend of "dungeons" below the main cell block. The Fortress was deactivated as a military prison in October 1933 and transferred to the Bureau of Prisons.[18] During World War I, the prison held conscientious objectors, including Philip Grosser, who wrote a pamphlet entitled Uncle Sam's Devil's Island about his experiences.[22] Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Federal Penitentiary[edit] Main article: Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Federal Penitentiary

An exterior view of the Alcatraz
Alcatraz
main cell block from the exercise yard.

The United States
United States
Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz
Alcatraz
were acquired by the United States
United States
Department of Justice on October 12, 1933, and the island became a federal prison in August 1934. Alcatraz
Alcatraz
was designed to hold prisoners who continuously caused trouble at other federal prisons.[23] At 9:40 am on August 11, 1934, the first batch of 137 prisoners arrived at Alcatraz, arriving by railroad from the United States Penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas
Leavenworth, Kansas
at Santa Venetia, California, before being escorted to Alcatraz, handcuffed in high security coaches and guarded by some 60 special FBI
FBI
agents, U.S. Marshals and railway security officials.[6][24] Most of the prisoners were notorious bank robbers and murderers.[6] The prison initially had a staff of 155, including the first warden James A. Johnston
James A. Johnston
and associate warden J. E. Shuttleworth, both considered to be "iron men".[6] The staff were highly trained in security, but not rehabilitation.[6]

Cell 181 in Alcatraz
Alcatraz
where Al Capone
Al Capone
was imprisoned

During the 29 years it was in use, the jail held some of the most notorious criminals in American history,[6] such as Al Capone, Robert Franklin Stroud (the "Birdman of Alcatraz"), George "Machine Gun" Kelly, Bumpy Johnson, Rafael Cancel Miranda
Rafael Cancel Miranda
(a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party who attacked the United States
United States
Capitol building in 1954),[25] Mickey Cohen, Arthur R. "Doc" Barker, and Alvin "Creepy" Karpis (who served more time at Alcatraz
Alcatraz
than any other inmate). It also provided housing for the Bureau of Prisons
Bureau of Prisons
staff and their families. During its 29 years of operation, the penitentiary claimed that no prisoner successfully escaped. A total of 36 prisoners made 14 escape attempts, two men trying twice; 23 were caught alive, six were shot and killed during their escape, two drowned, and five are listed as "missing and presumed drowned".[26] The most violent occurred on May 2, 1946, when a failed escape attempt by six prisoners led to the Battle of Alcatraz. On June 11, 1962, Frank Morris, John Anglin, and Clarence Anglin carried out one of the most intricate escapes ever devised. Post-prison years[edit] Because the penitentiary cost much more to operate than other prisons (nearly $10 per prisoner per day, as opposed to $3 per prisoner per day at Atlanta),[27] and half a century of salt water saturation had severely eroded the buildings, then Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy ordered the penitentiary closed on March 21, 1963. In addition, citizens were increasingly protesting the environmental effects of sewage released into San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
from the approximately 250 inmates and 60 Bureau of Prisons
Bureau of Prisons
families on the island. That year, the United States
United States
Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, on land, opened as the replacement facility for Alcatraz. Native American occupation[edit] Main article: Occupation of Alcatraz

A lingering sign of the 1969–71 Native American occupation (2006 Photograph).

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island was occupied by Native American activists for the first time on March 8, 1964. The event was reported by, among others, the San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle and the San Francisco
San Francisco
Examiner.[citation needed] Beginning on November 20, 1969, a group of Native Americans called United Indians of All Tribes, mostly college students from San Francisco, occupied the island to protest federal policies related to American Indians. Some of them were children of Indians who had relocated in the city as part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) Indian termination policy, which was a series of laws and policies aimed at the assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream American society, particularly by encouraging Indians to move away from the Indian reservations
Indian reservations
and into cities. A number of employees of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
also occupied Alcatraz
Alcatraz
at that time, including Doris Purdy, an amateur photographer, who later produced footage of her stay on the island.[28] The occupiers, who stayed on the island for nearly two years, demanded the island's facilities be adapted and new structures built for an Indian education center, ecology center and cultural center. The American Indians claimed the island by provisions of the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) between the U.S. and the Sioux; they said the treaty promised to return all retired, abandoned or out-of-use federal lands to the Native peoples from whom it was acquired. Indians of All Tribes then claimed Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island by the "Right of Discovery", as indigenous peoples knew it thousands of years before any Europeans had come to North America. Begun by urban Indians of San Francisco, the occupation attracted other Native Americans from across the country, including American Indian Movement
American Indian Movement
(AIM) urban activists from Minneapolis.

The Alcatraz
Alcatraz
cellhouse, lighthouse, and Warden's House which was burned out during the 1969–71 Native American occupation.

The Native Americans demanded reparation for the many treaties broken by the US government and for the lands which were taken from so many tribes. In discussing the Right of Discovery, the historian Troy R. Johnson states in The Occupation of Alcatraz
Occupation of Alcatraz
Island, that indigenous peoples knew about Alcatraz
Alcatraz
at least 10,000 years before any European knew about any part of North America. During the nineteen months and nine days of occupation by the American Indians, several buildings at Alcatraz
Alcatraz
were damaged or destroyed by fire, including the recreation hall, the Coast Guard quarters and the warden's home. The origin of the fires is disputed. The U.S. government demolished a number of other buildings (mostly apartments) after the occupation had ended. Graffiti
Graffiti
from the period of Native American occupation are still visible at many locations on the island.[29] During the occupation, President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
rescinded the Indian termination policy, designed by earlier administrations to end federal recognition of tribes and their special relationship with the US government. He established a new policy of self-determination, in part as a result of the publicity and awareness created by the occupation. The occupation ended on June 11, 1971.[30] Landmarks[edit] Main article: List of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island features The entire Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976,[3] and was further declared a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[4][31] In 1993, the National Park Service published a plan entitled Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Development Concept and Environmental Assessment.[32] This plan, approved in 1980, doubled the amount of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
accessible to the public to enable visitors to enjoy its scenery and bird, marine, and animal life.[33]

Map of Alcatraz

Baker Beach Boat Dock Building 64 Citadel Dining Hall Former Military Chapel (Bachelor Quarters) Helipad Library Lighthouse Main Cellhouse Model Industries Building Morgue New Industries Building Officers' Club Parade Grounds Power House Recreation Yard Wardens House Water Tower

Development[edit] Today, American Indigenous groups, such as the International Indian Treaty Council, hold ceremonies on the island, most notably, their "Sunrise Gatherings" every Columbus Day
Columbus Day
and Thanksgiving Day. The Global Peace Foundation
Global Peace Foundation
proposed to raze the prison and build a peace center in its place. During the previous year, supporters collected 10,350 signatures that placed it on the presidential primary ballots in San Francisco
San Francisco
for February 5, 2008.[34] The proposed plan was estimated at $1 billion. For the plan to pass, Congress would have to have taken Alcatraz
Alcatraz
out of the National Park Service. Critics of the plan said that Alcatraz
Alcatraz
is too rich in history to be destroyed.[35] On February 6, 2008, the Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island Global Peace Center Proposition C failed to pass, with 72% of voters rejecting the proposition.[36] The coastal environment of the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area has caused deterioration and corrosion of building materials throughout Alcatraz. Beginning in 2011, the National Park Service
National Park Service
began major renovations on the island, including the installation of solar panels on the cell house roof, slope stabilization near the Warden's House and the stabilization and rehabilitation of the outer cell house walls. Art[edit] Recently, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
has been home to several art installations. The famous Chinese artist/dissident Ai Weiwei
Ai Weiwei
staged an exhibition which explored "questions about human rights and freedom of expression" called @Large.[37] This 2014 exhibit included Lego portraits of famous political prisoners. In 2016, Nelson Saiers used math and prison slang as central elements in a six-month installation that addressed irrationally long prison sentences.[38][39] Fauna and flora[edit] Habitat[edit]

Brandt's cormorant
Brandt's cormorant
nesting on Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island

Cisterns. A bluff that, because of its moist crevices, is believed to be an important site for California
California
slender salamanders. Cliff tops at the island's north end. Containing a onetime manufacturing building and a plaza, the area is listed as important to nesting and roosting birds. The powerhouse area. A steep embankment where native grassland and creeping wild rye support a habitat for deer mice. Tide pools. A series of them, created by long-ago quarrying activities, contains still-unidentified invertebrate species and marine algae.[citation needed] They form one of the few tide-pool complexes in the bay, according to the report. Western cliffs and cliff tops. Rising to heights of nearly 100 feet (30 m), they provide nesting and roosting sites for seabirds including pigeon guillemots, cormorants, Heermann's gulls, and western gulls. Harbor seals can occasionally be seen on a small beach at the base. The parade grounds. Carved from the hillside during the late 19th century and covered with rubble since the government demolished guard housing in 1971, the area has become a habitat and breeding ground for black-crowned night herons, western gulls, slender salamanders, and deer mice. The Agave
Agave
Path, a trail named for its dense growth of agave. Located atop a shoreline bulkhead on the south side, it provides a nesting habitat for night herons. Alcatraz
Alcatraz
prison and its surroundings.

Flora[edit]

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Flowers on Alcatraz

Gardens planted by families of the original Army post, and later by families of the prison guards, fell into neglect after the prison closure in 1963. After 40 years, they are being restored by a paid staff member and many volunteers, thanks to funding by the Garden Conservancy and the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Parks Conservancy. The untended gardens had become severely overgrown and had developed into a nesting habitat and sanctuary for numerous birds. Now, areas of bird habitat are being preserved and protected, while many of the gardens are being restored to their original state. In clearing out the overgrowth, workers found that many of the original plants were growing where they had been planted – some more than 100 years ago. Numerous heirloom rose hybrids, including a Welsh rose (Bardou Job) that had been believed to be extinct, have been discovered and propagated. Many species of roses, succulents, and geraniums are growing among apple and fig trees, banks of sweet peas, manicured gardens of cutting flowers, and wildly overgrown sections of native grasses with blackberry and honeysuckle. In popular culture[edit] Main article: Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island in popular culture Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island appears often in media and popular culture, including films dating from 1962: The Book of Eli
The Book of Eli
(2010), X-Men: The Last Stand (2006), Catch Me If You Can
Catch Me If You Can
(2002), The Rock (1996), Murder in the First (1995), Escape from Alcatraz
Alcatraz
(1979), The Enforcer (1976), Point Blank (1967) , Birdman of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
(1962) and J. J. Abrams' 2012 television series Alcatraz. It also was featured in the Yu-Gi-Oh!
Yu-Gi-Oh!
Duel Monsters anime, in the book Al Capone
Al Capone
Does My Shirts, in the video game Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4 as a playable level, and in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II in a downloadable zombie survival map called "Mob of the Dead". It is also featured as a playable racetrack in the 1996 arcade racing video game San Francisco
San Francisco
Rush: Extreme Racing. Alcatraz
Alcatraz
has also been portrayed often as a safe haven or base of operations in many post-apocalyptic movies, such as The Book of Eli. Alcatraz
Alcatraz
is featured in the episode "Bird Mummy of Alcatraz" in the children's program, Mummies Alive!
Mummies Alive!
and was also featured in a mission in the video game "Watch Dogs 2". Alcatraz
Alcatraz
has also been featured as a map in the game "The Escapists", as downloadable content Gallery[edit]

A panorama of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
as viewed from San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, facing east. Sather Tower
Sather Tower
and UC Berkeley
UC Berkeley
are visible in the background on the right. (Drag image left and right to show full panorama.)

Different view of the Water Tower built in 1940. 

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Utility House and Power Plant Chimney, built in 1939. 

School House (two story building in the middle) and the Electric Repair shop (foreground) built in 1930s. 

Views of both long sides of the island. 

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island harbor guards tower. 

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island view from the west. Image shot from an altitude of approximately 1,800 ft (549 m). 

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
view from tour boat. 

See also[edit]

San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area portal Government of the United States
United States
portal Prisons portal Islands portal

Asinara Château d'If Devil's Island List of islands of California Robben Island Cellular Jail

References[edit]

^ a b " Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.  ^ a b c " Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved August 20, 2009.  ^ a b c d National Park Service
National Park Service
(2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ a b " Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island". National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2007.  ^ Odier, Odier (1982). The Rock: A History of Alcatraz: The Fort/The Prison. L'Image Odier. ISBN 0-9611632-0-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "This Is An Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Documentary (Part 1)". Narrated by Howard Duff. 1971. Retrieved August 30, 2012.  ^ "The March of Portolá and the Log of the San Carlos – Zoeth S. Eldredge & E. J. Molera – Log of the San Carlos". Books-about-california.com. Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ "The History of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ "History: Military Fortress". Alcatrazcruises.com. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ a b c "BOP: Alcatraz". Bop.gov. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ " Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island – History & Culture (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. March 27, 2010. Archived from the original on February 28, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ Auguste Duhaut-Cilly (1999). A Voyage to California, the Sandwich Islands, and Around the World in the Years 1826–1829. University of California
California
Press. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-520-21752-2.  ^ The Rock (1915). "A Brief History of the Island of Alcatraz". The Rock. Improvement Fund, Pacific Branch United States
United States
Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz, California. 1 (January): 3.  ^ "Full text of "The expeditions of John Charles Frémont"". Archive.org. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ a b "Famous Hauntings". Sgha.net. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ "h2g2 – Alcatraz, San Francisco, California, USA". BBC. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ a b "Alcatraz-World War II in the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". Nps.gov. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ a b c Hannings, Bud (March 2005). Forts of the United States: An Historical Dictionary, 16th Through 19th Centuries. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co Inc. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7864-1796-4.  ^ "Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island". Militarymuseum.org. Archived from the original on February 6, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Preservation Project: Exposing the Layers of An American Landmark (pamphlet), Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Parks Conservancy, 2003. ^ "The most painful story of resistance to assimilation programs and compulsory school attendance laws involved the Hopis in Arizona, who surrendered a group of men to the military rather than voluntarily relinquish their children. The Hopi
Hopi
men served time in federal prison at Alcatraz". Child, Brenda J. (February 2000). Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900–1940. University of Nebraska Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-8032-6405-4.  ^ Grosser, P., Block, H., Blackwell, A. S., & Berkman, A. (1933). Uncle Sam's Devil's Island: Experiences of a Conscientious Objector in America during the World War. Boston: Published by a Group of friends. OCLC 13728108 ^ Oliver, Marilyn Tower (1998). Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Prison in American HIstory. Berkley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-89490-990-8.  ^ "For Desperate or Irredeemable Types United States
United States
Federal Penitentiary Alcatraz". A History of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island, 1847–1972, Historic Resources Study. Retrieved September 6, 2012.  ^ "Former Alcatraz
Alcatraz
inmate speaks about his time", San Francisco Examiner, by D. Morita; October 9, 2009 ^ " Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Escape Attempts". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ Ocean View Publishing Company. "A Brief History of Alcatraz, p. 5". Alcatrazhistory.com. Retrieved July 18, 2012.  ^ Occupation of Alcatraz, 11-29-1969. YouTube. November 27, 2008.  ^ Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island Archived September 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., California
California
State University Long Beach ^ Indians of All Tribes, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Is Not an Island, Berkeley, Wingbow Press, 1972 ^ Stephen A. Haller (April 15, 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island / La Isla de los Alcatraces / Fort Alcatraz
Alcatraz
/ The Post at Alcatraz
Alcatraz
/ Pacific Branch, U.S. Military Prison / U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island / United States
United States
Penitentiary ad Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved June 21, 2009.  and Accompanying 18 photos, exterior and interior, from 1985, 1980, and undated. (4.03 MB) ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20061015075505/http://www.nps.gov/archive/goga/admin/planning/alca-eis/doc/chap1.doc ^ Adams, Gerald D., Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Proposal Highlights Wildlife Plan Would Open Up More of Rock, San Francisco
San Francisco
Examiner (July 27, 1993), News section, p. A1. ^ "Voters consider changing Alcatraz
Alcatraz
to peace center". Reuters. February 4, 2008.  ^ Locke, Michelle (February 2, 2008). "LJWorld.com / Activist wants to transform Alcatraz
Alcatraz
into global peace center". .ljworld.com. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ "Elections and Results KNTV Bay Area". NBC 11. Retrieved January 24, 2011.  ^ "@Large Ai Weiwei
Ai Weiwei
on Alcatraz". NPS.GOV.  ^ Levi, Ryan. " Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Displays Irrational Numbers & Irrationally Long Prison Sentences". KQED.ORG.  ^ Andrews, David. "'Hung Out to Dry': New Alcatraz
Alcatraz
art exhibit examines prison industrial complex". SFGATE.COM. 

Further reading[edit]

Erwin N. Thompson. "The Rock: A history of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island, 1847–1972" (PDF). National Park Service. United States
United States
Department of Interior.  The Rock (1915). "A Brief History of the Island of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
(continued in multiple issues)". The Rock. Improvement Fund, Pacific Branch United States
United States
Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz, California. 1 (January): 3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island.

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Official website AlcatrazHistory.com: Alcatraz
Alcatraz
History website – homepage Alldocumentaries.org: Alcatraz
Alcatraz
History documentary movie American Devils Island Holds Toughest Prisoners – Popular Science (February 1935). Federal Bureau of Prisons.gov: "A Brief History of Alcatraz" California
California
State Military Museum.org: The Post at Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island 2012 KDRTradio.org: Interview with former Alcatraz
Alcatraz
convict Robert Luke Report on the 1962 Alcatraz
Alcatraz
escape incident – (from the FBI
FBI
FOIA electronic reading room). Mapicurious.com: Map of Alcatraz
Alcatraz
– with marker pictures. Alcatraz: A Prison as Disneyland. Chris Hedges
Chris Hedges
(December 2014). Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island, Part of Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area, National Park Service
National Park Service
at Google Cultural Institute

v t e

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island

General

Fort Alcatraz General McPherson (ship) Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Federal Penitentiary Battle of Alcatraz June 1962 escape from Alcatraz
Alcatraz
(book · film) Occupation of Alcatraz Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island in popular culture Legends of Alcatraz

Buildings

Main Cellhouse Dining Hall Hospital Library Warden's House Building 64 Former Military Chapel (Bachelor Quarters) Social Hall Morgue New Industries Building Model Industries Building Lighthouse Power House Water Tower

Grounds

Baker Beach Parade Grounds Little Alcatraz Recreation Yard Wharf

Lists

Features Inmates Escape attempts

People

Fort commanders

James B. McPherson Joseph Stewart William A. Winder

Wardens

James A. Johnston
James A. Johnston
(1934–1948) Edwin B. Swope
Edwin B. Swope
(1948–1955) Paul J. Madigan
Paul J. Madigan
(1955–1961) Olin G. Blackwell
Olin G. Blackwell
(1961–1963)

Associate wardens

Cecil J. Shuttleworth
Cecil J. Shuttleworth
(1934–1937) Edward J. Miller
Edward J. Miller
(1937–1947) Paul J. Madigan
Paul J. Madigan
(1947–1955) Olin G. Blackwell
Olin G. Blackwell
(1959–1961) Arthur M. Dollison
Arthur M. Dollison
(1961–1963) Richard J. Willard
Richard J. Willard
(1961–1963)

Notable inmates

Harvey Bailey
Harvey Bailey
("The Dean of American Bank Robbers") Basil Banghart ("The Owl") Arthur Barker
Arthur Barker
("Doc") Albert L. Bates Joseph Bowers ("Dutch") James Bulger ("Whitey") Al Capone
Al Capone
("Scarface") Meyer Cohen ("Mickey") Theodore Cole ("Ted") Bernard Coy Joseph Cretzer Volney Davis
Volney Davis
("Curley") Herbert Farmer ("Deafy") Rufus Franklin John Giles Ellsworth Raymond Johnson ("Bumpy") Alvin Francis Karpavicz ("Creepy Karpis") George Celino Barnes ("Machine Gun Kelly") Thomas Limerick James Lucas ("Texas Bank Robber") Rafael Cancel Miranda Rufus McCain Rufe Persful Ralph Roe Sam Shockley Robert Stroud
Robert Stroud
("Birdman of Alcatraz") Henri Young

v t e

Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area

Parks

Marin County

Muir Woods National Monument Muir Beach Olema Valley Stinson Beach Bolinas Ridge Tennessee Valley Oakwood Valley Marin Headlands Point Bonita Fort Baker Fort Barry Fort Cronkhite

San Francisco

Presidio of San Francisco Alcatraz Lands End Sutro Baths Fort Miley Sutro Heights Ocean Beach Fort Funston Crissy Field Fort Point Fort Mason San Francisco
San Francisco
Maritime National Historic Park

San Mateo County

Mori Point Sweeney Ridge Milagra Ridge Rancho Corral de Tierra Phleger Estate

People

Ohlone
Ohlone
People Coast Miwok John Muir William Kent

Natural Settings

San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area Climate Geology Ecosystems Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Biosphere Reserve

Natural Disasters

Cosco Busan oil spill

History

Marincello Founding and Growth

Bay Area Parks

Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Park Park Presidio Marin Municipal Water District Bay Area Ridge Trail San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Trail Mount Tamalpais State Park Point Reyes National Seashore Pinnacles National Park

Administration

National Park Service Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Parks Conservancy Presidio Trust

Related

Dipsea Race Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge

v t e

San Francisco
San Francisco
attractions

Landmarks

49-Mile Drive Alcatraz Bay Bridge Cable Cars The Castro Chinatown City Hall Cliff House Coit Tower F-Market Streetcar Fairmont Hotel Federal Reserve Bank Ferry
Ferry
Building Fisherman's Wharf Fort Mason Fort Point Ghirardelli Square Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge Grace Cathedral Haight-Ashbury Jack Kerouac Alley Lombard Street Mark Hopkins Hotel Market Street Mission Dolores Nob Hill North Beach Old U.S. Mint Painted ladies Palace of Fine Arts Pier 39 Public Library Sutro Baths Sutro Tower Transamerica Pyramid Treasure Island Union Square

Museums and art

Asian Art Museum Aquarium of the Bay Cable Car Museum California
California
Academy of Sciences Cartoon Art Museum Children's Creativity Museum Chinese Historical Society Museum Conservatory of Flowers Contemporary Jewish Museum The Walt Disney Family Museum de Young Museum Exploratorium Haas-Lilienthal House Legion of Honor Musée Mécanique Museo ItaloAmericano Museum of Performance & Design Museum of the African Diaspora Precita Eyes Randall Museum Ripley's Believe It or Not! San Francisco
San Francisco
Art Institute

Diego Rivera Gallery

San Francisco
San Francisco
Museum of Modern Art San Francisco
San Francisco
Maritime Railway Museum USS Pampanito Wattis Institute for Contemporary Arts

Parks and recreation

Alamo Square Bay Area Ridge Trail Candlestick Point Corona Heights Crissy Field Dolores Park Glen Canyon Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Park Lafayette Park Lake Merced Marina Green McLaren Park Mount Davidson Mount Sutro Ocean Beach The Presidio San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Trail San Francisco
San Francisco
Zoo Stern Grove Twin Peaks Yerba Buena Gardens

Views

Coit Tower Twin Peaks Seal Rocks/Ocean Beach Baker Beach Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge Fort Funston Hamon Observation Tower at the de Young Museum Strawberry Hill Crissy Field Pacific Heights Alamo Square/Painted Ladies Top of the Mark Alcatraz Treasure Island Lombard Street Powell-Hyde Cable Car Ferry
Ferry
Building Bernal Hill 49-Mile Scenic Drive Hawk Hill Fort Baker

Entertainment

American Conservatory Theater Bill Graham Civic Auditorium Cow Palace The Fillmore War Memorial and Performing Arts Center Yerba Buena Center for the Arts

Sports

San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants AT&T Park Candlestick Park Kezar Stadium

Food and drink

Anchor Steam Boudin Bakery Buena Vista Cafe Cioppino Dungeness crab Ghirardelli Square Mission burrito Tadich Grill Tonga Room
Tonga Room
& Hurricane Bar Top of the Mark

Shopping

Metreon Stonestown Galleria Union Square Westfield San Francisco
San Francisco
Centre

National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in San Francisco

v t e

City and County of San Francisco

History

Timeline

Culture Landmarks Media Museums Neighborhoods Notable people Skyscrapers Theatres Universities

Government

City Hall Mayor Board of Supervisors Superior Court San Francisco
San Francisco
consulates Sister cities Arts Commission Board of Education City Attorney District Attorney Ethics Commission Fire Department Human Rights Commission San Francisco
San Francisco
International Airport Municipal Transportation Agency Police Commission Police Department Port of San Francisco Public Library Public Utilities Commission Public Works Recreation & Parks Department Sheriff's Department Transportation Authority San Francisco
San Francisco
Unified School District Youth Commission

Transit

AC Transit Amtrak California BART Caltrain Clipper card Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Ferry Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Transit SamTrans San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Ferry San Francisco
San Francisco
Municipal Railway SolTrans WestCAT

Parks

Alamo Square Balboa Park Buena Vista Park Candlestick Point Corona Heights Park Dolores Park Glen Canyon Park Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Park Grand View Park Lafayette Park Lake Merced Lincoln Park McLaren Park Mountain Lake Park Panhandle Pine Lake Park Pioneer Park/Coit Tower The Presidio San Francisco
San Francisco
Maritime Stern Grove South Park Sutro Heights Park Washington Square Park Yerba Buena Gardens

Related articles

Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge Fisherman's Wharf Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island Cable Cars

Topics Category Portal

v t e

San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
watershed

Outline

Hydrography Ecology List of tributaries List of lakes

Subdivisions

Major San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Suisun Bay San Pablo Bay Minor Golden Gate Grizzly Bay Richardson Bay San Rafael Bay Richmond Inner Harbor San Leandro Bay Former Yerba Buena Cove Mission Bay

Waterways

Rivers San Joaquin Sacramento Napa Guadalupe Petaluma Creeks (discharging into the Bay) Alameda Baxter Cerrito Codornices Coyote (Santa Clara) Coyote (Marin) San Leandro San Lorenzo Schoolhouse Temescal Sausal Redwood San Mateo Sonoma Corte Madera Arroyo Corte Madera del Presidio San Rafael Miller Novato Tolay San Francisquito Pacheco Alhambra Adobe Rodeo Refugio Pinole Garrity Rheem Karlson San Pablo Castro Wildcat Fluvius Innominatus Marin (Alameda County) Strawberry Easton Mission Creek Reservoirs Calaveras Reservoir Lafayette Reservoir Straits and estuaries Sacramento– San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
Delta Carquinez Strait Oakland Estuary Raccoon Strait

Parks and protected areas

Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay
National Wildlife Refuge Eden Landing Ecological Reserve Hayward Regional Shoreline Hayward Shoreline Interpretive Center Crown Memorial State Beach Eastshore State Park Emeryville Crescent State Marine Reserve Point Isabel Regional Shoreline César Chávez Park Brooks Island
Brooks Island
Regional Shoreline Point Pinole Regional Shoreline Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge Coyote Point Park Middle Harbor Shoreline Park National Estuarine Research Reserve China Camp State Park San Francisco
San Francisco
Maritime National Historical Park SF Bay Trail Oyster Bay Regional Shoreline Big Break Regional Shoreline

Islands and peninsulas

Major islands Alameda Alcatraz Angel Treasure Island Yerba Buena Minor Brooks Bair Bay Farm Belvedere Brother Castro Rocks Coast Guard Greco Mare Red Rock The Sisters Marin Islands Roe Ryer Seal Islands Peninsulas/infill Albany Bulb Point Isabel Foster City Fleming Point Hunters Point Steamboat Point Potrero Point

Wetlands

Chelsea Cordelia Crissy Field Hoffman Meeker Mowry Napa Sonoma Point Molate Seal Stege Suisun Westpoint

Bridges and tubes

Bridges San Francisco–Oakland

Eastern span replacement

Richmond–San Rafael San Mateo–Hayward Dumbarton Golden Gate Benicia–Martinez Antioch Carquinez Leimert Park Street Fruitvale High Street Bay Farm Island Tubes Posey/Webster Street Transbay

Ports and marinas

Port of San Francisco Port of Oakland Port of Richmond San Francisco
San Francisco
Naval Shipyard Mare Island
Mare Island
Naval Shipyard Port of Redwood City Berkeley Marina Oyster Point Marina/Park Clipper Yacht Harbor Westpoint Harbor Foster City Marina
Foster City Marina
(proposed)

Other

Discovery Site Humphrey the Whale Cosco Busan oil spill Delta and Dawn Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Biosphere Reserve California
California
clapper rail Reber Plan San Leandro Oyster Beds Thicktail chub Delta smelt Richmond Shipyards U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Bay Model Guadalupe Watershed Clifton Court Forebay Conservation and Development Commission The Watershed Project Save The Bay Harold Gilliam Marincello Citizens for East Shore Parks Friends of Five Creeks Urban Creeks Council Cargill salt infill Ferry
Ferry
service/SF Bay Ferry 1971 oil spill Greenbelt Alliance The Bay Institute San Francisco
San Francisco
Baykeeper San Francisco
San Francisco
Estuary and Watershed Science Water Trail Estuary Partnership Leslie Salt

Portal Category

v t e

National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
in California

Lists by county

Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles County Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba

Lists by city

Los Angeles Pasadena San Francisco

Other lists

Bridges California
California
Historical Landmarks National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks

Keeper of the Register History of the National Register of Historic Places Property types Historic district Contribut

.