Alberto Santos-Dumont (Portuguese: [awˈbɛʁtu ˈsɐ̃tuz
duˈmõ]; 20 July 1873 – 23 July 1932, usually referred to as
simply Santos-Dumont) was a Brazilian inventor and aviation pioneer,
one of the very few people to have contributed significantly to the
development of both lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft.
The heir of a wealthy family of coffee producers, Santos-Dumont
dedicated himself to aeronautical study and experimentation in Paris,
where he spent most of his adult life. In his early career he
designed, built, and flew hot air balloons and early dirigibles,
culminating in his winning the
Deutsch de la Meurthe prize
Deutsch de la Meurthe prize on 19
October 1901 for a flight that rounded the Eiffel Tower. He then
turned to heavier-than-air machines, and on 23 October 1906 his 14-bis
made the first powered heavier-than-air flight in Europe to be
certified by the
Aéro-Club de France
Aéro-Club de France and the Fédération
Aéronautique Internationale. His conviction that aviation would usher
in an era of worldwide peace and prosperity led him to freely publish
his designs and forego patenting his various innovations.
Santos-Dumont is a national hero in Brazil, where it is popularly held
that he preceded the
Wright brothers in demonstrating a practical
airplane. Countless roads, plazas, schools, monuments, and airports
there are dedicated to him, and his name is inscribed on the Tancredo
Neves Pantheon of the Fatherland and Freedom. He was a member of the
Brazilian Academy of Letters
Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1931 until his suicide in 1932.
1 Early life
1.2 Move to France
2.1 Balloons and dirigibles
3 Later years
4 Private life
5 A Encantada
6 Honors and legacy
7 See also
9 External links
Santos-Dumont was born on 20 July 1873 in Cabangu in the Brazilian
town of Palmira (today named Santos Dumont) in the state of Minas
Gerais in southeast Brazil. He was youngest of the seven children born
to Henrique Dumont, an engineer of French descent, and Francisca de
Paula Santos. Santos-Dumont's father managed a coffee plantation on
land owned by his wife's family, and later bought land in Ribeirão
Preto on which he established a plantation of his own. His
extensive use of labor-saving inventions earned him a fortune, and he
was known for a time as the "
Coffee King of Brazil."
Santos-Dumont was fascinated by machinery, and while still a child he
learned to drive the plantation's steam tractors and locomotives. He
also read a great deal of the works of Jules Verne. He wrote in his
autobiography that the dream of flying came to him while contemplating
the magnificent skies of
Brazil from the plantation.
After basic instruction with private tutors, Santos-Dumont studied for
a time at the
Colégio Culto à Ciência in Campinas, after which he
was sent to the Colégio Morton in
São Paulo and the Escola de Minas
in Minas Gerais.
Move to France
Caricature from Vanity Fair, 1899
Santos Dumont´s Passport, 1919
In 1891 Santos-Dumont's father was partially paralyzed by a fall from
a horse. He sold the plantation and went to Europe with his wife and
Santos-Dumont in search of treatment. In Paris, Santos-Dumont
contacted a balloonist with the intention of making an ascent. The
price quoted was 1,200 francs for a two-hour flight, plus payment for
any damage caused and for returning the balloon to Paris. This was a
considerable sum of money, and Santos-Dumont decided not to make the
flight, reasoning that "If I risk 1,200 francs for an afternoon's
pleasure I shall find it either good or bad. If it is bad the money
will be lost. If it is good I shall want to repeat it and I shall not
have the means." After this he bought a
Peugeot automobile, which
he took with him when he returned to
Brazil with his parents at the
end of the year.
In 1892 the family returned to Europe, but Henriques felt too ill to
continue on to
Paris from Lisbon, and Alberto made the journey on his
own. His father's health deteriorated and he decided to return to
Brazil, where he died on 30 August 1892.
For the next four years Alberto lived in Paris, studying physics,
chemistry, mechanics, and electricity with the help of a private
tutor, and returning to
Brazil for short holidays. During this period
he sold his Peugeot, replacing it with a more powerful and faster De
Dion motor-tricycle. In 1896 he returned to
Brazil for a longer
period, but began to miss
Paris and so returned to Europe in 1897.
Before embarking he had bought a copy of an account of Salomon
Andrée's attempt to fly to the North Pole by balloon, written by the
constructors of the balloon, MM. Lachambre and Machuron. In his
biography Santos-Dumont describes the book as "a revelation", and
resolved to make contact with the balloon constructors when he reached
Main article: List of Santos-Dumont aircraft
Balloons and dirigibles
Santos-Dumont's first balloon, the Bresil
An airship basket of Santos-Dumont's
On arrival in
Paris Santos-Dumont contacted Lachambre and Machuron and
arranged to make a flight, piloted by Alexis Machuron. Taking off
from Vaugirard, the flight lasted nearly two hours during which the
balloon travelled 100 km (62 mi), coming down in the grounds
of the Château de Ferrières. Enchanted by the experience, during the
train journey back to
Paris Santos-Dumont told Machuron that he wanted
to have a balloon constructed for himself. Before this was
completed he gained experience by making a number of demonstration
flights for Lachambre.
Santos-Dumont's first balloon design, the Brésil, was remarkable for
its small size and light weight, with a capacity of only 113 m3
(4,000 cu ft). In comparison, the balloon in which he had
made his first flight had a capacity of 750 m3
(26,000 cu ft).
After numerous balloon flights, Santos-Dumont turned to the design of
steerable balloons, or what became known as non-rigid airships, which
could be propelled through the air rather than drifting along with the
wind. A dirigible powered by an electric motor, La France, capable of
flying at around 24 km/h (15 mph) had been successfully
flown in 1884 by
Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs, but their
experiments had not progressed due to a lack of funding. His first
design was wrecked during its second flight on 29 September 1898, and
he had even less luck with his second, which was abandoned after his
first attempt to fly it on 11 May 1899.
A major cause of the accidents to his first two airships had been loss
of pressure causing the elongated envelope to lose shape, and for his
third design he adopted a much shorter and fatter envelope shape, and
towards the end of 1899 made a number of successful flights in it.
Meanwhile, he had an airship shed complete with its own hydrogen
generating plant constructed at the Aéro-Club de France's flying
grounds in the Parc Saint Cloud.
The zenith of his lighter-than-air career came when Santos-Dumont won
Deutsch de la Meurthe prize
Deutsch de la Meurthe prize for the first flight from the Parc
Saint Cloud to the
Eiffel Tower and back in less than 30 minutes,
necessitating an average ground speed of at least 22 km/h
(14 mph) to cover the 11 km (6.8 mi) in the allotted
No. 5 rounding the
Eiffel Tower during an unsuccessful try for the
To win the
Deutsch de la Meurthe prize
Deutsch de la Meurthe prize Santos-Dumont decided to build
a bigger craft, the No. 5. On 8 August 1901, during one of his
attempts, his dirigible began to lose hydrogen, and started to descend
and was unable to clear the roof of the Trocadero Hotel. Santos-Dumont
was left hanging in the basket from the side of the hotel. With the
help of the
Paris fire brigade, he climbed to the roof without injury,
but the dirigible was a complete loss. He immediately ordered a
replacement to be constructed, the No.6
On 19 October 1901, after several more attempts, Santos-Dumont
succeeded in making the return flight. Immediately after he reached
Saint-Cloud, a controversy broke out regarding the precise timing of
the flight: although he had reached his destination in under 30
minutes there had been a delay of over a minute before his mooring
line was picked up. However a satisfactory compromise was reached, and
Santos-Dumont was eventually given the prize, which he announced would
be given to the poor of Paris. An additional 125,000 francs along
with a gold medal was voted to him by the government of his native
No. 9 in Paris
Winning the de la Meurthe prize made Santos-Dumont an international
celebrity. He would float his No. 9 Baladeuse along
at rooftop level, sometimes landing at a cafe for lunch. Parisians
affectionately dubbed Santos-Dumont le petit Santos. The fashionable
people of the day copied various aspects of his style of dress, from
his high collared shirts to his signature Panama hat.
In 1904 Santos-Dumont shipped his new airship No. 7 from
Paris to St.
Louis to fly at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to compete for the
Grand Prize of $100,000 which was to be given to a flying machine (of
any sort) that could make three round-trip flights over a 24 km
(15 mile) L-shaped course at an average speed of 20 mph
(32 km/h), later reduced to 15 mph (24 km/h). It was
also necessary for the machine to land undamaged not more than
46 m (150 ft) from the starting point. Because he was the
best-known aviator at the time, the Fair committee went to great
lengths to ensure his participation, including modifying the
rules. In conjunction with this trip he was invited
White House to meet U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.
However, upon arrival in St. Louis, Santos-Dumont found his
airship’s envelope to be irreparably damaged. Sabotage, although
suspected, was never proven. Santos-Dumont did not participate in the
contest after suspicion of the deed, a repeat of a similar incident in
London, began to focus on Santos-Dumont himself. He left the Fair and
returned immediately to France.
In 1904, after Santos-Dumont complained to his friend Louis Cartier
about the difficulty of checking his pocket watch during flight,
Cartier created his first men's wristwatch, thus allowing
Santos-Dumont to check his flight performance while keeping both hands
on the controls. Cartier still markets a line of
Santos-Dumont watches and sunglasses.
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First official flight of the 14bis, 23 Oct. 1906, Bagatelle field.
Monument at Bagatelle to the Nov. 12, 1906 flight
In the 14bis
Although Santos-Dumont continued to work on non-rigid airships, his
primary interest soon turned to heavier-than-air aircraft. By 1905, he
had finished his first fixed-wing aircraft design, and also a
helicopter. Santos-Dumont finally succeeded in flying a
heavier-than-air aircraft on 23 October 1906, piloting the 14-bis
before a large crowd of witnesses at the grounds of Paris' Château de
Bagatelle in the
Bois de Boulogne
Bois de Boulogne for a distance of 60 metres
(197 ft) at a height of about five meters (16 ft). This
was the first flight of a powered heavier-than-air machine in Europe
to be certified by the Aéro-Club de France, and won the
Deutsch-Archdeacon Prize for the first officially observed flight of
more than 25 meters. On 12 November 1906 Santos-Dumont set the
first world record recognized by the Federation Aeronautique
Internationale, by flying 220 metres (722 ft) in
Flying the Demoiselle over Paris
Postcard showing the 14-bis
Santos-Dumont's final design were the Demoiselle monoplanes (Nos. 19
to 22). These aircraft were used by Dumont for personal transport. The
fuselage consisted of three specially reinforced bamboo booms, and the
pilot sat a seat between the main wheels of a tricycle landing gear.
The Demoiselle was controlled in flight by a tail unit that functioned
both as elevator and rudder, and by wing warping (No. 20).
In 1908 Santos-Dumont started working with Adolphe Clément's
Clement-Bayard company to mass-produce the Demoiselle No 19. They
planned a production run of 100 units, built 50 but sold only 15, for
7,500 francs for each airframe. It was the world's first series
production aircraft. By 1909 it was offered with a choice of three
engines: Clement 20 hp; Wright 4-cyl 30 hp (Clement-Bayard
had the license to manufacture Wright engines) and Clement-Bayard
40 hp designed by Pierre Clerget. The Demoiselle could achieve a
speed of 120 km/h.
The Demoiselle could be constructed in only 15 days. Possessing a good
performance, flying at a speed of more than 100 km/h, the
Demoiselle was the last aircraft designed by Santos-Dumont. The June
1910 edition of the Popular
Mechanics magazine published drawings of
the Demoiselle and stated, "This machine is better than any other
which has ever been built, for those who wish to reach results with
the least possible expense and with a minimum of experimenting."
American companies sold drawings and parts for Demoiselles for several
Eduardo Bradley of Argentina, 1916
Europe bowed itself before Brazil
And in a meek tone exclaimed
In the skies a new star shone
There appeared Santos Dumont.
Hail this star of South America
The land of the brave Indian warrior!
The greatest glory of the twentieth
Is Santos Dumont, a Brazilian!
–Eduardo das Neves
"The Conquest of Air" (1902)
Santos-Dumont footage starts at 21 seconds in this 1945 newsreel on
aviation first, though narration contains controversial claims. (full
Santos-Dumont's final flight as a pilot was made in a Demoiselle on 4
January 1910. The flight ended when a bracing wire snapped at an
altitude of about 25 m (80 ft), causing a wing to collapse.
Santo-Dumont suffered only bruises.
In March 1910 Santos-Dumont announced that he was retiring from
aviation. He secluded himself in his house and it was rumoured that he
was suffering from a nervous breakdown caused by overwork, but it is
probable that he was depressed about the multiple sclerosis from which
he was later known to suffer.
In 1911 he moved to the French seaside village of Bénerville (now
Benerville-sur-Mer), where he took up astronomy as a hobby. After
the outbreak of war in 1914 his German-made telescope and unusual
accent led to accusations he was a German spy tracking French naval
activity, and his rooms searched by French police. Upset by the
allegation and depressed about his illness Santos-Dumont burned all
his papers and plans. For this reason there is little direct
information available about his designs today. He spent much of the
1920s in Swiss and French sanatoria, though returning to
For his arrival in
Brazil in 1928, a dozen members of the Brazilian
scientific community boarded a seaplane with the intention of paying a
flying welcome to the returning aviator on the luxury liner Cap
Arcona. The seaplane, however, crashed with the loss of all on
board. The loss deepened Santos-Dumont's growing despondency, and
he returned to Switzerland.
In 1931 Santos-Dumont's nephew went to Switzerland and brought him to
Brazil. Seriously ill and said to be depressed over his multiple
sclerosis and the use of aircraft in warfare during São Paulo's
Constitutionalist Revolution, he hanged himself on 23 July 1932
in the city of Guarujá (although his death certificate gives the
cause of death as "cardiac collapse").
After lying in state for two days in the crypt of São Paulo
Cathedral, his body was taken to Rio de Janeiro, where after a state
funeral he was buried in the São João Batista Cemetery. His
heart is preserved in a golden globe at Brazil's National Air and
Aida de Acosta
Aida de Acosta piloting No. 9 in 1903.
Santos-Dumont, a lifelong bachelor, did seem to have a particular
affection for a married Cuban-American woman named Aida de Acosta, who
in 1903 became the only other person that he ever permitted to fly one
of his airships – his No. 9 (and thereby most likely becoming
the first woman to pilot a powered aircraft). Until the end of his
life, he kept a picture of her on his desk alongside a vase of fresh
flowers. Nonetheless, there is no indication that Santos-Dumont and
Acosta stayed in touch after her flight; upon his death she was
reported as saying that she hardly knew him.
Santos-Dumont is also known to not only have often used an equal sign
(=) between his two surnames in place of a hyphen, but also seems to
have preferred that practice, to display equal respect for his French
and Brazilian-Portuguese ethnicities.
"A Encantada", Santos-Dumont's
Monument in Saint-Cloud, France
Bust near the Brazilian Embassy, Washington, D.C.
In Brazil,[when?] Santos-Dumont bought a small lot on the side of a
hill in the city of Petrópolis, in the mountains near Rio de Janeiro,
and in 1918 built a small house there filled with imaginative
mechanical gadgetry including an alcohol-fueled heated shower of his
own design. The hill was purposefully chosen because of its great
steepness as a proof that ingenuity could make it possible to build a
comfortable house in that unlikely site. After building it, he used to
spend his summers there to escape the heat in Rio, calling it A
Encantada ("The Enchanted") after its street, Rua do Encanto. The
treads of the exterior stairs are hollowed alternately on the right
and left, to enable people to climb them comfortably. The house is now
Honors and legacy
1905 – Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur
1909 – Officier de la Légion d'Honneur
1913 – Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur
1929 – Grand Officier de la Légion d'Honneur
Santos-Dumont is a small lunar impact crater that lies in the northern
end of the
Montes Apenninus range at the eastern edge of the Mare
The aviator gives his name to the city of Santos Dumont, in the state
of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Cabangu farm, where he was born is in
this municipality . The Faculdades Santos Dumont is a group of private
higher learning colleges in the city.
The city of Dumont, in the state of São Paulo, near Ribeirão Preto
is so named because it is located where what used to be one of the
largest coffee farms in the world, owned by Alberto Santos-Dumont's
father. It was sold in 1896 to a British company, the Dumont Coffee
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro (see Santos Dumont Airport) and Paranaguá
Paranaguá Airport) are named after him.
Rodovia Santos Dumont
Rodovia Santos Dumont is a highway in the state of São Paulo.
The Brazilian Air Force (Command of Aeronautics) awards the Santos
Dumont Medal of Merit to important personalities in the world of
aviation. The state government of
Minas Gerais has a similar medal.
The Réseau Santos Dumont is a cooperative university network between
France and Brazil, instituted by the French and Brazilian Ministries
of Education in 1994, with 26 universities in each country.
Blériot 5190 flying boat, intended to carry out a
transatlantic mail service to Brazil, was named Santos-Dumont
Office of Naval Research
Office of Naval Research in San Diego,
one of its research airships the 600B Santos Dumont.
The Historic and Cultural Institute of Aeronautics of
instituted the Santos Dumont Annual Prize of Journalism for the best
reports in the media about aeronautics.
The Lycée Polyvalent Santos Dumont is a lyceum in Saint-Cloud,
Santos-Dumont is mentioned as a pioneer of aviation, specifically in
the area of dirigibles, in Robert A. Heinlein's Job: A Comedy of
The official Brazilian presidential aircraft, an Airbus Corporate Jet
tail number FAB2101, was named Alberto Santos Dumont.
H.G. Wells' "The Truth About Pyecraft" (1903) refers to
Santos-Dumont's skill as an aviator.
The American aviation magazine Flying ranked Santos-Dumont eighth on
its list of the "51 Heroes of Aviation" in 2013.
The opening ceremony of the
2016 Summer Olympic Games
2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de
Janeiro included a recreation of Santos-Dumont's 1906 flight.
Early flying machines
List of early flying machines
List of firsts in aviation
List of years in aviation
^ Wykeham 1962, pp.17–18
^ Wykeham 1962, p.21
^ Wykeham 1962, p.23
^ Wykeham 1962, p.24
^ Santos-Dumont 1904, pp.27–28
^ Wykeham 1962, p.33
^ Wykeham 1962, p.39
^ Santos-Dumont 1904, p.31
^ "M. Santos Dumont". l'Aérophile (in French): 72. April 1901.
^ Santos-Dumont 1904,pp. 33-42
^ Santos-Dumont 1904,p. 48
^ Hallion 2003 pp. 87–88.
^ Santos-Dumont 1904, p. 129
^ Santos-Dumont 1904, p. 174
^ "M. Santos Dumont's Balloon". The Times (36591). London. 21 October
1901. col A, p. 4.
^ [better source needed]Hamre, Bonnie. "Alberto Santos
Dumont." About.com. Retrieved: 20 August 2012.
^ "The History of Cartier". InterWatches. Retrieved 23 August
Aviation Pioneer Scored A First in Watch-Wearing." The New York
Times, 25 October 1975. Retrieved: 21 July 2009.
^ 100 Designs/100 Years: A Celebration of the 20th Century (aka 100
Designs/100 Years: Innovative Designs of the 20th Century) (with
Arlette Barré-Despond), Hove, UK: RotoVision, 1999
^ Cartier sunglasses. "Cartier rimmed sunglasses" (English).
cartier.com. Retrieved: 9 December 2012.
^ Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. "Hops and Flights: A roll call of early
powered take-offs." Flight, Volume 75, Issue 2619, 3 April 1959, p.
469. Retrieved: 24 August 2013.
^ Jines, Ernest. "Santos Dumont in France 1906–1916: The Very
Earliest Early Birds." earlyaviators.com, 25 December 2006. Retrieved:
17 August 2009.
^ "Cronologia de Santos Dumont" (in Portuguese).
santos-dumont.net.Retrieved: 12 October 2010.
^ Hartmann, Gérard. "Clément-Bayard, sans peur et sans reproche"
(French). hydroretro.net. Retrieved: 14 November 2010.
^ Santos-Dumont's Accident Flight, 8 January 1910, p.28.
^ "NOVA 124: Wings of Madness." PBS. Retrieved: 14 November 2010.
^ Wykeham 1962, pp236-8
^ Wykeham 1962, p.242
^ Wykeham 1962, pp245-6
^ a b Hallion 2003, p. 93.
^ Wykeham 1962, p.260 (fn)
^ "The Late M. Santos Dumont". News. The Times (46320). London. 19
December 1932. col F, p. 11.
^ "Alberto Santos Dumont Lies In State in Brazil's Capital." The New
York Times, 19 December 1932.
^ Gray 2006, p.4.
^ "Les Croix de Aéro-Locomotion". l'Aérophile: 356. 1 August
L'Aérophile (in French). 1–15 December
^ "FESJ – Fundação Educacional São José." www.fsd.edu.br.
Retrieved: 9 August 2010.
Airship Santos Dumont to Conduct Test Phase." Archived 14 January
2009 at the Wayback Machine. www.news.navy.mil. Retrieved: 9 August
^ "Saint-Cloud." ac-versailles.fr.[dead link]
^ "51 Heroes of Aviation". Retrieved 6 August 2016.
Byars, Mel. 100 Designs/100 Years: A Celebration of the 20th Century
(aka 100 Designs/100 Years: Innovative Designs of the 20th Century)
(with Arlette Barré-Despond), Hove, UK: RotoVision, 1999
de Barros, Henrique Lins. Santos Dumont and the Invention of the
Airplane (PDF). Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Ministry of Science &
Technology and the Brazilian Centre for Research in Physics, 2006.
de Mattos, Bento S. "Santos Dumont and the Dawn of Aviation," AIAA
paper # 2004-106, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit,
Reno, Nevada, January 2004.
de Mattos, Bento S. "Short History of Brazilian Aeronautics," AIAA
paper # 2006-328, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit,
Reno, Nevada, January 2006.
de Mattos, Bento S. "Open Source Philosophy and the Dawn of Aviation,"
J. Aerospace Technology Management, São José dos Campos, Vol. 4, No.
3, July–September 2012, pp. 355–379.
Garrett, Charles Hall. "A Builder of Successful Air-Ships". The
World's Work: A History of Our Time, VIII, May 1904:
Gray, Carroll F. "The 1906 Santos-Dumont No. 14bis". World War I
Aeroplanes, Issue #194, November 2006, pp. 4–21.
Hallion, Richard P. Taking Flight. New York: Oxford
2003. ISBN 0-19-516035-5.
Hansen, James R. First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7432-5631-5.
Hoffman, Paul. Wings of Madness: Alberto Santos Dumont and the
Invention of Flight. New York: Hyperion Press, 2003.
Santos Dumont, Alberto. My Airships. London, G. Richards, 1904 hos /
Follow Your Dreams: The Story of Alberto Santos Dumont, (bilingual,
Portuguese/English). Rio de Janeiro: Prometheus Press, 2005.
Winters, Nancy. Man Flies: The Story of Alberto Santos-Dumont, Master
of the Balloon. New York: Ecco Press, 1997.
Wykeham, Peter. Santos Dumont: A Study in Obsession. New York:
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alberto Santos-Dumont.
Wikisource has the text of a 1920
Encyclopedia Americana article about
Alberto Santos-Dumont at
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Santos-Dumont, My Airships (tr. of Dans l'air)
Works by or about
Alberto Santos-Dumont at Internet Archive
PBS Nova: Wings of Madness
U. S. Centennial of Flight Commission Dumont
Alberto Santos Dumont Article by writer Patricia Nell Warren.
History of Aviation: Brazil, American Institute of Aeronautics and
Aviation Pioneer Santos-Dumont, Technological Institute of Aeronautics
Open Source Philosophy and the Dawn of
Aviation Article published by
Bento S. de Mattos.
Alberto Santos-Dumont at Find a Grave
Graça Aranha (founder)
Brazilian Academy of Letters
Brazilian Academy of Letters – Occupant of the 38th chair
1931 — 1932
Patrons and members of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
1 to 10
1 (Adelino Fontoura): Luís Murat ►
Afonso d'Escragnolle Taunay
Afonso d'Escragnolle Taunay ►
Ivan Monteiro de Barros Lins ► Bernardo Élis ► Evandro Lins e
Silva ► Ana Maria Machado
2 (Álvares de Azevedo):
Coelho Neto ► João Neves da Fontoura ►
Guimarães Rosa ►
Mário Palmério ► Tarcísio Padilha
3 (Artur de Oliveira):
Filinto de Almeida ► Roberto Simonsen ►
Aníbal Freire da Fonseca ► Herberto Sales ► Carlos Heitor Cony
4 (Basílio da Gama):
Aluísio Azevedo ► Alcides Maia ► Viana Moog
► Carlos Nejar
5 (Bernardo Guimarães):
Raimundo Correia ►
Oswaldo Cruz ►
Aloísio de Castro ► Cândido Mota Filho ►
Rachel de Queiroz
Rachel de Queiroz ►
José Murilo de Carvalho
6 (Casimiro de Abreu): Teixeira de Melo ► Artur Jaceguai ► Goulart
de Andrade ►
Barbosa Lima Sobrinho ► Raimundo Faoro ► Cícero
7 (Castro Alves): Valentim Magalhães ►
Euclides da Cunha
Euclides da Cunha ►
Afrânio Peixoto ► Afonso Pena Júnior ►
Hermes Lima ► Pontes de
Miranda ► Dinah Silveira de Queiroz ► Sérgio Correia da Costa ►
Nelson Pereira dos Santos
8 (Cláudio Manuel da Costa):
Alberto de Oliveira
Alberto de Oliveira ► Oliveira Viana
Austregésilo de Athayde
Austregésilo de Athayde ► Antônio Calado ► Antônio Olinto
► Cleonice Berardinelli
9 (Gonçalves de Magalhães):
Carlos Magalhães de Azeredo
Carlos Magalhães de Azeredo ► Marques
Carlos Chagas Filho ► Alberto da Costa e Silva
10 (Evaristo da Veiga):
Rui Barbosa ► Laudelino Freire ► Osvaldo
Orígenes Lessa ►
Lêdo Ivo ► Rosiska Darcy de Oliveira
11 to 20
11 (Fagundes Varela): Lúcio de Mendonça ► Pedro Augusto Carneiro
Lessa ► Eduardo Ramos ► João Luís Alves ►
Adelmar Tavares ►
Deolindo Couto ►
Darcy Ribeiro ►
Celso Furtado ► Hélio
12 (França Júnior): Urbano Duarte de Oliveira ► Antônio Augusto
de Lima ► Vítor Viana ► José Carlos de Macedo Soares ► Abgar
Lucas Moreira Neves
Lucas Moreira Neves ► Alfredo Bosi
13 (Francisco Otaviano): Alfredo d'Escragnolle Taunay ► Francisco de
Castro ► Martins Júnior ► Sousa Bandeira ► Hélio Lobo ►
Augusto Meyer ►
Francisco de Assis Barbosa ► Sérgio Paulo Rouanet
14 (Franklin Távora):
Clóvis Beviláqua ► Antônio Carneiro Leão
► Fernando de Azevedo ►
Miguel Reale ► Celso Lafer
15 (Gonçalves Dias):
Olavo Bilac ► Amadeu Amaral ► Guilherme de
Almeida ► Odilo Costa Filho ► Marcos Barbosa ► Fernando Bastos
16 (Gregório de Matos):
Araripe Júnior ► Félix Pacheco ► Pedro
Calmon ► Lygia Fagundes Telles
17 (Hipólito da Costa):
Sílvio Romero ►
Osório Duque-Estrada ►
Edgar Roquette-Pinto ► Álvaro Lins ►
Antônio Houaiss ► Affonso
Arinos de Mello Franco
18 (João Francisco Lisboa):
José Veríssimo ► Barão Homem de Melo
► Alberto Faria ► Luís Carlos ► Pereira da Silva ► Peregrino
Júnior ► Arnaldo Niskier
19 (Joaquim Caetano): Alcindo Guanabara ► Silvério Gomes Pimenta
Gustavo Barroso ► Silva Melo ► Américo Jacobina Lacombe ►
Marcos Almir Madeira ► Antônio Carlos Secchin
20 (Joaquim Manuel de Macedo):
Salvador de Mendonça ► Emílio de
Meneses ► Humberto de Campos ► Múcio Leão ► Aurélio de Lira
Tavares ► Murilo Melo Filho
21 to 30
21 (Joaquim Serra):
José do Patrocínio
José do Patrocínio ►
Mário de Alencar ►
Olegário Mariano ► Álvaro Moreira ►
Adonias Filho ► Dias Gomes
► Roberto Campos ► Paulo Coelho
22 (José Bonifácio the Younger):
Medeiros e Albuquerque ► Miguel
Osório de Almeida ► Luís Viana Filho ► Ivo Pitanguy
23 (José de Alencar):
Machado de Assis
Machado de Assis ► Lafayette Rodrigues
Pereira ► Alfredo Pujol ►
Otávio Mangabeira ►
Jorge Amado ►
Zélia Gattai ► Luiz Paulo Horta
24 (Júlio Ribeiro): Garcia Redondo ► Luís Guimarães Filho ►
Manuel Bandeira ►
Cyro dos Anjos ► Sábato Magaldi
25 (Junqueira Freire): Franklin Dória ► Artur Orlando da Silva ►
Ataulfo de Paiva ►
José Lins do Rego ►
Afonso Arinos de Melo
Franco ► Alberto Venancio Filho
26 (Laurindo Rabelo): Guimarães Passos ►
João do Rio
João do Rio ►
Constâncio Alves ► Ribeiro Couto ► Gilberto Amado ► Mauro Mota
► Marcos Vilaça
27 (Antônio Peregrino Maciel Monteiro):
Joaquim Nabuco ► Dantas
Barreto ► Gregório da Fonseca ► Levi Carneiro ► Otávio de
Faria ► Eduardo Portella
28 (Manuel Antônio de Almeida): Inglês de Sousa ► Xavier Marques
Menotti Del Picchia
Menotti Del Picchia ► Oscar Dias Correia ► Domício Proença
29 (Martins Pena):
Artur Azevedo ► Vicente de Carvalho ► Cláudio
de Sousa ► Josué Montello ►
José Mindlin ► Geraldo Holanda
30 (Pardal Mallet): Pedro Rabelo ► Heráclito Graça ► Antônio
Aurélio Buarque de Holanda Ferreira ► Nélida
31 to 40
31 (Pedro Luís Pereira de Sousa): Luís Caetano Pereira Guimarães
Júnior ► João Batista Ribeiro de Andrade Fernandes ► Paulo
Cassiano Ricardo ►
José Cândido de Carvalho ►
Geraldo França de Lima ►
Moacyr Scliar ► Merval Pereira
32 (Manuel de Araújo Porto-Alegre):
Carlos de Laet ► Ramiz Galvão
► Viriato Correia ► Joracy Camargo ► Genolino Amado ► Ariano
Suassuna► Evaldo Cabral de Mello
33 (Raul Pompeia):
Domício da Gama
Domício da Gama ►
Fernando Magalhães ► Luís
Afrânio Coutinho ► Evanildo Bechara
34 (Sousa Caldas): João Manuel Pereira da Silva ► José Maria da
Silva Paranhos, Jr. ►
Lauro Müller ► Aquino Correia ►
Magalhães Júnior ► Carlos Castelo Branco ► João Ubaldo Ribeiro
Zuenir Ventura ► Evaldo Cabral de Mello
35 (Tavares Bastos): Rodrigo Otávio ► Rodrigo Otávio Filho ►
José Honório Rodrigues ► Celso Cunha ► Cândido Mendes de
36 (Teófilo Dias): Afonso Celso ► Clementino Fraga ► Paulo
José Guilherme Merquior
José Guilherme Merquior ► João de Scantimburgo
37 (Tomás António Gonzaga): José Júlio da Silva Ramos ► José de
Alcântara Machado ►
Getúlio Vargas ►
Assis Chateaubriand ►
João Cabral de Melo Neto ► Ivan Junqueira ►
Ferreira Gullar ►
38 (Tobias Barreto):
Graça Aranha ►
Alberto Santos-Dumont ► Celso
Vieira ► Maurício Campos de Medeiros ► José Américo de Almeida
► José Sarney
39 (Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen): Manuel de Oliveira Lima ►
Alberto de Faria ► Rocha Pombo ► Rodolfo Garcia ► Elmano Cardim
Otto Lara Resende
Otto Lara Resende ►
Roberto Marinho ► Marco Maciel
40 (José Maria da Silva Paranhos, Sr.): Eduardo Prado ► Afonso
Arinos ► Miguel Couto ►
Alceu Amoroso Lima ► Evaristo de Moraes
ISNI: 0000 0000 6636 1598
BNF: cb13185668w (data)