The Info List - Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist[5] who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[4][6]:274 His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[7][8] He is best known by the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation").[9] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[10] a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern
(1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields and—with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916—he published a paper on general relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structure of the universe.[11][12] Between 1895 and 1914, he lived in Switzerland
(except for one year in Prague, 1911–12), where he received his academic diploma from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich
(later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) in 1900. He later taught at that institute as a professor of theoretical physics between 1912 and 1914 before he left for Berlin. In 1901, after being stateless for more than five years, he acquired Swiss citizenship, which he kept for the rest of his life. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zürich. The same year, his annus mirabilis (miracle year), he published four groundbreaking papers, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of 26. He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
came to power in 1933 and—being Jewish—did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin
Academy of Sciences. He settled in the United States, becoming an American citizen
American citizen
in 1940.[13] On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the U.S. begin similar research. This eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported defending the Allied forces, but generally denounced the idea of using the newly discovered nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, he signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works.[11][14] His intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius".[15] Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner
wrote of Einstein in comparison to his contemporaries that "Einstein's understanding was deeper even than Jansci von Neumann's. His mind was both more penetrating and more original than von Neumann's. And that is a very remarkable statement."[16]


1 Life and career

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Marriages and children 1.3 Friends 1.4 Patent office

1.4.1 First scientific papers

1.5 Academic career 1.6 1921–1922: Travels abroad 1.7 1930–1931: Travel to the U.S. 1.8 1933: Emigration to the U.S.

1.8.1 Refugee status 1.8.2 Resident scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study 1.8.3 World War II
World War II
and the Manhattan Project 1.8.4 U.S. citizenship

1.9 Personal life

1.9.1 Supporter of civil rights 1.9.2 Assisting Zionist causes 1.9.3 Love of music 1.9.4 Political and religious views

1.10 Death

2 Scientific career

2.1 1905 – Annus Mirabilis papers 2.2 Thermodynamic
fluctuations and statistical physics 2.3 General principles 2.4 Theory of relativity
Theory of relativity
and E = mc² 2.5 Photons and energy quanta 2.6 Quantized atomic vibrations 2.7 Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables 2.8 Wave–particle duality 2.9 Theory of critical opalescence 2.10 Zero-point energy 2.11 General relativity
General relativity
and the equivalence principle

2.11.1 Gravitational waves

2.12 Hole argument and Entwurf theory 2.13 Physical cosmology 2.14 Modern quantum theory 2.15 Bose–Einstein statistics 2.16 Energy
momentum pseudotensor 2.17 Unified field theory 2.18 Wormholes 2.19 Einstein–Cartan theory 2.20 Equations of motion 2.21 Other investigations 2.22 Collaboration with other scientists

2.22.1 Einstein–de Haas experiment 2.22.2 Schrödinger gas model 2.22.3 Einstein refrigerator

2.23 Bohr versus Einstein 2.24 Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox

3 Non-scientific legacy 4 In popular culture 5 Awards and honors 6 Publications 7 See also 8 Notes and references

8.1 Explanatory notes 8.2 Citations 8.3 Further reading

9 External links

Life and career Early life and education See also: Einstein family

Einstein at the age of 3 in 1882

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
in 1893 (age 14)

Einstein's matriculation certificate at the age of 17, showing his final grades from the Argovian cantonal school (Aargauische Kantonsschule, on a scale of 1–6, with 6 being the highest possible mark). He scored: German 5; French 3; Italian 5; History 6; Geography 4; Algebra 6; Geometry 6; Descriptive Geometry 6; Physics
6; Chemistry 5; Natural History 5; Art and Technical Drawing 4.

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg
in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879.[5] His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline Koch. In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current.[5] The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews
and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich, from the age of 5, for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium (now known as the Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Gymnasium), where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the German Empire
German Empire
seven years later.[17] In 1894, Hermann and Jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich
with electrical lighting because they lacked the capital to convert their equipment from the direct current (DC) standard to the more efficient alternating current (AC) standard.[18] The loss forced the sale of the Munich
factory. In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan
and a few months later to Pavia. When the family moved to Pavia, Einstein, then 15, stayed in Munich
to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note.[19] During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field".[20][21] Contrary to popular mythology, Einstein always excelled at maths and physics from a young age, reaching a mathematical level years ahead of his peers. The twelve year old Einstein taught himself algebra and Euclidean geometry over a single summer. Einstein also independently discovered his own original proof of the Pythagorean theorem
Pythagorean theorem
at age 12.[22] A family tutor Max Talmud says that after he had given the 12 year old Einstein a geometry textbook, after a short time "[Einstein] had worked through the whole book. He thereupon devoted himself to higher mathematics... Soon the flight of his mathematical genius was so high I could not follow."[23] His passion for geometry and algebra led the twelve year old to become convinced that nature could be understood as a "mathematical structure".[23] Einstein started teaching himself calculus at 12, and as a 14 year old he says he had "mastered integral and differential calculus".[24] At age 13, Einstein was introduced to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, and Kant
became his favourite philosopher, his tutor stating: "At the time he was still a child, only thirteen years old, yet Kant's works, incomprehensible to ordinary mortals, seemed to be clear to him."[23] In 1895, at the age of 16, Einstein took the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zürich
(later the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH). He failed to reach the required standard in the general part of the examination,[25] but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics.[26] On the advice of the principal of the Polytechnic, he attended the Argovian cantonal school (gymnasium) in Aarau, Switzerland, in 1895 and 1896 to complete his secondary schooling. While lodging with the family of professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. Albert's sister Maja later married Winteler's son Paul.[27] In January 1896, with his father's approval, Einstein renounced his citizenship in the German Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg
to avoid military service.[28] In September 1896, he passed the Swiss Matura
with mostly good grades, including a top grade of 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale of 1–6.[29] At 17, he enrolled in the four-year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the Zürich
Polytechnic. Marie Winteler, who was a year older, moved to Olsberg, Switzerland, for a teaching post. Einstein's future wife, a 20-year old Serbian woman Mileva Marić, also enrolled at the Polytechnic that year. She was the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course. Over the next few years, Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance, and they read books together on extra-curricular physics in which Einstein was taking an increasing interest. In 1900, Einstein passed the exams in Maths and Physics
and was awarded the Federal Polytechnic teaching diploma.[30] There have been claims that Marić collaborated with Einstein on his 1905 papers,[31][32] known as the Annus Mirabilis papers, but historians of physics who have studied the issue find no evidence that she made any substantive contributions.[33][34][35][36] Marriages and children

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
in 1904 (age 25)

The discovery and publication in 1987 of an early correspondence between Einstein and Marić revealed that they had had a daughter, called "Lieserl" in their letters, born in early 1902 in Novi Sad where Marić was staying with her parents. Marić returned to Switzerland
without the child, whose real name and fate are unknown. Einstein probably never saw his daughter. The contents of his letter to Marić in September 1903 suggest that the girl was either given up for adoption or died of scarlet fever in infancy.[37][38]

Einstein with his second wife Elsa, 1921

Einstein and Marić married in January 1903. In May 1904, their first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born in Bern, Switzerland. Their second son, Eduard, was born in Zürich
in July 1910. In April 1914 they moved to Berlin. After a few months, his wife returned to Zürich
with their sons, after learning that Einstein's chief romantic attraction was his first and second cousin Elsa.[39] They divorced on 14 February 1919, having lived apart for five years.[40] Eduard, whom his father called "Tete" (for petit), had a breakdown at about age 20 and was diagnosed with schizophrenia.[41] His mother cared for him and he was also committed to asylums for several periods, finally being committed permanently after her death.[42] In letters revealed in 2015, Einstein wrote to his early love, Marie Winteler, about his marriage and his still-strong feelings for her. In 1910, while his wife was pregnant with their second child, Einstein wrote to Marie that "I think of you in heartfelt love every spare minute and am so unhappy as only a man can be". Einstein spoke about a "misguided love" and a "missed life" regarding his love for Marie.[43] Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal
Elsa Löwenthal
in 1919,[44][45] after having had a personal relationship with her since 1912.[46] She was a first cousin maternally and a second cousin paternally.[46] In 1933, they emigrated to the United States. In 1935, Elsa Einstein
Elsa Einstein
was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems; she died in December 1936.[47] Friends Among Einstein's well-known friends were Michele Besso, Paul Ehrenfest, Marcel Grossmann, János Plesch, Maurice Solovine, and Stephen Wise.[48] Patent office

Olympia Academy
Olympia Academy
founders: Conrad Habicht, Maurice Solovine
Maurice Solovine
and Einstein.

After graduating in 1900, Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship
Swiss citizenship
in February 1901,[49] but was not conscripted for medical reasons. With the help of Marcel Grossmann's father, he secured a job in Bern
at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office,[50][51] as an assistant examiner – level III.[52][53] Einstein evaluated patent applications for a variety of devices including a gravel sorter and an electromechanical typewriter.[53] In 1903, his position at the Swiss Patent Office
Swiss Patent Office
became permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology".[54]:370 Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.[54]:377 With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group in 1902, self-mockingly named "The Olympia Academy", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy. Their readings included the works of Henri Poincaré, Ernst Mach, and David Hume, which influenced his scientific and philosophical outlook.[55] First scientific papers

Einstein's official 1921 portrait after receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics

In 1900, Einstein's paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" ("Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena") was published in the journal Annalen der Physik.[56][57] On 30 April 1905, Einstein completed his thesis,[58] with Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics, serving as pro-forma advisor. As a result, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zürich, with his dissertation "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions".[58][59] In that same year, which has been called Einstein's annus mirabilis (miracle year), he published four groundbreaking papers, on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of 26. Academic career By 1908, he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern. The following year, after giving a lecture on electrodynamics and the relativity principle at the University of Zürich, Alfred Kleiner
Alfred Kleiner
recommended him to the faculty for a newly created professorship in theoretical physics. Einstein was appointed associate professor in 1909.[60] Einstein became a full professor at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague
in April 1911, accepting Austrian citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
to do so.[61][62] During his Prague
stay, he wrote 11 scientific works, five of them on radiation mathematics and on the quantum theory of solids. In July 1912, he returned to his alma mater in Zürich. From 1912 until 1914, he was professor of theoretical physics at the ETH
Zurich, where he taught analytical mechanics and thermodynamics. He also studied continuum mechanics, the molecular theory of heat, and the problem of gravitation, on which he worked with mathematician and friend Marcel Grossmann.[63] On 3 July 1913, he was voted for membership in the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Max Planck
Max Planck
and Walther Nernst
Walther Nernst
visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
for Physics, which was soon to be established.[64] (Membership in the academy included paid salary and professorship without teaching duties at the Humboldt University of Berlin.) He was officially elected to the academy on 24 July, and he accepted to move to the German Empire the next year. His decision to move to Berlin
was also influenced by the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa, with whom he had developed a romantic affair. He joined the academy and thus the Berlin University on 1 April 1914.[65] As World War I broke out that year, the plan for Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
for Physics
was aborted. The institute was established on 1 October 1917, with Einstein as its Director.[66] In 1916, Einstein was elected president of the German Physical Society (1916–1918).[67] Based on calculations Einstein made in 1911, about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star should be bent by the Sun's gravity. In 1919, that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May 1919. Those observations were published in the international media, making Einstein world famous. On 7 November 1919, the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science – New Theory of the Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown".[68] In 1920, he became a Foreign Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.[69] In 1922, he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[10] While the general theory of relativity was still considered somewhat controversial, the citation also does not treat the cited work as an explanation but merely as a discovery of the law, as the idea of photons was considered outlandish and did not receive universal acceptance until the 1924 derivation of the Planck spectrum
Planck spectrum
by S. N. Bose. Einstein was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1921.[4] He also received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1925.[4] 1921–1922: Travels abroad

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
at a session of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (League of Nations) of which he was a member from 1922 to 1932.

Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April 1921, where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan, followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions. He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University
Columbia University
and Princeton University, and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science
National Academy of Science
on a visit to the White House. On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane
Viscount Haldane
in London, where he met several renowned scientific, intellectual and political figures, and delivered a lecture at King's College London.[70] [71] He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U.S.A.," in July 1921, in which he tried briefly to describe some characteristics of Americans, much as had Alexis de Tocqueville, who published his own impressions in Democracy in America
Democracy in America
(1835).[72] For some of his observations, Einstein was clearly surprised: "What strikes a visitor is the joyous, positive attitude to life . . . The American is friendly, self-confident, optimistic, and without envy."[73]:20 In 1922, his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited Singapore, Ceylon
and Japan, where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese. After his first public lecture, he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace, where thousands came to watch. In a letter to his sons, he described his impression of the Japanese as being modest, intelligent, considerate, and having a true feel for art.[74] Because of Einstein's travels to the Far East, he was unable to personally accept the Nobel Prize for Physics
at the Stockholm award ceremony in December 1922. In his place, the banquet speech was held by a German diplomat, who praised Einstein not only as a scientist but also as an international peacemaker and activist.[75] On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. He was greeted as if he were a head of state, rather than a physicist, which included a cannon salute upon arriving at the home of the British high commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel. During one reception, the building was stormed by people who wanted to see and hear him. In Einstein's talk to the audience, he expressed happiness that the Jewish people were beginning to be recognized as a force in the world.[76] Einstein visited Spain for two weeks in 1923, where he briefly met Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
and also received a diploma from King Alfonso XIII naming him a member of the Spanish Academy of Sciences.[77] From 1922 to 1932, Einstein was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations
League of Nations
in Geneva, a body created to promote international exchange between scientists, researchers, teachers, artists and intellectuals.[78] Originally slated to serve as the Swiss delegate, Secretary-General Eric Drummond
Eric Drummond
was persuaded by Catholic activists Oskar Halecki
Oskar Halecki
and Giuseppe Motta
Giuseppe Motta
to instead have him become the German delegate, thus allowing Gonzague de Reynold
Gonzague de Reynold
to take the Swiss spot, from which he promoted traditionalist Catholic values.[79] His former physics professor Hendrik Lorentz
Hendrik Lorentz
and the French chemist Marie Curie
Marie Curie
were also members of the committee. 1930–1931: Travel to the U.S. In December 1930, Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow at the California Institute of Technology. After the national attention he received during his first trip to the U.S., he and his arrangers aimed to protect his privacy. Although swamped with telegrams and invitations to receive awards or speak publicly, he declined them all.[80] After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown, a lunch with the editors of the New York Times, and a performance of Carmen at the Metropolitan Opera, where he was cheered by the audience on his arrival. During the days following, he was given the keys to the city by Mayor Jimmy Walker
Jimmy Walker
and met the president of Columbia University, who described Einstein as "the ruling monarch of the mind".[81] Harry Emerson Fosdick, pastor at New York's Riverside Church, gave Einstein a tour of the church and showed him a full-size statue that the church made of Einstein, standing at the entrance.[81] Also during his stay in New York, he joined a crowd of 15,000 people at Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
during a Hanukkah

Einstein (left) and Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
at the Hollywood
premiere of City Lights, January 1931

Einstein next traveled to California, where he met Caltech
president and Nobel laureate, Robert A. Millikan. His friendship with Millikan was "awkward", as Millikan "had a penchant for patriotic militarism," where Einstein was a pronounced pacifist.[82] During an address to Caltech's students, Einstein noted that science was often inclined to do more harm than good.[83] This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin, both noted for their pacifism. Carl Laemmle, head of Universal Studios, gave Einstein a tour of his studio and introduced him to Chaplin. They had an instant rapport, with Chaplin inviting Einstein and his wife, Elsa, to his home for dinner. Chaplin said Einstein's outward persona, calm and gentle, seemed to conceal a "highly emotional temperament," from which came his "extraordinary intellectual energy".[84]:320 Chaplin's film, City Lights, was to premiere a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guests. Walter Isaacson, Einstein's biographer, described this as "one of the most memorable scenes in the new era of celebrity".[83] Chaplin visited Einstein at his home on a later trip to Berlin, and recalled his "modest little flat" and the piano at which he had begun writing his theory. Chaplin speculated that it was "possibly used as kindling wood by the Nazis."[84]:322 1933: Emigration to the U.S.

Cartoon of Einstein, who has shed his "Pacifism" wings, standing next to a pillar labeled "World Peace". He is rolling up his sleeves and holding a sword labeled "Preparedness" (by Charles R. Macauley, c. 1933).

In February 1933 while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler.[85][86] While at American universities in early 1933, he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. He and his wife Elsa returned to Belgium
by ship in March, and during the trip they learned that their cottage was raided by the Nazis and his personal sailboat confiscated. Upon landing in Antwerp
on 28 March, he immediately went to the German consulate and surrendered his passport, formally renouncing his German citizenship.[87] The Nazis later sold his boat and converted his cottage into a Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
camp.[88] Refugee status

Albert Einstein's landing card (26 May 1933), when he landed in Dover (United Kingdom) from Ostende
(Belgium) to visit Oxford.

In April 1933, Einstein discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews
from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities.[87] Historian Gerald Holton describes how, with "virtually no audible protest being raised by their colleagues", thousands of Jewish scientists were suddenly forced to give up their university positions and their names were removed from the rolls of institutions where they were employed.[73] A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by the German Student Union in the Nazi book burnings, with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is dead."[87] One German magazine included him in a list of enemies of the German regime with the phrase, "not yet hanged", offering a $5,000 bounty on his head.[87][89] In a subsequent letter to physicist and friend Max Born, who had already emigrated from Germany to England, Einstein wrote, "... I must confess that the degree of their brutality and cowardice came as something of a surprise."[87] After moving to the U.S., he described the book burnings as a "spontaneous emotional outburst" by those who "shun popular enlightenment," and "more than anything else in the world, fear the influence of men of intellectual independence."[90] Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany. He rented a house in De Haan, Belgium, where he lived for a few months. In late July 1933, he went to England for about six weeks at the personal invitation of British naval officer Commander Oliver Locker-Lampson, who had become friends with Einstein in the preceding years. To protect Einstein, Locker-Lampson had two assistants watch over him at his secluded cottage outside London, with photo of them carrying shotguns and guarding Einstein, published in the Daily Herald on 24 July 1933.[91][92] Locker-Lampson took Einstein to meet Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at his home, and later, Austen Chamberlain
Austen Chamberlain
and former Prime Minister Lloyd George.[93] Einstein asked them to help bring Jewish scientists out of Germany. British historian Martin Gilbert
Martin Gilbert
notes that Churchill responded immediately, and sent his friend, physicist Frederick Lindemann to Germany to seek out Jewish scientists and place them in British universities.[94] Churchill later observed that as a result of Germany having driven the Jews
out, they had lowered their "technical standards" and put the Allies' technology ahead of theirs.[94] Einstein later contacted leaders of other nations, including Turkey's Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü, to whom he wrote in September 1933 requesting placement of unemployed German-Jewish scientists. As a result of Einstein's letter, Jewish invitees to Turkey
eventually totaled over "1,000 saved individuals".[95] Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe.[96] In one of his speeches he denounced Germany's treatment of Jews, while at the same time he introduced a bill promoting Jewish citizenship in Palestine, as they were being denied citizenship elsewhere.[97] In his speech he described Einstein as a "citizen of the world" who should be offered a temporary shelter in the U.K.[note 2][98] Both bills failed, however, and Einstein then accepted an earlier offer from the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study, in the U.S., to become a resident scholar.[96] Resident scholar at the Institute for Advanced Study

Portrait taken in 1935 in Princeton

In October 1933 Einstein returned to the U.S. and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study,[96][99] noted for having become a refuge for scientists fleeing Nazi Germany.[100] At the time, most American universities, including Harvard, Princeton and Yale, had minimal or no Jewish faculty or students, as a result of their Jewish quota which lasted until the late 1940s.[100] Einstein was still undecided on his future. He had offers from several European universities, including Christ Church, Oxford
where he stayed for three short periods between May 1931 and June 1933 and was offered a 5-year studentship,[101][102] but in 1935 he arrived at the decision to remain permanently in the United States and apply for citizenship.[96][103] Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
would last until his death in 1955.[104] He was one of the four first selected (two of the others being John von Neumann
John von Neumann
and Kurt Gödel) at the new Institute, where he soon developed a close friendship with Gödel. The two would take long walks together discussing their work. Bruria Kaufman, his assistant, later became a physicist. During this period, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics, both unsuccessfully. World War II
World War II
and the Manhattan Project See also: Einstein–Szilárd letter In 1939, a group of Hungarian scientists that included émigré physicist Leó Szilárd
Leó Szilárd
attempted to alert Washington to ongoing Nazi atomic bomb research. The group's warnings were discounted. Einstein and Szilárd, along with other refugees such as Edward Teller
Edward Teller
and Eugene Wigner, "regarded it as their responsibility to alert Americans to the possibility that German scientists might win the race to build an atomic bomb, and to warn that Hitler would be more than willing to resort to such a weapon."[105][106] To make certain the U.S. was aware of the danger, in July 1939, a few months before the beginning of World War II
World War II
in Europe, Szilárd and Wigner visited Einstein to explain the possibility of atomic bombs, which Einstein, a pacifist, said he had never considered.[107] He was asked to lend his support by writing a letter, with Szilárd, to President Roosevelt, recommending the U.S. pay attention and engage in its own nuclear weapons research. The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U.S. adoption of serious investigations into nuclear weapons on the eve of the U.S. entry into World War II".[108] In addition to the letter, Einstein used his connections with the Belgian Royal Family[109] and the Belgian queen mother to get access with a personal envoy to the White House's Oval Office. Some say that as a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the U.S. entered the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material, financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project. For Einstein, "war was a disease ... [and] he called for resistance to war." By signing the letter to Roosevelt, some argue he went against his pacifist principles.[110] In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his old friend, Linus Pauling, "I made one great mistake in my life—when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification—the danger that the Germans would make them ..."[111] U.S. citizenship

Einstein accepting U.S. citizenship certificate from judge Phillip Forman

Einstein became an American citizen
American citizen
in 1940. Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
(in Princeton, New Jersey), he expressed his appreciation of the meritocracy in American culture when compared to Europe. He recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social barriers, and as a result, individuals were encouraged, he said, to be more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education.[112] Personal life Supporter of civil rights Einstein was a passionate, committed antiracist and joined National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Princeton, where he campaigned for the civil rights of African Americans. He considered racism America's "worst disease,"[89] seeing it as "handed down from one generation to the next".[113] As part of his involvement, he corresponded with civil rights activist W. E. B. Du Bois and was prepared to testify on his behalf during his trial in 1951.[114]:565 When Einstein offered to be a character witness for Du Bois, the judge decided to drop the case.[115]

Einstein in 1947

In 1946 Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, a historically black college, where he was awarded an honorary degree. (Lincoln was the first university in the United States to grant college degrees to African Americans; alumni include Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall.) Einstein gave a speech about racism in America, adding, "I do not intend to be quiet about it."[116] A resident of Princeton recalls that Einstein had once paid the college tuition for a black student.[115] Assisting Zionist causes Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, which opened in 1925, and was among its first Board of Governors. Earlier, in 1921, he was asked by the biochemist and president of the World Zionist Organization, Chaim Weizmann, to help raise funds for the planned university.[117] He also submitted various suggestions as to its initial programs. Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the various ongoing epidemics such as malaria, which he called an "evil" that was undermining a third of the country's development.[118]:161 Establishing an Oriental Studies Institute, to include language courses given in both Hebrew and Arabic, for scientific exploration of the country and its historical monuments, was also important.[118]:158 Chaim Weizmann
Chaim Weizmann
later became Israel's first president. Upon his death while in office in November 1952 and at the urging of Ezriel Carlebach, Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
offered Einstein the position of President of Israel, a mostly ceremonial post.[119][120] The offer was presented by Israel's ambassador in Washington, Abba Eban, who explained that the offer "embodies the deepest respect which the Jewish people can repose in any of its sons".[121] Einstein declined, and wrote in his response that he was "deeply moved", and "at once saddened and ashamed" that he could not accept it.[121] Love of music

Einstein (right) with writer, musician and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, 1930

Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age, and later wrote: "If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music... I get most joy in life out of music."[122][123] His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin, not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German culture. According to conductor Leon Botstein, Einstein is said to have begun playing when he was 5, although he did not enjoy it at that age.[124] When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart, whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied music more willingly. He taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically", he said, deciding that "love is a better teacher than a sense of duty."[124] At age 17, he was heard by a school examiner in Aarau
as he played Beethoven's violin sonatas, the examiner stating afterward that his playing was "remarkable and revealing of 'great insight'." What struck the examiner, writes Botstein, was that Einstein "displayed a deep love of the music, a quality that was and remains in short supply. Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student."[124] Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on. Although the idea of becoming a professional musician himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he performed for private audiences and friends. Chamber music
Chamber music
had also become a regular part of his social life while living in Bern, Zürich, and Berlin, where he played with Max Planck
Max Planck
and his son, among others. He is sometimes erroneously credited as the editor of the 1937 edition of the Köchel catalogue of Mozart's work; that edition was prepared by Alfred Einstein, who may have been a distant relation.[125][126] In 1931, while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven
and Mozart's works with members of the Zoellner Quartet.[127][128] Near the end of his life, when the young Juilliard Quartet
Juilliard Quartet
visited him in Princeton, he played his violin with them, and the quartet was "impressed by Einstein's level of coordination and intonation".[124] Political and religious views Main articles: Albert Einstein's political views
Albert Einstein's political views
and Albert Einstein's religious views

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
with his wife Elsa Einstein
Elsa Einstein
and Zionist leaders, including future President of Israel
President of Israel
Chaim Weizmann, his wife Vera Weizmann, Menahem Ussishkin, and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as "Why Socialism?".[129][130] Einstein offered and was called on to give judgments and opinions on matters often unrelated to theoretical physics or mathematics.[96] He strongly advocated the idea of a democratic global government that would check the power of nation-states in the framework of a world federation.[131] The FBI created a secret dossier on Einstein in 1932, and by the time of his death his FBI file was 1,427 pages long.[132] Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews.[133] Einstein stated that he believed in the pantheistic God of Baruch Spinoza.[134] He did not believe in a personal God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings, a view which he described as naïve.[135] He clarified however that, "I am not an atheist",[136] preferring to call himself an agnostic,[137] or a "deeply religious nonbeliever".[135] When asked if he believed in an afterlife, Einstein replied, "No. And one life is enough for me."[138] As for his affiliations, Einstein was primarily associated with non-religious humanist and Ethical Culture
Ethical Culture
groups in both the UK and US. He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York,[139] and was an honorary associate of the Rationalist Association, which publishes New Humanist
New Humanist
in Britain. For the seventy-fifth anniversary of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, he stated that the idea of Ethical Culture
Ethical Culture
embodied his personal conception of what is most valuable and enduring in religious idealism. He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity."[140] Death On 17 April 1955, Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen
Rudolph Nissen
in 1948.[141] He took the draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it.[142] Einstein refused surgery, saying: "I want to go when I want. It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share, it is time to go. I will do it elegantly."[143] He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76, having continued to work until near the end. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey, removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.[144] Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered at an undisclosed location.[145][146] In a memorial lecture delivered on 13 December 1965, at UNESCO headquarters, nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
summarized his impression of Einstein as a person: "He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness ... There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn."[147] Scientific career Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles.[14][5] He published more than 300 scientific papers and 150 non-scientific ones.[11][14] On 5 December 2014, universities and archives announced the release of Einstein's papers, comprising more than 30,000 unique documents.[148][149] Einstein's intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius".[15] In addition to the work he did by himself he also collaborated with other scientists on additional projects including the Bose–Einstein statistics, the Einstein refrigerator
Einstein refrigerator
and others.[150] 1905 – Annus Mirabilis papers Main articles: Annus Mirabilis papers, Photoelectric effect, Special theory of relativity, Mass–energy equivalence, and Brownian motion The Annus Mirabilis papers
Annus Mirabilis papers
are four articles pertaining to the photoelectric effect (which gave rise to quantum theory), Brownian motion, the special theory of relativity, and E = mc2 that Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik scientific journal in 1905. These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space, time, and matter. The four papers are:

Title (translated) Area of focus Received Published Significance

On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light Photoelectric effect 18 March 9 June Resolved an unsolved puzzle by suggesting that energy is exchanged only in discrete amounts (quanta).[151] This idea was pivotal to the early development of quantum theory.[152]

On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid, as Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat Brownian motion 11 May 18 July Explained empirical evidence for the atomic theory, supporting the application of statistical physics.

On the Electrodynamics
of Moving Bodies Special
relativity 30 June 26 September Reconciled Maxwell's equations
Maxwell's equations
for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light, resulting from analysis based on empirical evidence that the speed of light is independent of the motion of the observer.[153] Discredited the concept of a "luminiferous ether".[154]

Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy
Content? Matter–energy equivalence 27 September 21 November Equivalence of matter and energy, E = mc2 (and by implication, the ability of gravity to "bend" light), the existence of "rest energy", and the basis of nuclear energy.

fluctuations and statistical physics Main articles: Statistical mechanics, thermal fluctuations, and statistical physics Einstein's first paper[155] submitted in 1900 to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in 1901 with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena". Two papers he published in 1902–1903 (thermodynamics) attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view. These papers were the foundation for the 1905 paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist. His research in 1903 and 1904 was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena.[155] General principles He articulated the principle of relativity. This was understood by Hermann Minkowski
Hermann Minkowski
to be a generalization of rotational invariance from space to space-time. Other principles postulated by Einstein and later vindicated are the principle of equivalence, general covariance and the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum number. Theory of relativity
Theory of relativity
and E = mc² Main article: History of special relativity Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics
of Moving Bodies") was received on 30 June 1905 and published 26 September of that same year. It reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. Consequences of this include the time–space frame of a moving body appearing to slow down and contract (in the direction of motion) when measured in the frame of the observer. This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether—one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous.[156] In his paper on mass–energy equivalence, Einstein produced E = mc2 from his special relativity equations.[157] Einstein's 1905 work on relativity remained controversial for many years, but was accepted by leading physicists, starting with Max Planck.[158][159] Photons and energy quanta

The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right.

Main articles: Photon
and Quantum In a 1905 paper,[160] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles (quanta). Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck
Max Planck
and Niels Bohr. This idea only became universally accepted in 1919, with Robert Millikan's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering. Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.[160] Quantized atomic vibrations Main article: Einstein solid In 1907, Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics. Peter Debye
Peter Debye
refined this model.[161] Adiabatic principle and action-angle variables Main article: Old quantum theory Throughout the 1910s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements. Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the 1898 arguments Wilhelm Wien
Wilhelm Wien
had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process. Einstein noted in 1911 that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant. Arnold Sommerfeld
Arnold Sommerfeld
identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. Wave–particle duality

Einstein during his visit to the United States

Main article: Wave–particle duality Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in 1906, he had not given up on academia. In 1908, he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern.[162] In "Über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung" ("The Development of our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"), on the quantization of light, and in an earlier 1909 paper, Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta must have well-defined momenta and act in some respects as independent, point-like particles. This paper introduced the photon concept (although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of wave–particle duality in quantum mechanics. Einstein saw this wave–particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation. Theory of critical opalescence Main article: Critical opalescence Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point. Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density. At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white. Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering, which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.[163] Einstein quantitatively derived critical opalescence from a treatment of density fluctuations, and demonstrated how both the effect and Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
originate from the atomistic constitution of matter. Zero-point energy Main article: Zero-point energy In a series of works completed from 1911 to 1913, Planck reformulated his 1900 quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory". Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data. The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.[164] General relativity
General relativity
and the equivalence principle Main article: History of general relativity See also: Principle of equivalence, Theory of relativity, and Einstein field equations

Eddington's photograph of a solar eclipse

General relativity
General relativity
(GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between 1907 and 1915. According to general relativity, the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses. General relativity
General relativity
has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes, regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape. As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion (even accelerated ones) should appear more satisfactory.[165] Consequently, in 1907 he published an article on acceleration under special relativity. In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply. This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation, gravitational red shift and deflection of light.[166][167] In 1911, Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the 1907 article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies. Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally.[168] Gravitational waves In 1916, Einstein predicted gravitational waves,[169][170] ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves, traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation. The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance
Lorentz invariance
which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it. By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation, which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed. The first, indirect, detection of gravitational waves came in the 1970s through observation of a pair of closely orbiting neutron stars, PSR B1913+16.[171] The explanation of the decay in their orbital period was that they were emitting gravitational waves.[171][172] Einstein's prediction was confirmed on 11 February 2016, when researchers at LIGO
published the first observation of gravitational waves,[173] on Earth, exactly one hundred years after the prediction.[171][174][175][176][177] Hole argument and Entwurf theory Main article: Hole argument While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible. He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only. In June 1913, the Entwurf ("draft") theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions. After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken[178] and abandoned the theory in November 1915. Physical cosmology Main article: Physical cosmology

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v t e

In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.[179] He discovered that the general field equations predicted a universe that was dynamic, either contracting or expanding. As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant, to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe. The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle
Mach's principle
in these years. This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe.[180][181] Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in 1929, Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of 1931[182][183] and the Einstein–de Sitter universe of 1932.[184][185] In each of these models, Einstein discarded the cosmological constant, claiming that it was "in any case theoretically unsatisfactory".[182][183][186] In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder". The astrophysicist Mario Livio
Mario Livio
has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated.[187] In late 2013, a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe.[188][189] In a hitherto overlooked manuscript, apparently written in early 1931, Einstein explored a model of the expanding universe in which the density of matter remains constant due to a continuous creation of matter, a process he associated with the cosmological constant.[190][191] As he stated in the paper, "In what follows, I would like to draw attention to a solution to equation (1) that can account for Hubbel's [sic] facts, and in which the density is constant over time" ... "If one considers a physically bounded volume, particles of matter will be continually leaving it. For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space." It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold.[192][193] However, Einstein's steady-state model contained a fundamental flaw and he quickly abandoned the idea.[190][191][194] Modern quantum theory Main article: Schrödinger equation

Newspaper headline on 4 May 1935

Einstein was displeased with quantum theory and quantum mechanics (a theory he had helped create), despite its acceptance by other physicists, stating that God "is not playing at dice."[195] Einstein continued to maintain his disbelief in the theory, and attempted unsuccessfully to disprove it until he died at the age of 76.[196] In 1917, at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission, the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.[197] This article showed that the statistics of absorption and emission of light would only be consistent with Planck's distribution law if the emission of light into a mode with n photons would be enhanced statistically compared to the emission of light into an empty mode. This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws. Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie's work, and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves, which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton–Jacobi equation of mechanics. This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of 1926. Bose–Einstein statistics Main article: Bose–Einstein statistics In 1924, Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles. Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose–Einstein condensate
Bose–Einstein condensate
phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.[198] It was not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced experimentally by Eric Allin Cornell
Eric Allin Cornell
and Carl Wieman
Carl Wieman
using ultra-cooling equipment built at the NIST– JILA
laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder.[199] Bose–Einstein statistics
Bose–Einstein statistics
are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of bosons. Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University.[150] Energy
momentum pseudotensor Main article: Stress–energy–momentum pseudotensor General relativity
General relativity
includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance, but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry. The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's presecriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason. Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates. He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field. This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau
Lev Landau
and Evgeny Lifshitz, and others, and has become standard. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in 1917 by Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
and others. Unified field theory Main article: Classical unified field theories Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity. In 1950, he described his "unified field theory" in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".[200] Although he continued to be lauded for his work, Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research, and his efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces, which were not well understood until many years after his death. Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory, where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting. Wormholes Main article: Wormhole In 1935, Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen
Nathan Rosen
to produce a model of a wormhole, often called Einstein–Rosen bridges.[201][202] His motivation was to model elementary particles with charge as a solution of gravitational field equations, in line with the program outlined in the paper "Do Gravitational Fields play an Important Role in the Constitution of the Elementary Particles?". These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches.[203] If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged. These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way. Einstein–Cartan theory Main article: Einstein–Cartan theory

Einstein at his office, University of Berlin, 1920

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion. This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the 1920s. Equations of motion Main article: Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann equations The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations. Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law. So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself. This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr
Roy Kerr
for spinning objects. Other investigations Main article: Einstein's unsuccessful investigations Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force, superconductivity, and other research. Collaboration with other scientists

The 1927 Solvay Conference
Solvay Conference
in Brussels, a gathering of the world's top physicists. Einstein is in the center.

In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld, Nathan Rosen, Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists. Einstein–de Haas experiment Main article: Einstein–de Haas effect Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin. In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. They confirmed that this leads the bar to rotate, because the electron's angular momentum changes as the magnetization changes. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization. Schrödinger gas model Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
that he might be able to reproduce the statistics of a Bose–Einstein gas by considering a box. Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it. This formulation is a form of second quantization, but it predates modern quantum mechanics. Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger
applied this to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation.[204] Einstein refrigerator Main article: Einstein refrigerator In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd
Leó Szilárd
co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.[205] On 11 November 1930, U.S. Patent 1,781,541 was awarded to Einstein and Leó Szilárd
Leó Szilárd
for the refrigerator. Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux.[206] Bohr versus Einstein Main article: Bohr–Einstein debates

Einstein and Niels Bohr, 1925

The Bohr–Einstein debates
Bohr–Einstein debates
were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
who were two of its founders. Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science.[207][208][209] Their debates would influence later interpretations of quantum mechanics. Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox Main article: EPR paradox In 1935, Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics. He considered how a measurement on one of two entangled particles would affect the other. He noted, along with his collaborators, that by performing different measurements on the distant particle, either of position or momentum, different properties of the entangled partner could be discovered without disturbing it in any way. He then used a hypothesis of local realism to conclude that the other particle had these properties already determined. The principle he proposed is that if it is possible to determine what the answer to a position or momentum measurement would be, without in any way disturbing the particle, then the particle actually has values of position or momentum. This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment
Aspect experiment
of 1982 confirmed Bell's theorem, which had been promulgated in 1964. Non-scientific legacy While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death (she died in 1986[210]). Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union.[211][212] Barbara Wolff, of The Hebrew University's Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Archives, told the BBC
that there are about 3,500 pages of private correspondence written between 1912 and 1955.[213] Corbis, successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university.[214] In popular culture Main article: Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
in popular culture In the period before World War II, The New Yorker
The New Yorker
published a vignette in their "The Talk
of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory". He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein."[215] Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music.[216] He is a favorite model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors; his expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and exaggerated. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true".[217] Awards and honors Main article: Einstein's awards and honors Einstein received numerous awards and honors and in 1922 he was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". None of the nominations in 1921 met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel, so the 1921 prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in 1922.[10] Publications

The following publications by Einstein are referenced in this article. A more complete list of his publications may be found at List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein.

Einstein, Albert (1901) [Manuscript received: 16 December 1900], written at Zurich, Switzerland, "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" [Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity] (PDF), Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 14 March 2006), 309 (3), pp. 513–523, Bibcode:1901AnP...309..513E, doi:10.1002/andp.19013090306 – via Wiley Online Library  Einstein, Albert (1905a) [Manuscript received: 18 March 1905], written at Berne, Switzerland, "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" [On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light] (PDF), Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 10 March 2006), 322 (6), pp. 132–148, Bibcode:1905AnP...322..132E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053220607 – via Wiley Online Library  Einstein, Albert (1905b) [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July 1905]. Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei. Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen [A new determination of molecular dimensions] (PDF). Dissertationen Universität Zürich
(PhD Thesis) (in German). Zurich, Switzerland: ETH
(published 2008). doi:10.3929/ethz-a-000565688 – via ETH
Bibliothek.  Einstein, Albert (1905c) [Manuscript received: 11 May 1905], written at Berne, Switzerland, "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" [On the Motion – Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid] (PDF), Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 10 March 2006), 322 (8), pp. 549–560, Bibcode:1905AnP...322..549E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053220806, hdl:10915/2785  – via Wiley Online Library  Einstein, Albert (1905d) [Manuscript received: 30 June 1905], written at Berne, Switzerland, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" [On the Electrodynamics
of Moving Bodies] (PDF), Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 10 March 2006), 322 (10), pp. 891–921, Bibcode:1905AnP...322..891E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053221004, hdl:10915/2786  – via Wiley Online Library  Einstein, Albert (1905e) [Manuscript received: 27 September 1905], written at Berne, Switzerland, "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?" [Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy
Content?] (PDF), Annalen der Physik (Berlin) (in German), Hoboken, NJ (published 10 March 2006), 323 (13), pp. 639–641, Bibcode:1905AnP...323..639E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053231314 – via Wiley Online Library  Einstein, Albert (1915) [Published 25 November 1915], "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" [The Field Equations of Gravitation] (Online page images), Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften (in German), Berlin, Germany, pp. 844–847 – via ECHO, Cultural Heritage Online, Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for the History of Science  Einstein, Albert (1917a), "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie" [Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity], Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin
(in German)  Einstein, Albert (1917b), "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung" [On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation], Physikalische Zeitschrift (in German), 18, pp. 121–128, Bibcode:1917PhyZ...18..121E  Einstein, Albert (1923) [First published 1923, in English 1967]. Written at Gothenburg. Grundgedanken und Probleme der Relativitätstheorie [Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity] (PDF) (Speech). Lecture delivered to the Nordic Assembly of Naturalists at Gothenburg, 11 July 1923. Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921 (in German (1923) and English (1967)). Stockholm: Nobelprice.org (published 3 February 2015) – via Nobel Media AB 2014. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Einstein, Albert (1924) [Published 10 July 1924], "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases" [ Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases] (Online page images), Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse (in German), Munich, Germany: Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin: 261–267 – via ECHO, Cultural Heritage Online, Max Planck
Max Planck
Institute for the History of Science . First of a series of papers on this topic. Einstein, Albert (12 March 1926) [Cover Date 1 March 1926], written at Berlin, "Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flußläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes" [On Baer's law and meanders in the courses of rivers], Die Naturwissenschaften (in German), Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 14 (11): 223–224, Bibcode:1926NW.....14..223E, doi:10.1007/BF01510300, ISSN 1432-1904 – via SpringerLink  Einstein, Albert (1926b), written at Berne, Switzerland, R. Fürth, ed., Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement (PDF), Translated by A. D. Cowper, USA: Dover
Publications (published 1956), ISBN 978-1-60796-285-4, retrieved 2015-01-04  Einstein, Albert; Podolsky, Boris; Rosen, Nathan (15 May 1935) [Received 25 March 1935], "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?" (PDF), Physical Review, American Physical Society, 47 (10): 777–780, Bibcode:1935PhRv...47..777E, doi:10.1103/PhysRev.47.777  – via APS Journals  Einstein, Albert (9 November 1940), "On Science and Religion", Nature, Edinburgh: Macmillan Publishers Group, 146 (3706): 605–607, Bibcode:1940Natur.146..605E, doi:10.1038/146605a0, ISBN 0-7073-0453-9  Einstein, Albert; et al. (4 December 1948), "To the editors of the New York Times", New York Times, Melville, New York: AIP, American Inst. of Physics, ISBN 0-7354-0359-7  Einstein, Albert (May 1949), " Why Socialism? (Reprise)", Monthly Review, New York: Monthly Review Foundation (published May 2009), vol. 61 no. 01 (May), archived from the original on 11 January 2006, retrieved 16 January 2006 – via MonthlyReview.org  Einstein, Albert (1950), "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation", Scientific American, CLXXXII (4): 13–17, Bibcode:1950SciAm.182d..13E, doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0450-13  Einstein, Albert (1954), Ideas and Opinions, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-517-00393-7  Einstein, Albert (1969), Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916–1955 (in German), Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, ISBN 3-88682-005-X  Einstein, Albert (1979), Autobiographical Notes, Paul Arthur Schilpp (Centennial ed.), Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-87548-352-6 . The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48–51. Collected Papers: Stachel, John; Martin J. Klein; A. J. Kox; Michel Janssen; R. Schulmann; Diana Komos Buchwald; et al., eds. (21 July 2008) [Published between 1987–2006], "The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein", Einstein's Writings, Princeton University
Princeton University
Press, 1–10 . Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project
Einstein Papers Project
and on the Princeton University
Princeton University
Press Einstein Page

See also

Albert Einstein House
Albert Einstein House
in Princeton Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
– book Einstein notation The Einstein Theory of Relativity, an educational film Genius, a television series depicting Einstein's life Heinrich Burkhardt Bern
Historical Museum (Einstein Museum) History of gravitational theory Introduction to special relativity List of coupled cousins List of German inventors and discoverers Jewish Nobel laureates List of peace activists Nature timeline Political views of Albert Einstein Relativity priority dispute Religious and philosophical views of Albert Einstein Sticky bead argument

Notes and references Explanatory notes

^ a b During the German Empire, citizenship were exclusively subject of one of the 27 Bundesstaaten ^ "Their leaders in Germany have not driven out her cut-throats and her blackguards. She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual...The man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home. How proud we must be to offer him temporary shelter."


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Dies in Sleep at 76; World Mourns Loss of Great Scientist, Rupture of Aorta Causes Death, Body Cremated, Memorial Here Set". The New York Times. CIV (35,514). New York, NY (published 19 April 1955). p. 1. ISSN 0362-4331.  ^ Oppenheimer, J. Robert (March 1979). "Oppenheimer on Einstein". The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Chicago: Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science. 35 (3): 38. Retrieved 12 January 2017.  ^ Stachel (2008). ^ Overbye, Dennis (4 December 2014). "Thousands of Einstein Documents Are Now a Click Away". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-01-04.  ^ a b "Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz". Instituut-Lorentz. 2005. Retrieved on 21 November 2005. ^ Das, Ashok (2003). Lectures on quantum mechanics. Hindustan Book Agency. p. 59. ISBN 81-85931-41-0.  ^ Spielberg, Nathan; Anderson, Bryon D. (1995). Seven ideas that shook the universe (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 263. ISBN 0-471-30606-1.  ^ Major, Fouad G. (2007). The quantum beat: principles and applications of atomic clocks (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 142. ISBN 0-387-69533-8.  ^ Lindsay, Robert Bruce; Margenau, Henry (1981). Foundations of physics. Ox Bow Press. p. 330. ISBN 0-918024-17-X.  ^ a b Kuepper, Hans-Josef. "List of Scientific Publications of Albert Einstein". Einstein-website.de. Retrieved 3 April 2011.  ^ Einstein (1905d). ^ Stachel (2002), pp. vi, 15, 90, 131, 215. ^ For a discussion of the reception of relativity theory around the world, and the different controversies it encountered, see the articles in Thomas F. Glick, ed., The Comparative Reception of Relativity (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987), ISBN 90-277-2498-9. ^ Pais (1982), pp. 382–386. ^ a b Einstein (1905a). ^ Celebrating Einstein "Solid Cold". U.S. DOE., Office of Scientific and Technical Information, 2011. ^ Pais (1982), p. 522. ^ Levenson, Thomas (9 September 1997). "Einstein's Big Idea" (public broadcaster website). Boston, MA, USA: WBGH. Retrieved 2015-06-20 – via NOVA by Public Broadcasting Service
Public Broadcasting Service
(PBS), Arlington, VA, USA.  ^ Stachel (2008), pp. 270ff, vol. 4: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1912–1914. ^ Einstein (1923). ^ Pais (1982), pp. 179–183. ^ Stachel (2008), pp. 273–274, vol. 2: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1900–1909. ^ Pais (1982), pp. 194–195. ^ Einstein, A (June 1916). "Näherungsweise Integration der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin. part 1: 688–696.  ^ Einstein, A (1918). "Über Gravitationswellen". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin. part 1: 154–167.  ^ a b c "Found! Gravitational Waves, or a Wrinkle in Spacetime". Nadia Drake. National Geographic. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.  ^ "Gravity investigated with a binary pulsar-Press Release: The 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 6 July 2016.  ^ Abbott, Benjamin P.; et al. ( LIGO
Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) (2016). " Observation
of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837 . Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. Lay summary (PDF).  ^ "Gravitational Waves: Ripples in the fabric of space-time". space.mit.edu. LIGO
MIT. 2016-02-11. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ "Scientists make first direct detection of gravitational waves". Jennifer Chu. MIT News. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ "Einstein's gravitational waves 'seen' from black holes – BBC News". BBC
News. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ Overbye, Dennis (2016-02-11). "Gravitational Waves Detected, Confirming Einstein's Theory". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ van Dongen, Jeroen (2010) Einstein's Unification Cambridge University Press, p.23. ^ Einstein (1917a). ^ Pais (1994), pp. 285–286. ^ North, J.D. (1965). The Measure of the Universe: A History of Modern Cosmology. New York: Dover. pp. 81–83.  ^ a b Einstein, A. 1931. Zum kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie Sitzungsb.König. Preuss. Akad. 235–237 ^ a b O’Raifeartaigh, C. and McCann, B. (2014) 'Einstein’s cosmic model of 1931 revisited: an analysis and translation of a forgotten model of the universe’. Eur. Phys. J. (H) 39 (1), pp. 63–85. Physics
preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1312.2192 ^ Einstein, A; de Sitter, W (1932). "On the relation between the expansion and the mean density of the universe". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 18: 213–214. doi:10.1073/pnas.18.3.213.  ^ Nussbaumer, Harry (2014). "Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe". Eur. Phys. J (H). 39 (1): 37–62. arXiv:1311.2763 . Bibcode:2014EPJH...39...37N. doi:10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6.  ^ Nussbaumer and Bieri (2009). Discovering the Expanding Universe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 144–152.  ^ "The Genius
of Getting It Wrong". The New York Times. 9 June 2013.  ^ "Einstein's lost theory uncovered". Nature News & Comment.  ^ "On His 135th Birthday, Einstein is Still Full of Surprises". Out There.  ^ a b O'Raifeartaigh, C.; McCann, B.; Nahm, W.; Mitton, S. (2014). "Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos". Eur. Phys. J (H). 39 (3): 353–369. arXiv:1402.0132 . doi:10.1140/epjh/e2014-50011-x.  ^ a b Nussbaumer, H. (2014). 'Einstein’s aborted attempt at a dynamic steady state universe’. Physics
preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1402.4099 ^ Hoyle (1948). "A New Model for the Expanding Universe". MNRAS. 108: 372. Bibcode:1948MNRAS.108..372H. doi:10.1093/mnras/108.5.372.  ^ Bondi; Gold (1948). "The Steady-State Theory of the Expanding Universe". MNRAS. 108: 252. Bibcode:1948MNRAS.108..252B. doi:10.1093/mnras/108.3.252.  ^ "Einstein's Lost Theory Describes a Universe
Without a Big Bang
Big Bang
– The Crux". The Crux.  ^ Andrews, Robert (2003). The New Penguin Dictionary of Modern Quotations. Penguin UK. p. 499. ISBN 0-14-196531-2.  Extract of page 499 ^ Video: The Elegant Universe: Part 1 Watch NOVA Online PBS Video. Video.pbs.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2012. ^ Einstein (1917b). ^ Einstein (1924). ^ Cornell and Wieman Share 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics, 9 October 2001, archived from the original on 10 June 2007, retrieved 11 June 2007  ^ Einstein (1950). ^ Einstein, Albert & Rosen, Nathan (1935). "The Particle
Problem in the General Theory of Relativity". Physical Review. 48: 73. Bibcode:1935PhRv...48...73E. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.48.73.  ^ "2015 – General Relativity's Centennial". American Physical Society. 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Lindley, David (25 March 2005). "Focus: The Birth of Wormholes". American Physical Society. Retrieved 7 April 2017.  ^ Moore, Walter (1989), Schrödinger: Life and Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43767-9  ^ Goettling, Gary. Einstein's refrigerator Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine. 1998. Retrieved on 12 November 2014. Leó Szilárd, a Hungarian physicist who later worked on the Manhattan Project, is credited with the discovery of the chain reaction ^ In September 2008 it was reported that Malcolm McCulloch of Oxford University was heading a three-year project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity, and that his team had completed a prototype Einstein refrigerator. He was quoted as saying that improving the design and changing the types of gases used might allow the design's efficiency to be quadrupled.Alok, Jha (21 September 2008), "Einstein fridge design can help global cooling", The Guardian, UK, archived from the original on 24 January 2011, retrieved 22 February 2011  ^ Bohr N. "Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics". The Value of Knowledge: A Miniature Library of Philosophy. Marxists Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.  From Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (1949), publ. Cambridge University Press, 1949. Niels Bohr's report of conversations with Einstein. ^ Einstein (1969), A reprint of this book was published by Edition Erbrich in 1982, ISBN 3-88682-005-X. ^ Einstein (1935). ^ "Obituary". New York Times. 12 July 1986. Retrieved 3 April 2011.  ^ UGC, Chicago Tribune. "13 Plumbing
Facts You Probably Didn't Know". chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.  ^ Sagan, Carl (2014-03-14). "Carl Sagan Explains Albert Einstein". New Republic. Retrieved 2016-04-10.  ^ "Letters Reveal Einstein Love Life", BBC
News, BBC, 11 July 2006, retrieved 14 March 2007  ^ Einstein, Corbis Rights Representation, archived from the original on 19 August 2008, retrieved 8 August 2008  ^ Libman, E. (14 January 1939). "Disguise". The New Yorker.  ^ McTee, Cindy. "Einstein's Dream for orchestra". Cindymctee.com.  ^ Golden, Frederic (3 January 2000), "Person of the Century: Albert Einstein", Time, archived from the original on 21 February 2006, retrieved 25 February 2006 

Further reading

Brian, Denis (1996), Einstein: A Life, New York: John Wiley  Calaprice, Alice; Kennefick, Daniel; Schulmann, Robert (2015), An Einstein Encyclopedia, Princeton University
Princeton University
Press  Clark, Ronald W. (1971), Einstein: The Life and Times, New York: Avon Books, ISBN 0-380-44123-3  Fölsing, Albrecht (1997), Albert Einstein: A Biography, Translated and abridged from German by Ewald Osers, New York: Penguin Viking, ISBN 978-0-670-85545-2  Highfield, Roger; Carter, Paul (1993), The Private Lives of Albert Einstein, London: Faber and Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-16744-9  Hoffmann, Banesh (1972), Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel', with the collaboration of Helen Dukas, London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, ISBN 978-0-670-11181-7  Isaacson, Walter (2007), Einstein: His Life and Universe, New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, ISBN 978-0-7432-6473-0  Moring, Gary (2004), The complete idiot's guide to understanding Einstein (1st ed.), Indianapolis IN: Alpha books (Macmillan), ISBN 0-02-863180-3  Neffe, Jürgen (2007), Einstein: A Biography, Translated by Shelley Frisch, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, ISBN 978-0-374-14664-1  Oppenheimer, J. Robert (1971), Lecture delivered at the UNESCO House in Paris on 13 December 1965, "On Albert Einstein", Science and synthesis: an international colloquium organized by Unesco on the tenth anniversary of the death of Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
and Teilhard de Chardin, Springer-Verlag, pp. 8–12, 208 , or "On Albert Einstein by Robert Oppenheimer", The New York Review of Books, 17 March 1966  Pais, Abraham (1982), Subtle is the Lord: The science and the life of Albert Einstein, Oxford
University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-853907-0  Pais, Abraham (1994), Einstein Lived Here, Oxford
University Press, ISBN 0-19-280672-6  Parker, Barry (2000), Einstein's Brainchild: Relativity Made Relatively Easy!, Illustrated by Lori Scoffield-Beer, Prometheus Books, ISBN 978-1-59102-522-1  Rogers, Donald W. (2005), Einstein's "Other" Theory: The Planck-Bose-Einstein Theory of Heat Capacity, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-11826-0  Schweber, Silvan S. (2008), Einstein and Oppenheimer: The Meaning of Genius, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-02828-9  Stachel, John J. (1966), Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
and Mileva Marić
Mileva Marić
(PDF), 9, unknown, Archived from the original on 7 March 2008, retrieved 2016-05-13 – via archive.org CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) Stachel, John J. (2002), Einstein from ‘B’ to ‘Z’, Einstein Studies, 9, Birkhäuser, ISBN 978-0-8176-4143-6, retrieved 2015-03-23 – via WorldCat by OCLC
(Dublin, OH, USA)  Stone, A. Douglas (2013), Einstein and the Quantum, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13968-5  Weinberg, Steven (2005). "Einstein's mistakes". Physics
Today. 58 (11): 31–35. Bibcode:2005PhT....58k..31W. doi:10.1063/1.2155755 .  Weinstein, G. (2015), General Relativity Conflict and Rivalries: Einstein's Polemics with Physicists, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK): Cambridge Scholars Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4438-8362-7 

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Albert Einstein


relativity General relativity Mass–energy equivalence
Mass–energy equivalence
(E=mc2) Brownian motion Photoelectric effect Einstein coefficients Einstein solid Equivalence principle Einstein field equations Einstein radius Einstein relation (kinetic theory) Cosmological constant Bose–Einstein condensate Bose–Einstein statistics Bose–Einstein correlations Einstein–Cartan theory Einstein–Infeld–Hoffmann equations Einstein–de Haas effect EPR paradox Bohr–Einstein debates Teleparallelism Unsuccessful investigations


Annus Mirabilis papers
Annus Mirabilis papers
(1905) "Investigations on the Theory of Brownian Movement" (1905) Relativity: The Special
and the General Theory (1916) The World as I See It (1934) "Why Socialism?" (1949) Russell–Einstein Manifesto (1955)


Pauline Koch
Pauline Koch
(mother) Hermann Einstein
Hermann Einstein
(father) Maja Einstein
Maja Einstein
(sister) Mileva Marić
Mileva Marić
(first wife) Elsa Einstein
Elsa Einstein
(second wife) Lieserl Einstein
Lieserl Einstein
(daughter) Hans Albert Einstein
Hans Albert Einstein
(son) Eduard Einstein (son) Bernhard Caesar Einstein
Bernhard Caesar Einstein
(grandson) Evelyn Einstein (granddaughter) Thomas Martin Einstein (great-grandson)

Einstein Prizes

Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Award Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Medal Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Peace Prize Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
World Award of Science Einstein Prize (APS) Einstein Prize for Laser


Political views Religious views Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
House Einstein refrigerator Brain In popular culture Einsteinium Awards and honors List of things named after Albert Einstein Einstein Papers Project Die Grundlagen der Einsteinschen Relativitäts-Theorie (1922 documentary) The Einstein Theory of Relativity
The Einstein Theory of Relativity
(1923 documentary) Relics: Einstein's Brain Genius
(2017 series)

Books about Einstein

Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel Einstein and Religion Einstein for Beginners I Am Albert Einstein Introducing Relativity

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Copley Medallists (1901–1950)

Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs
(1901) Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister
(1902) Eduard Suess
Eduard Suess
(1903) William Crookes
William Crookes
(1904) Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
(1905) Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
(1906) Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson
(1907) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(1908) George William Hill
George William Hill
(1909) Francis Galton
Francis Galton
(1910) George Darwin
George Darwin
(1911) Felix Klein
Felix Klein
(1912) Ray Lankester
Ray Lankester
(1913) J. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson
(1914) Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
(1915) James Dewar
James Dewar
(1916) Pierre Paul Émile Roux
Pierre Paul Émile Roux
(1917) Hendrik Lorentz
Hendrik Lorentz
(1918) William Bayliss
William Bayliss
(1919) Horace Tabberer Brown
Horace Tabberer Brown
(1920) Joseph Larmor (1921) Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
(1922) Horace Lamb
Horace Lamb
(1923) Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer
(1924) Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(1925) Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
(1926) Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
(1927) Charles Algernon Parsons
Charles Algernon Parsons
(1928) Max Planck
Max Planck
(1929) William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
(1930) Arthur Schuster
Arthur Schuster
(1931) George Ellery Hale
George Ellery Hale
(1932) Theobald Smith
Theobald Smith
(1933) John Scott Haldane
John Scott Haldane
(1934) Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
(1935) Arthur Evans
Arthur Evans
(1936) Henry Hallett Dale
Henry Hallett Dale
(1937) Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
(1938) Thomas Hunt Morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan
(1939) Paul Langevin
Paul Langevin
(1940) Thomas Lewis (1941) Robert Robinson (1942) Joseph Barcroft
Joseph Barcroft
(1943) Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (1944) Oswald Avery
Oswald Avery
(1945) Edgar Douglas Adrian (1946) G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy
(1947) Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
(1948) George de Hevesy
George de Hevesy
(1949) James Chadwick
James Chadwick

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Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics


1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz


1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell


1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater


1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

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Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1921


Wilfred Eade Agar Francis William Aston Lawrence Bragg  William Thomas Calman Arthur Harry Church Georges Dreyer William Eccles John Charles Grant Ledingham Kennedy Joseph Previte Orton John Herbert Parsons James Charles Philip Alfred Robb Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt Udny Yule


Albert Calmette Henri-Alexandre Deslandres Albert Einstein Albin Haller Edmund Beecher Wilson Pieter Zeeman

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of science


Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism



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Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

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