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The Alborz
Alborz
( listen (help·info) Persian: البرز‎), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran
Iran
that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western, Central, and Eastern Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. The Western Alborz
Alborz
Range (usually called the Talysh) runs south-southeastward almost along the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Alborz
Alborz
(the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains in the strictest sense) runs from west to east along the entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea, while the Eastern Alborz
Alborz
runs in a northeasterly direction towards the northern parts of the Khorasan region southeast of the Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand, the highest mountain in Iran, is located in the Central Alborz
Alborz
Mountains.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Mythology 3 Geology 4 Ecoregions, flora and fauna 5 Ski resorts 6 In popular culture 7 Mounts, summits, alpine lakes and attractions 8 Sources 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Alborz
Alborz
is derived from that of Harā Barazaitī, a legendary mountain in the Avesta, the main text of Zoroastrianism. Harā Barazaitī reflects Proto-Iranian *Harā Bṛzatī. *Bṛzatī is the feminine form of the adjective *bṛzant- "high", the ancestor of modern Persian boland (بلند) and Barz/Berazandeh, cognate with Sanskrit Brihat (बृहत्). Harā may be interpreted as "watch" or "guard", from an Indo-European root *ser- "protect". In Middle Persian, Harā Barazaitī became Harborz, Modern Persian Alborz, which is a cognate with Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus.[1] Mythology[edit] Zoroastrians may identify the range with the dwelling place of the Peshyotan, and the Zoroastrian Ilm-e-Kshnoom sect identify Mount Davamand as the home of the Saheb-e-Dilan ('Masters of the Heart'). In his epic Shahnameh, the poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
speaks of the mountains "as though they lay in India."[1] This could reflect older usage, for numerous high peaks were given the name and some even reflect it to this day, for example, Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
in the Caucasus Mountains, and Mount Elbariz (Albariz, Jebal Barez) in the Kerman
Kerman
area above the Strait of Hormuz. All these names reflect the same Iranian language compound, and share an identification as the legendary mountain Harā Bərəzaitī of the Avesta.

Alborz
Alborz
Mountain range
Mountain range
seen from Tehran

Milad Tower's view to the city and mountains.

Geology[edit]

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The Alborz
Alborz
mountain range forms a barrier between the south Caspian and the Iranian plateau. It is only 60–130 km wide and consists of sedimentary series dating from Upper Devonian
Devonian
to Oligocene, prevalently Jurassic
Jurassic
limestone over a granite core. Continental conditions regarding sedimentation are reflected by thick Devonian sandstones and by Jurassic
Jurassic
shales containing coal seams. Marine conditions are reflected by Carboniferous
Carboniferous
and Permian
Permian
strata that are composed mainly of limestones. In the Eastern Alborz
Alborz
Range, the far eastern section is formed by Mesozoic
Mesozoic
(chiefly Triassic
Triassic
and Jurassic) rocks, while the western part of the Eastern Alborz
Alborz
Range is made primarily of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
rocks. Precambrian
Precambrian
rocks can be found chiefly south of the city of Gorgan
Gorgan
situated in the southeast of the Caspian Sea and in much smaller portions in the central and western parts of the Central Alborz
Alborz
Range. The central part of the Central Alborz
Alborz
Range is formed mainly of the Triassic
Triassic
and Jurassic
Jurassic
rocks, while the northwestern section of the range is made mainly of the Jurassic rocks. Very thick beds of the Tertiary (mostly of the Eocene) green volcanic tuffs and lavas are found mainly in the southwestern and south-central parts of the range. The far northwestern part of the Alborz
Alborz
that constitutes what is called the Western Alborz
Alborz
Range or the Talish Mountains
Talish Mountains
is made mainly of the Upper Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary deposits with a strip of Paleozoic
Paleozoic
rocks and a band of Triassic
Triassic
and Jurassic
Jurassic
rocks in the southern parts, both in a northwest-southeast direction. As the Tethys Sea
Tethys Sea
was closed and the Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate
collided with the Iranian Plate and was pushed against it, and with the clockwise movement of the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
towards the Iranian Plate and their final collision, the Iranian Plate was pressed from both sides. The collisions finally caused the folding of the Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleogene rocks, and the Cenozoic (chiefly the Eocene) volcanism to form the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains mainly in the Miocene. The Alpine orogeny
Alpine orogeny
began, therefore, with Eocene volcanism in southwestern and south-central parts of the Alborz
Alborz
and continued with the uplift and folding of the older sedimentary rocks in the northwestern, central and eastern parts of the range during the orogenic phases of importance that date from the Miocene
Miocene
and the Pliocene
Pliocene
epochs. Ecoregions, flora and fauna[edit]

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While the southern slopes of the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains are usually semiarid or arid with irregular and low precipitation, the northern slopes of the range are usually humid especially in the western parts of the Central Alborz. In the southern slopes or the Elburz Range forest steppe ecoregion, the higher elevations are arid with few trees. Juniper
Juniper
is the most common tree in the inaccessible areas and high elevations, while shrubs are pistachio, maple, and almond. But in the northern slopes, the Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests
ecoregion is lush and forested. The natural vegetation of this region grows in distinct zones: the Hyrcanian forests on the lowest levels; beech forests in the middle zone; and oak forests in higher regions. The wild cypress is the dominant form of vegetation in some valleys, while olive trees grow in the western valleys of the Central Alborz
Alborz
near the Sefidrud. The bezoar ibex, Blanford's fox, Rüppell's fox, red fox, Persian fallow deer, wild boar, Syrian brown bear, Persian leopard, Indian wolf, buzzard, goose, woodpecker, griffon vulture, and eagle are among important animals and birds found in the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. The extinct Caspian tiger
Caspian tiger
also lived in the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. Ski resorts[edit] Due to the great snowy winters of the Alborz
Alborz
Mountains, there are several ski resorts in different places of the range. Some consider that a few of these are among the best in the world.[2] Some of most important ones are Dizin, Shemshak, Tochal, and Darband. In popular culture[edit] Mount Damavand
Mount Damavand
is featured twice as an online multiplayer map in the game Battlefield 3. In the game it is featured in Damavand Peak and Alborz
Alborz
Mountains. Mounts, summits, alpine lakes and attractions[edit]

Mount Damavand
Mount Damavand
Amol
Amol
Mazandaran Tochal
Tochal
mount and summit Tangeh Savashi, a popular attraction Alam Kuh Alamut Dizin Ovan lake List of mountains in Iran List of Iranian four-thousanders

Map of central Alborz Peaks: 1 Alam-Kuh

  −25 to 500 m (−82 to 1,640 ft)   500 to 1,500 m (1,600 to 4,900 ft)   1,500 to 2,500 m (4,900 to 8,200 ft)   2,500 to 3,500 m (8,200 to 11,500 ft)   3,500 to 4,500 m (11,500 to 14,800 ft)   4,500 to 5,671 m (14,764 to 18,606 ft)

2 Azad Kuh 3 Damavand

4 Do Berar 5 Do Khaharan

6 Ghal'eh Gardan 7 Gorg

8 Kholeno 9 Mehr Chal

10 Mishineh Marg 11 Naz

12 Shah Alborz 13 Sialan

14 Tochal 15 Varavašt

Rivers: 0

1 Alamut 2 Chalus

3 Do Hezar 4 Haraz

5 Jajrood 6 Karaj

7 Kojoor 8 Lar

9 Noor 10 Sardab

11 Seh Hazar 12 Shahrood

Cities: 1 Amol

2 Chalus 3 Karaj

Other: D Dizin

E Emamzadeh Hashem K Kandovan Tunnel

* Latyan Dam ** Lar Dam

Sources[edit]

North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50

References[edit]

^ a b electricpulp.com. "ALBORZ".  ^ Dom Joly. "Iran's biggest secret: the skiing's great". the Guardian. 

External links[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal Geography portal

Media related to Alborz
Alborz
at Wikimedia Commons Alborz
Alborz
Mountains, Photos from Iran, Livius. Maps, Photos and a List of peaks NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Alborz
Alborz
Mountain Milky Way (3 May 2008)

v t e

Mountain ranges of the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
and their political geography

Alborz
Alborz
Mountains

Iran Azerbaijan

Aladagh Mountains

Iran Turkmenistan

Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
Mountains

Afghanistan Pakistan

Sulaiman Mountains

Pakistan Afghanistan

Taurus Mountains

Turkey Syria

Zagros Mountains

Turkey Iraq Iran Armenia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3443149489151393810001 GN

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