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Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
OC (/bænˈdʊərə/; born December 4, 1925) is a psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology
Psychology
at Stanford University. For almost six decades, he has been responsible for contributions to the field of education and to many fields of psychology, including social cognitive theory, therapy, and personality psychology, and was also influential in the transition between behaviorism and cognitive psychology. He is known as the originator of social learning theory (renamed the social cognitive theory) and the theoretical construct of self-efficacy, and is also responsible for the influential 1961 Bobo doll experiment. Social cognitive theory
Social cognitive theory
is how people learn through observing others. An example of social cognitive theory would be the students imitating the teacher. Self-efficacy is "the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations." To paraphrase, self-efficacy is believing in yourself to take action. The Bobo Doll Experiment was how Albert Bandura studied aggression and non-aggression in children. A 2002 survey ranked Bandura as the fourth most-frequently cited psychologist of all time, behind B. F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Jean Piaget, and as the most cited living one.[1] Bandura is widely described as the greatest living psychologist,[2][3][4][5] and as one of the most influential psychologists of all time.[6][7] In 1974 Bandura was elected to be the Eighty-Second President of the American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
(APA). He was one of the youngest president-elects in the history of the APA at the age of 48. Bandura served as a member of the APA Board of Scientific Affairs from 1968 to 1970 and is well known as a member of the editorial board of nine psychology journals including the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Psychology
from 1963 to 1972.[8] At the age of 82, Bandura was awarded the Grawemeyer Award for psychology.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education and academic career

2.1 Post-doctoral work

3 Research

3.1 Social learning theory 3.2 Aggression 3.3 Social cognitive theory

3.3.1 Social foundations of thought and action

3.4 Self-efficacy 3.5 Moral agency

4 Bandura on education 5 Awards 6 Major books 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Bandura was born in Mundare, in Alberta, an open town of roughly four hundred inhabitants, as the youngest child, and only son, in a family of six. The limitations of education in a remote town such as this caused Bandura to become independent and self-motivated in terms of learning, and these primarily developed traits proved very helpful in his lengthy career.[9] Bandura is of Polish and Ukrainian descent; his father was from Krakow, Poland whilst his mother was from Ukraine. Bandura's parents were a key influence in encouraging him to seek ventures out of the small hamlet they resided in. The summer after finishing high school, Bandura worked in the Yukon
Yukon
to protect the Alaska Highway
Alaska Highway
against sinking. Bandura later credited his work in the northern tundra as the origin of his interest in human psychopathology. It was in this experience in the Yukon, where he was exposed to a subculture of drinking and gambling, which helped broaden his perspective and scope of views on life. Bandura arrived in the US in 1949 and was naturalized in 1956. He married Virginia Varns (1921–2011) in 1952,[10] and they raised two daughters, Carol and Mary.[11] Education and academic career[edit] Bandura's introduction to academic psychology came about by a fluke; as a student with little to do in the early mornings, he took a psychology course to pass the time, and became enamored of the subject. Bandura graduated in three years, in 1949, with a B.A. from the University of British Columbia, winning the Bolocan Award in psychology, and then moved to the then-epicenter of theoretical psychology, the University of Iowa, from where he obtained his M.A. in 1951 and Ph.D. in 1952. Arthur Benton was his academic adviser at Iowa,[12] giving Bandura a direct academic descent from William James,[13] while Clark Hull
Clark Hull
and Kenneth Spence were influential collaborators. During his Iowa years, Bandura came to support a style of psychology which sought to investigate psychological phenomena through repeatable, experimental testing. His inclusion of such mental phenomena as imagery and representation, and his concept of reciprocal determinism, which postulated a relationship of mutual influence between an agent and its environment, marked a radical departure from the dominant behaviorism of the time. Bandura's expanded array of conceptual tools allowed for more potent modeling of such phenomena as observational learning and self-regulation, and provided psychologists with a practical way in which to theorize about mental processes, in opposition to the mentalistic constructs of psychoanalysis and personology.[7] Post-doctoral work[edit] Upon graduation, he completed his postdoctoral internship at the Wichita Guidance Center. The following year, 1953, he accepted a teaching position at Stanford University, which he holds to this day.[14] In 1974, he was elected president of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is the world's largest association of psychologists.[15] Bandura would later state the only reason he agreed to be in the running for the APA election was because he wanted his 15 minutes of fame without any intentions of being elected. He also worked as a sports coach.[16] Research[edit] Bandura was initially influenced by Robert Sears' work on familial antecedents of social behavior and identificatory learning. He directed his initial research to the role of social modeling in human motivation, thought, and action. In collaboration with Richard Walters, his first doctoral student, he engaged in studies of social learning and aggression. Their joint efforts illustrated the critical role of modeling in human behavior and led to a program of research into the determinants and mechanisms of observational learning. Social learning theory[edit] Main article: Social learning theory The initial phase of Bandura's research analyzed the foundations of human learning and the willingness of children and adults to imitate behavior observed in others, in particular, aggression. He found that according to Social Learning theory, models are an important source for learning new behaviors and for achieving behavioral change in institutionalized settings.[17] Social learning theory posits that there are three regulatory systems that control behavior. First, the antecedent inducements greatly influence the time and response of behavior. The stimulus that occurs before the behavioral response must be appropriate in relationship to social context and performers. Second, response feedback influences also serve an important function. Following a response, the reinforcements, by experience or observation, will greatly impact the occurrence of the behavior in the future. Third, the importance of cognitive functions in social learning. For example, for aggressive behavior to occur some people become easily angered by the sight or thought of individuals with whom they have had hostile encounters, and this memory is acquired through the learning process.[18] Aggression[edit] His research with Walters led to his first book, Adolescent Aggression in 1959, and to a subsequent book, Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis in 1973. During a period dominated by behaviorism in the mold of B.F. Skinner, Bandura believed the sole behavioral modifiers of reward and punishment in classical and operant conditioning were inadequate as a framework, and that many human behaviors were learned from other humans. Bandura began to analyze means of treating unduly aggressive children by identifying sources of violence in their lives. Initial research in the area had begun in the 1940s under Neal Miller and John Dollard; his continued work in this line eventually culminated in the Bobo doll experiment, and in 1977's hugely influential treatise, Social Learning Theory.[19] Many of his innovations came from his focus on empirical investigation and reproducible investigation, which were alien to a field of psychology dominated by the theories of Freud. In 1961 Bandura conducted a controversial experiment known as the Bobo doll experiment, designed to show that similar behaviors were learned by individuals shaping their own behavior after the actions of models. Bandura's results from this experiment changed the course of modern psychology,[20] and were widely credited for helping shift the focus in academic psychology from pure behaviorism to cognitive psychology.[citation needed] Moreover, the Bobo doll experiment emphasized how young individuals are influenced by the acts of adults. When the adults were praised for their aggressive behavior, the children were more likely to keep on hitting the doll. However, when the adults were punished, they consequently stopped hitting the doll as well. The experiment is among the most lauded and celebrated of psychological experiments. However, the experiment was criticized by some on ethical grounds,[20] for training children towards aggression. Social cognitive theory[edit] By the mid-1980s, Bandura's research had taken a more holistic bent, and his analyses tended towards giving a more comprehensive overview of human cognition in the context of social learning. The theory he expanded from social learning theory soon became known as social cognitive theory. Social foundations of thought and action[edit] In 1986, Bandura published Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory (see article), in which he re-conceptualized individuals as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating, in opposition to the orthodox conception of humans as governed by external forces. He advanced concepts of triadic reciprocality, which determined the connections between human behavior, environmental factors, and personal factors such as cognitive, affective, and biological events, and of reciprocal determinism, governing the causal relations between such factors. Bandura's emphasis on the capacity of agents to self-organize and self-regulate would eventually give rise to his later work on self-efficacy. Self-efficacy[edit] In 1963, he published Social Learning and Personality Development. In 1974, Stanford University
Stanford University
awarded him an endowed chair and he became David Starr Jordan Professor of Social Science in Psychology. In 1977, he published Social Learning Theory, a book that altered the direction psychology took in the 1980s.[20] While investigating the processes by which modeling alleviates phobic disorders in snake-phobics, he found that self-efficacy beliefs (which the phobic individuals had in their own capabilities to alleviate their phobia) mediated changes in behavior and in fear-arousal. He launched a major program of research examining the influential role of self-referent thought in psychological functioning. Although he continued to explore and write on theoretical problems relating to myriad topics, from the late 1970s he devoted much attention to exploring the role of self-efficacy beliefs in human functioning. In fact, in 2004 Bandura, in conjunction with Charles Benight, found that utilizing the same self-efficacy based beliefs that were implemented for his phobia studies produced similar results on people who suffered from severe debilitating trauma. It was not only found useful for the trauma suffered by natural disaster survivors, but also those returning veterans that suffer post-traumatic stress disorder that include pervasive hyper-vigilance and recurrent flashbacks. By establishing a perceived sense of control (self-efficacy) over their traumatic experience (cognitively or physically) the veterans and hurricane survivors were able to overcome their distress and trauma and move forward.[21] In 1986 he published Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, a book in which he offered a social cognitive theory of human functioning that accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory and self-reflective processes in human adaptation and change. This theory has its roots in an agentic perspective that views people as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating, not just as reactive organisms shaped by environmental forces or driven by inner impulses. His book, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control was published in 1997. In addition to Bandura’s work on self-efficacy in relation to phobias and trauma, he also contributed, in 2008 with Caprara and colleagues, a significant amount to the study of self-efficacy in the education system. His focus was on the continuing technological explosion, in that with more information readily available than ever before the education system needs to focus on teaching students self-regulating efficacy. He argued that self-regulating efficacy is the focus on bolstering students belief that they can not only stay up to date with current technology, but also avoid becoming overwhelmed with its continual shift. He stated that this will be invaluable as jobs focus more on cognitive abilities as well as flexibility in light of technologies ever-changing use and applicability.[22] Moral agency[edit] Bandura applied his human agentic view via social cognitive theory for the personal and social aspects of control over moral values and conduct. In particular, he states that in the social cognitive theory of the moral self, moral reasoning is linked to moral action through affective self-regulatory mechanisms by which moral agency is exercised.[23] However these self-regulatory mechanisms have to be activated psychosocially. Bandura found interest in the role that human agency plays when a society does not have safeguards set against particular lapses in moral judgment that an individual finds justification, morally or otherwise. First, all people are capable of two morally agentic abilities, to act humanely and to act inhumanely. Selective moral disengagement occurs when a person actively disengages their self-regulating efficacy for moral conduct.[23] Selective moral disengagement occurs via a “cognitive restructuring” of the inhumane acts into something justifiable. He states the specific processes in which this occurs, they are as follows: moral justification, sanitizing language, exonerative social comparison, disavowal of personal agency in the harm one causes by diffusion or displacement of responsibility, disregarding or minimizing the injurious effects of one’s actions, and attribution of blame to/dehumanization of those who are victimized.[23] Bandura on education[edit] Bandura's social learning theory contributes to students and teachers within the field of education. In 1986, Bandura changed the name of the social learning theory to social cognitive theory.[24] The social cognitive theory still focuses on how behavior and growth are affected by the cognitive operations that occur during social activities.[24] The key theoretical components of the social cognitive theory that are applied in education are self-efficacy, self-regulation, observational learning, and reciprocal determinism. The social cognitive theory can be applied to motivation and learning for students and teachers.[25][26] Bandura's research shows that high perceived self-efficacy leads teachers and students to set higher goals and increases the likelihood that they will dedicate themselves to those goals.[25][27] In an educational setting self-efficacy refers to a student or teacher's confidence to participate in certain actions that will help them achieve distinct goals.[28] Self-regulation is the process by which an individual sets future goals and manages their behavior and plans to accomplish them.[28] It operates under individual everyday classroom functions such as goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-influence.[29] The social cognitive theory research offers support that modeling can be useful for incorporating new strategies into training for teachers.[25][27] According to Bandura's observational learning theory, students acquire self-regulative functions from observing models.[28] Observational learning occurs when students or teachers observe a well-trained model and experience increases in their knowledge and understanding.[28] Lastly, the mutual relationship between a student or teacher, their environment, and their behavior is pointed out as key components in Bandura's triadic reciprocal determinism theory.[24] The mutual relationships within reciprocal determinism point out what influences behavior and the results that will affect future thoughts.[24] In other words, when a student or teacher decides to replicate an observed behavior, that student or teacher's self-efficacy provides them with the confidence to attempt to perform the observed behavior. Self-regulation is the process he or she will use to set goals to perform the observed behavior. If the performed behavior leads to successful results, it will encourage them to perform similar behaviors again and validate their use of high self-efficacy.[27] Awards[edit] Bandura has received more than sixteen honorary degrees, including those from the University of British Columbia, Alfred University, the University of Rome, the University of Lethbridge, the University of Salamanca in Spain, Indiana University, the University of New Brunswick, Penn State University, Leiden University, and Freie Universität Berlin, the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, Universitat Jaume I
Universitat Jaume I
in Spain, the University of Athens
University of Athens
and the University of Alberta, and University of Catania. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1980.[15] He received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions from the American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
in 1980 for pioneering the research in the field of self-regulated learning.[30] In 1999 he received the Thorndike Award for Distinguished Contributions of Psychology
Psychology
to Education from the American Psychological Association, and in 2001, he received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. He is the recipient of the Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology
Psychology
Award from the American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
and the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Western Psychological Association, the James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
Award from the American Psychological Society, and the Gold Medal Award for Distinguished Lifetime Contribution to Psychological Science from the American Psychological Foundation. In 2008, he received the University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for contributions to psychology.[31] In 2014, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada
Order of Canada
"for his foundational contributions to social psychology, notably for uncovering the influence of observation on human learning and aggression".[32] Major books[edit] Main articles: Social Foundations of Thought and Action
Social Foundations of Thought and Action
and Self-Efficacy (book) The following books have more than 5,000 citations in Google Scholar:

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

His other books are

Bandura, A., & Walters, R.H. (1959). Adolescent Aggression. Ronald Press: New York. Bandura, A. (1962). Social Learning through Imitation. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Bandura, A. (1971). Psychological modeling: conflicting theories. Chicago: Aldine·Atherton. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: a social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (1975). Social Learning & Personality Development. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, INC: NJ. Bandura, A., & Ribes-Inesta, Emilio. (1976). Analysis of Delinquency and Aggression. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, INC: NJ. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (2015). Moral Disengagement: How People Do Harm and Live with Themselves. New York, NY: Worth.

Notes[edit]

^ Haggbloom S.J. (2002). The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century, Review of General Psychology, 6 (2). 139–152. ^ "Showcasing The Very Best Online Psychology
Psychology
Videos". All-about-psychology.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ Foster, Christine (July 2, 2003). "STANFORD Magazine: September/October 2006 > Features > Albert Bandura". Stanfordalumni.org. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ Vancouver, The (December 6, 2007). "Canadian-born psychology legend wins $200,000 prize". Canada.com. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ [1] ^ "10 Most Influential Psychologists". Psychology.about.com. September 24, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ a b C. George Boeree (December 4, 1925). "Albert Bandura". Webspace.ship.edu. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ http://search.proquest.com/docview/614419572 ^ "Bandura, Albert." Psychologists and Their Theories for Students. Ed. Kristine Krapp. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 39–66. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Apr. 2012. ^ "Virginia Belle Bandura, Dec. 6, 1921 - Oct. 10, 2011, Stanford, California" at Lasting Memories: An online directory of obituaries and remembrances of Mid-peninsula Residents. (accessed 6 December 2012) ^ "Marquis biographies online: Profile detail, Albert Bandura". Marquis Who's Who. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ "See end of page for Bandura's own statement". Des.emory.edu. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ "Bandura's Professional Genealogy". Des.emory.edu. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ "Microsoft Word – BanduraCV.doc" (PDF). Retrieved December 30, 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ a b "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 17, 2011.  ^ M. G. Lindzey & W. M. Runyan (eds.). A history of psychology in autobiography (vol IX). Retrieved August 6, 2012. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Henry P Sims Jr. & Charles C Manz (1982): Social Learning Theory, Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 3:4, 55–63. ^ Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall. ^ "Albert Bandura". Criminology.fsu.edu. November 30, 1998. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2010.  ^ a b c Cherry, Kendra. "Self Efficacy: Why Believing In Yourself Is So Important." What Is Self-Efficacy? 2015. Web. 28 May 2015. <http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm>. ^ Benight, C.C. & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory
Social cognitive theory
of post-traumatic recovery:The role of perceived self-efficacy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42 (10), 1129–1148 ^ Caprara. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulatory learning in academic continuance an achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3) 525–534. ^ a b c Bandura, A. (2002). Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Moral Education, 31 (2), 102. ^ a b c d Grusec, J.E. (1992). " Social learning theory and developmental psychology: The legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura". Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 776-786. ^ a b c Golas, J. (2010. "Effective teacher preparation programs: Bridging the gap between educational technology availability and its utilization". "International Forum of Teaching & Studies, 6" (1), 16-18 ^ Bandura, A.; Barbaranelli, C. (1996). "Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning". Child Development, 67" (3), 1206-1222 ^ a b c Bandura, A.; Wood, R. (1989). "Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision making". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (5), 805-814 ^ a b c d Elrich, R.J.; Russ-Eft, D. (2011). "Applying social cognitive theory to academic advising to access students learning outcomes". NACADA Journal, 31 (2), 5-15 ^ Capara, G.; Fida, R.; Vecchione, M.; Del Bove, G.M.; Barbaranelli, C.; Bandura, A. (2008). "Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in academic continuance and achievement". "Journal of Educational Psychology, 100" (3), 525-534 ^ Barry Zimmerman. Dedication: Albert Bandura. Contemporary Educational Psychology
Psychology
(October 1986), 11 (4), pg. 306 ^ "2008- Albert Bandura". Archived from the original on 2014-02-21.  ^ "Governor General Announces 95 New Appointments to the Order of Canada". December 26, 2014. 

References[edit]

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-815614-X Bandura, A. (2006). "Toward a Psychology
Psychology
of Human Agency". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 1: 2. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00011.x.  Benight, C.C.; Bandura, A. (2004). " Social cognitive theory
Social cognitive theory
of posttraumatic recovery:The role of perceived self-efficacy". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 42 (10): 1129–1148. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2003.08.008.  Caprara, G.; Fida, R.; Vecchione, M.; Del Bove, G.; Vecchio, G.; Barabaranelli, C.; Bandura, A. (2008). "Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulatory learning in academic continuance an achievement". Journal of Educational Psychology. 100 (3): 525–534. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.525.  Bandura, A. (2002). "Selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency". Journal of Moral Education. 31 (2): 101–119. doi:10.1080/0305724022014322.  Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of Child Development, 6. Six theories of child development (pp. 1–60). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Bandura, Albert (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. p. 604. ISBN 978-0-7167-2626-5  Bandura, Albert (1999). " Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities" (PDF). Personality and Social Psychology
Psychology
Review. 3 (3): 193–209. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_3. PMID 15661671  Bandura, A., & Walters. Richard H. (1959). Adolescent aggression; a study of the influence of child-training practices and family interrelationships. New York: Ronald Press. Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Evans, R. I. (1989). Albert Bandura: The man and his ideas: A dialogue. New York: Praeger. Haggbloom, S. J.; Warnick, R.; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.  Zimmerman, Barry J., & Schunk, Dale H. (Eds.)(2003). Educational psychology: A century of contributions. Mahwah, NJ, US: Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-3681-0 Great Canadian Psychology
Psychology
Website – Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
Biography Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
discuses Moral Disengagement (in Russian) Social learning theory and aggression

External links[edit]

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1926–1950

Harvey A. Carr (1926) Harry Levi Hollingworth
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(1927) Edwin Boring
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Robert Richardson Sears
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Albert Bandura
(1974) Donald T. Campbell
Donald T. Campbell
(1975)

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Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976) Theodore H. Blau (1977) M. Brewster Smith (1978) Nicholas Cummings (1979) Florence Denmark
Florence Denmark
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2001–Present

Norine G. Johnson (2001) Philip Zimbardo
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William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)

Lists

Counseling topics Disciplines Important publications Organizations Outline Psychologists Psychotherapies Research methods Schools of thought Timeline Topics

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v t e

E. L. Thorndike Award

Recipients of the E. L. Thorndike Award for Career Achievement in Educational Psychology

1960s

1964: Sidney L. Pressey 1965: William Brownell 1966: B. F. Skinner 1967: Lee Cronbach 1968: Cyril Burt 1969: Robert J. Havighurst

1970s

1970: John Bissell Carroll 1971: Robert L. Thorndike 1972: John C. Flanagan 1973: Benjamin Bloom 1974: Robert M. Gagné 1975: J. P. Guilford 1976: Jean Piaget 1977: David Ausubel 1978: Julian Stanley 1979: Patrick Suppes

1980s

1980: Richard C. Atkinson 1981: Jerome Bruner 1982: Robert Glaser 1983: Jeanne Chall 1984: Anne Anastasi 1985: Ernst Rothkopf 1986: Nathaniel Gage 1987: Merlin Wittrock 1988: Wilbert J. McKeachie 1989: Frank Farley

1990s

1990: Richard E. Snow 1991: Herbert Klausmeier 1992: Robert L. Linn 1993: Samuel Messick 1994: James Greeno 1995: Lee Shulman 1996: David Berliner 1997: Richard C. Anderson 1998: Lauren Resnick 1999: Albert Bandura

2000s

2000: Richard E. Mayer 2001: John D. Bransford 2002: Joel Levin 2003: Robert Sternberg 2004: G. Michael Pressley 2005: Jacquelynne Eccles 2006: Patricia Alexander 2007: Jere Brophy 2008: Bernard Weiner 2009: Carol Dweck

2010s

2010: Richard Shavelson 2011: Barry Zimmerman 2012: Keith Stanovich 2013: Sandra Graham 2014: Stephen J. Ceci 2015: Michelene Chi 2016: Edward Haertel 2017: Robert Slavin

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108322427 LCCN: n50036523 ISNI: 0000 0001 0931 1188 GND: 11865232X SELIBR: 176703 SUDOC: 032830114 BNF: cb123783423 (data) NDL: 00432220 NKC: jo2002101371 SN

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