The Info List - Albany, New York

Albany (/ˈɔːlbəni/ ( listen) AWL-bə-nee) is the capital of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New York and the seat of Albany County. Roughly 150 miles (240 km) north of New York City, Albany developed on the west bank of the Hudson River, about 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River. The population of the City of Albany was 97,856 according to the 2010 census. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy, Schenectady, and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million [6] the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state and 38th in the United States.[7][8] Albany was the first European settlement in New York State. It was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and Fort Orange in 1624. They formed successful relations with both the Mahican
and the Mohawk peoples, two major Native American nations in the region. The fur trade attracted settlers who founded a village called Beverwijck
near Fort Orange. In 1664 the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the then Duke of Albany, the future James II of England
James II of England
and James VII of Scotland. The city was officially chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States
United States
gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. Its charter is possibly the longest-running instrument of municipal government in the Western Hemisphere.[9] During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation. The city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
connecting to the Great Lakes, and was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. Albany's main exports at the time were beer, lumber, published works, and ironworks. Beginning in 1810, Albany was one of the ten most populous cities in the United States, a distinction it held until the 1860 census. Albany is one of the first cities in the world to have installed public water mains, sewer lines, natural gas lines and electricity, infrastructure and utilities that attracted and supported substantial new industry to the city and surrounding area during the 19th century.[10] In the 20th century, the city opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, the precursor of today's Albany International Airport. During the 1920s a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in the state capital, connected to politics in New York City as well. It marshalled the power of immigrants and their descendants in both cities. The city's skyline changed in the 1960s and 1970s with the construction of office towers around the Empire State Plaza
Empire State Plaza
and at the uptown campus of SUNY Albany,[b] mainly under the direction of Governor Nelson Rockefeller. While Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization, many of its historic neighborhoods were saved from destruction through the policies of Mayor Erastus Corning
Erastus Corning
2nd, the longest-serving mayor of any city in the United States. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector.[11][12] Albany has been a center of higher education for over a century, with much of the remainder of its economy dependent on state government and health care services. The city has rebounded from the urban decline of the 1970s and 1980s, with noticeable development taking place in the city's downtown and midtown neighborhoods. Albany is known for its rich history, commerce, culture, architecture, and institutions of higher education. Albany won the All-America City Award
All-America City Award
in both 1991 and 2009.[13] Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies with offices in Albany include American Express, J.P. Morgan and Chase,[14] Merrill Lynch,[15][16] General Electric, Verizon, Goldman Sachs,[17] International Paper,[18] and Key Bank.[19] In the 21st century, the Capital District has emerged as a major anchor of Tech Valley, the moniker describing the technologically-focused region of eastern New York State.


1 History

1.1 Colonial times to 1800 1.2 1800 to 1942 1.3 1942 to present day

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Crime 4 Cityscape

4.1 Neighborhoods 4.2 Parks and recreation 4.3 Architecture

5 Demographics

5.1 City of immigrants 5.2 Modern overview

6 Culture

6.1 Nightlife and entertainment 6.2 Festivals 6.3 Museums and historic sites 6.4 Literature and film

7 Education 8 Economy

8.1 Tech Valley

9 Government

9.1 Politics

10 Religious life 11 Media 12 Transportation

12.1 Highways 12.2 Trains 12.3 Airport 12.4 Bus 12.5 Boat

13 Sports 14 Sister cities 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 Further reading 20 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Albany, New York Colonial times to 1800[edit]

The Dongan Charter
Dongan Charter
legally established Albany as a city in 1686; it is the oldest United States
United States
city charter still in effect.[9]

North Pearl Street from Maiden Lane North by James Eights, circa 1805

Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies[20] and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.[c] The Hudson River
Hudson River
area was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican
(Mahican), who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation."[23] Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there.[24][d] The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, and became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English. It is likely the Albany area was visited by European fur traders, perhaps as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined.[26] Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
on the Half Moon (Dutch: Halve Maen), reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands.[27] In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade. In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island, but it was rebuilt in 1624 as Fort Orange.[28] Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau.[29] Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck
(English: Beaver District) in 1652.[30][31] In these early decades of trade, the Dutch, Mohican
and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures.[32] When New Netherland
New Netherland
was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck
to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany (later James II of England
James II of England
and James VII of Scotland).[33][e] Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398, generally to a younger son of the King of Scots.[34] The name is ultimately derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland.[35] The Dutch briefly regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt; the English took permanent possession with the Treaty of Westminster (1674).[36] On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York
Province of New York
was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, Vermont, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean;[37][38] the city of Albany became the county seat.[39] Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan
Thomas Dongan
on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter
Dongan Charter
was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier.[40] Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 1 mile (1.6 km) wide and 16 miles (26 km) long.[41] Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the west and annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people.[42] In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress; Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
of Pennsylvania
presented the Albany Plan
Albany Plan
of Union there, which was the first formal proposal to unite the colonies.[43] Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States
United States
Constitution.[44][f] The same year, the French and Indian War, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began; it ended in 1763 with French defeat, resolving a situation that had been a constant threat to Albany and held back its growth.[45] In 1775, with the colonies in the midst of the Revolutionary War, the Stadt Huys
Stadt Huys
became home to the Albany Committee of Correspondence (the political arm of the local revolutionary movement), which took over operation of Albany's government and eventually expanded its power to control all of Albany County. Tories and prisoners of war were often jailed in the Stadt Huys
Stadt Huys
alongside common criminals.[46] In 1776, Albany native Philip Livingston
Philip Livingston
signed the Declaration of Independence at Independence Hall
Independence Hall
in Philadelphia.[47] During and after the Revolutionary War, Albany County saw a great increase in real estate transactions. After Horatio Gates' win over John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne
at Saratoga in 1777, the upper Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
was generally at peace as the war raged on elsewhere. Prosperity was soon seen all over Upstate New York. Migrants from Vermont
and Connecticut began flowing in, noting the advantages of living on the Hudson and trading at Albany, while being only a few days' sail from New York City.[48] Albany reported a population of 3,498 in the first national census in 1790, an increase of almost 700% since its chartering.[42] In 1797, the state capital of New York was moved permanently to Albany. From statehood to this date, the Legislature
had frequently moved the state capital between Albany, Kingston, Hurley, Poughkeepsie, and the city of New York.[49] Albany is the tenth-oldest state capital in the United States, but only the second-oldest state capital that is a city, after Santa Fe, New Mexico.[50] 1800 to 1942[edit]

This 1895 map of Albany shows the gridded block system as it expanded around the former turnpikes.

Albany has been a center of transportation for much of its history. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Albany saw development of the turnpike and by 1815, Albany was the turnpike center of the state. Simeon De Witt
Simeon De Witt
developed a grid block system in 1794, and renamed streets for birds and mammals that had honored British royalty.[g] This grid was intersected by the major arterials coming out of Albany, which cut through the city at unexpected angles.[53][54] The construction of the turnpike across the state, in conjunction with canal and railroad systems, made Albany the hub of transportation for pioneers going to Buffalo and the Michigan Territory
Michigan Territory
in the early- and mid-19th century.[53][55]

The steamer Albany departs for New York City; at the height of steam travel in 1884, more than 1.5 million passengers took the trip.[56]

In 1807, Robert Fulton
Robert Fulton
initiated a steamboat line from New York to Albany, the first successful enterprise of its kind.[56] By 1810, with 10,763 people, Albany was the 10th-largest urban place in the nation.[57] The town and village were known as "the Colonie"[h] to the north of Albany was annexed in 1815.[58] In 1825 the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
was completed, forming a continuous water route from the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to New York City. Unlike the current Barge Canal, which ends at nearby Waterford, the original Erie Canal
Erie Canal
ended at Albany; Lock 1 was north of Colonie Street.[60] The Canal emptied into a 32-acre (13 ha) man-made lagoon called the Albany Basin, which was Albany's main port from 1825 until the Port of Albany-Rensselaer
Port of Albany-Rensselaer
opened in 1932.[61][62] In 1829, while working as a professor at the Albany Academy, Joseph Henry, widely regarded as "the foremost American scientist of the 19th century",[63] built the first electric motor. Three years later, he discovered electromagnetic self-induction (the SI unit for which is now the henry). He went on to be the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.[64] In the 1830 and 1840 censuses, Albany was ranked as the 9th-largest urban place in the nation,[65][66] then back to 10th in 1850.[67] This was the last time the city was one of the top ten largest urban places in the nation.[68] Albany also has significant history with rail transport,[69] as the location of two major regional railroad headquarters. The Delaware
and Hudson Railway was headquartered in Albany at what is now the SUNY System Administration Building.[70] In 1853, Erastus Corning, a noted industrialist and Albany's mayor from 1834 to 1837, consolidated ten railroads stretching from Albany to Buffalo into the New York Central Railroad (NYCRR), headquartered in Albany until Cornelius Vanderbilt moved it to New York City
New York City
in 1867.[71][72] One of the ten companies that formed the NYCRR was the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, which was the first railroad in the state and the first successful steam railroad running regularly scheduled service in the country.[73][74]

The Albany Lumber
District was home to the largest lumber market in the nation in 1865.[75]

While the key to Albany's economic prosperity in the 19th century was transportation, industry and business also played a role. Largely thanks to the city's Dutch and German roots, beer was one of its biggest commodities. Beverwyck Brewery, originally known as Quinn and Nolan (Nolan being mayor of Albany 1878–1883),[76] was the last remaining brewer from that time when it closed in 1972. The city's location at the east end of the Erie Canal
Erie Canal
gave it unparalleled access to both raw products and a captive customer base in the west.[77] Albany was known for its publishing houses, and to some extent, still is. Albany was second only to Boston
in the number of books produced for most of the 19th century.[78] Iron foundries in both the north and south ends of the city attracted thousands of immigrants to the city for industrial jobs. To this day, one can see many intricate wrought-iron details that were constructed in those years on what are now historic buildings. The iron industry waned by the 1890s due to increased costs associated with a newly unionized workforce and the opening of mines in the Mesabi Range
Mesabi Range
in Minnesota.[79] Albany's other major exports during the 18th and 19th centuries were furs, wheat, meat, and lumber.[80] By 1865, there were almost 4,000 saw mills in the Albany area[80] and the Albany Lumber
District was the largest lumber market in the nation.[75] The city was also home to a number of banks. The Bank of Albany (1792–1861) was the second chartered bank in New York.[81] The city was the original home of the Albank (founded in 1820 as the Albany Savings Bank),[82] KeyBank (founded in 1825 as the Commercial Bank of Albany),[83] and Norstar Bank (founded as the State Bank of Albany in 1803).[84] American Express was founded in Albany in 1850 as an express mail business.[85] In 1871, the northwestern portion of Albany—west from Magazine Street—was annexed to the neighboring town of Guilderland[86] after the town of Watervliet refused annexation of said territory.[87][88] In return for this loss, portions of Bethlehem and Watervliet were added to Albany. Part of the land annexed to Guilderland was ceded back to Albany in 1910, setting up the current western border.[58] Albany opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, and the first municipal airport in the United States, in 1908. Originally on a polo field on Loudon Road, it moved to Westerlo Island
Westerlo Island
in 1909 and remained there until 1928. The Albany Municipal Airport—jointly owned by the city and county—was moved to its current location in Colonie in 1928. By 1916 Albany's northern and southern borders reached their modern courses;[58] Westerlo Island, to the south, became the second-to-last annexation, which occurred in 1926.[89] 1942 to present day[edit]

The Albany Institute of History & Art

Erastus Corning
Erastus Corning
2nd, arguably Albany's most notable mayor (and great-grandson of the former mayor of the same name), was elected in 1941.[90] Although he was one of the longest-serving mayors of any city in United States
United States
history (1942 until his death in 1983), one historian describes Corning's tenure as "long on years, short on accomplishments."[91] Grondahl cited Corning's preference for maintaining the status quo as a factor that held back potential progress during his tenure.[92] While Corning brought stability to the office of mayor, it is said even those who admire him greatly cannot come up with a sizable list of "major concrete Corning achievements."[93] Corning is given credit for saving—albeit somewhat unintentionally—much of Albany's historic architecture.[i] During the 1950s and 1960s, a time when federal aid for urban renewal was plentiful,[92] Albany did not have growth in its economy or infrastructure. It lost more than 20 percent of its population during the Corning years, as people moved to newer housing in the suburbs, followed by most of the downtown businesses moving there as well.[94] While cities across the country grappled with similar issues, the problems were magnified in Albany: interference from the Democratic political machine hindered progress considerably.[92] In 1960, the mayor sold the city's stake in the airport to the county, citing budget issues. It was known from then on as Albany County Airport until a massive upgrade and modernization project between 1996 and 1998, when it was rechristened Albany International Airport.[95] Governor Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
(1959–1973) (R) tried to stimulate the city with new monumental architecture and large, government-sponsored building projects; he drove construction of the Empire State
Empire State
Plaza, SUNY Albany's uptown campus, and much of the W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
State Office Building Campus.[96] Albany County Republican Chairman Joseph C. Frangella once quipped, "Governor Rockefeller was the best mayor Albany ever had."[97] Corning, although opposed to the project, was responsible for negotiating the payment plan for the Empire State Plaza. Rockefeller did not want to be limited by the Legislature's power of the purse, so Corning devised a plan to have the county pay for the construction and have the state sign a lease-ownership agreement. The state paid off the bonds until 2004. It was Rockefeller's only viable option, and he agreed. Due to the clout Corning gained from the situation, he gained inclusion of the State Museum, a convention center, and a restaurant, back in the plans—ideas which Rockefeller had originally vetoed. The county gained $35 million in fees and the city received $13 million for lost tax revenue. Having the state offices in the city enabled it to keep good jobs and retain middle-class residents.[98]

This 1955 map shows the planned expansion of the Interstate Highway System around Albany.

Another major project of the 1960s and 1970s was Interstate 787
Interstate 787
and the South Mall Arterial.[j] Construction began in the early 1960s. One of the project's main results, since regretted, was separating the city from the Hudson River, its source of development. Corning has been described as shortsighted with respect to use of the waterfront, as he could have used his influence to change the location of I-787, which now cuts the city off from "its whole raison d'être".[99] Much of the original plan never came to fruition, however: Rockefeller had wanted the South Mall Arterial
South Mall Arterial
to pass through the Empire State
Empire State
Plaza. The project would have required an underground trumpet interchange below Washington Park, connecting to the (eventually cancelled) Mid-Crosstown Arterial.[100] To this day, evidence of the original plan is still visible.[k] In 1967 the hamlet of Karlsfeld was the last annexation by the city, taken from the Town of Bethlehem.[58] When Corning died in 1983, Thomas Whalen assumed the mayorship and was reelected twice. He encouraged redevelopment of historic structures and helped attract federal dollars earmarked for that purpose. What Corning had saved from destruction, Whalen refurbished for continued and new uses.[101] The Mayor's Office of Special
Events was created in an effort to increase the number of festivals and artistic events in the city, including a year-long Dongan Charter
Dongan Charter
tricentennial celebration in 1986.[102] Whalen is credited for an "unparalleled cycle of commercial investment and development" in Albany due to his "aggressive business development programs".[103] Prior to the recession of the 1990s, downtown Albany was home to four Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies.[104] After the death of Corning and the retirement of Congressman Sam Stratton, the political environment changes. Long-term office holders became rare in the 1980s. Local media began following the drama surrounding county politics (specifically that of the newly created county executive position); the loss of Corning (and eventually the machine) led to a lack of interest in city politics.[105] The election of Gerald Jennings
Gerald Jennings
was a surprise, and he served as Mayor from 1994 until his retirement at the end of 2013. His tenure essentially ended the political machine that had been in place since the 1920s.[106] During the 1990s, the State Legislature
approved the $234 million "Albany Plan", "a building and renovation project [that] was the most ambitious building project to affect the area since the Rockefeller era." Under the Albany Plan, renovation and new building projects were initiated around the downtown area. Many state workers were relocated from the Harriman State Office Campus
to downtown, helping its retail businesses and vitality.[107] During the first decade of the 21st century, progress was made on a long-discussed and controversial Albany Convention Center. As of August 2010, the Albany Convention Center Authority (authorized by the state legislature) had already purchased 75% of the land needed to build the downtown project.[108]

Albany, as viewed from the Capitol looking southeast, circa 1906. City Hall is left of center; the twin spires of the Immaculate Conception church can be seen on the far right; the future Empire State Plaza
Empire State Plaza
is located at the extreme right of the image.


The highest point in Albany

Albany is about 150 miles (240 km) north of New York City
New York City
on the Hudson River.[30] It has a total area of 21.8 square miles (56 km2), of which 21.4 square miles (55 km2) is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) (1.8%) is water.[109] The city is bordered on the north by the town of Colonie (along with the village of Menands), on the west by the town of Guilderland, and on the south by the town of Bethlehem.[110] The Hudson River
Hudson River
represents the city's eastern border. Patroon Creek, along the northern border, and the Normans Kill, along the southern border, are the two major streams in the city. The former Foxes Creek, Beaver Kill, and Rutten Kill still exist, but were diverted underground in the 19th century.[111][112][113] There are four lakes within city limits: Buckingham Lake; Rensselaer Lake
Rensselaer Lake
at the mouth of the Patroon Creek; Tivoli Lake, which was formed as a reservoir and once connected to the Patroon Creek; and Washington Park Lake, which was formed by damming the Beaver Kill.[110][112]

The Albany Pine Bush
Albany Pine Bush
is the only sizable inland pine barrens sand dune ecosystem in the United States.[114]

The highest natural point in Albany is a USGS benchmark near the Loudonville Reservoir off Birch Hill Road, at 378 feet (115 m) above sea level. The lowest point is sea level at the Hudson River (the average water elevation is 2 feet (0.61 m)),[110][115] which is still technically an estuary at Albany and is affected by the Atlantic tide.[116] The interior of Albany consists of rolling hills which were once part of the Albany Pine Bush, an area of pitch pine and scrub oak, and has arid, sandy soil that is a remnant of the ancient Lake Albany. Due to development, the Pine Bush has shrunk from an original 25,000 to 6,000 acres (10,100 to 2,400 ha) today. A preserve was set up by the State Legislature
in 1988 and is on the city's western edge, spilling into Guilderland and Colonie;[117] it is the only sizable inland pine barrens sand dune ecosystem in the United States,[114] and is home to many endangered species, including the Karner Blue
Karner Blue
butterfly.[118] Climate[edit] Albany is in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen climate classification: Dfa),[119] and features cold, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; the city experiences four distinct seasons. Albany is in plant hardiness zone 6a near downtown and along the shore of the Hudson and 5b at its western end.[120] Albany receives 39.4 inches (1,000 mm) of precipitation per year,[121] with 138 days of at least 0.01 in (0.25 mm) of precipitation each year. Snowfall is significant, totaling 59.1 inches (150 cm) annually,[121] but with less accumulation than the lake effect areas to the north and west, as it is farther from Lake Ontario. However, Albany is close enough to the Atlantic coast to receive heavy snow from Nor'easters and the city occasionally receives Alberta clippers.[122] Winters can be very cold with fluctuating conditions; temperatures drop to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below on nine nights per annum.[123] Summers in Albany can contain stretches of excessive heat and humidity, with temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C) or hotter on nine days per year.[123] Record temperature extremes range from −28 °F (−33 °C), on January 19, 1971, to 104 °F (40 °C) on July 4, 1911.[123]

Climate data for Albany International Airport, New York (1981–2010 normals,[l][m] extremes 1874–present[n])

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 71 (22) 74 (23) 89 (32) 93 (34) 97 (36) 100 (38) 104 (40) 102 (39) 100 (38) 91 (33) 82 (28) 72 (22) 104 (40)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 52.8 (11.6) 53.5 (11.9) 68.2 (20.1) 81.6 (27.6) 86.7 (30.4) 91.1 (32.8) 92.3 (33.5) 91.2 (32.9) 86.0 (30) 76.8 (24.9) 68.1 (20.1) 54.8 (12.7) 94.3 (34.6)

Average high °F (°C) 30.6 (−0.8) 34.6 (1.4) 44.4 (6.9) 58.3 (14.6) 69.4 (20.8) 77.9 (25.5) 82.3 (27.9) 80.4 (26.9) 72.2 (22.3) 59.8 (15.4) 47.9 (8.8) 35.8 (2.1) 57.9 (14.4)

Average low °F (°C) 14.5 (−9.7) 17.3 (−8.2) 25.7 (−3.5) 37.3 (2.9) 47.1 (8.4) 56.5 (13.6) 61.4 (16.3) 59.9 (15.5) 51.6 (10.9) 39.6 (4.2) 31.5 (−0.3) 21.2 (−6) 38.7 (3.7)

Mean minimum °F (°C) −7.1 (−21.7) −2.8 (−19.3) 6.5 (−14.2) 23.2 (−4.9) 32.7 (0.4) 42.0 (5.6) 49.5 (9.7) 46.5 (8.1) 36.1 (2.3) 25.8 (−3.4) 15.9 (−8.9) 1.6 (−16.9) −9.6 (−23.1)

Record low °F (°C) −28 (−33) −22 (−30) −21 (−29) 9 (−13) 26 (−3) 35 (2) 40 (4) 34 (1) 24 (−4) 16 (−9) −11 (−24) −22 (−30) −28 (−33)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.59 (65.8) 2.20 (55.9) 3.21 (81.5) 3.17 (80.5) 3.61 (91.7) 3.79 (96.3) 4.12 (104.6) 3.46 (87.9) 3.30 (83.8) 3.68 (93.5) 3.29 (83.6) 2.93 (74.4) 39.35 (999.5)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 17.9 (45.5) 12.2 (31) 11.0 (27.9) 2.3 (5.8) 0.1 (0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.8) 2.8 (7.1) 13.7 (34.8) 60.3 (153.2)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.8 10.4 12.1 11.9 13.1 12.2 10.8 10.7 9.8 10.4 11.7 11.9 137.8

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 10.3 7.6 5.6 1.2 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.1 2.5 7.4 34.8

Average relative humidity (%) 71.1 68.5 64.8 61.2 65.5 69.5 70.5 74.1 75.7 72.4 73.1 73.9 70.0

Mean monthly sunshine hours 141.1 158.5 200.3 218.9 248.9 262.2 289.2 253.2 210.5 168.8 100.7 108.3 2,360.6

Percent possible sunshine 48 54 54 54 55 57 62 59 56 49 34 38 53

Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[121][123][124]

Crime[edit] New York has an effective statewide crime rate of 385/100,000 people as of 2009[update].[125] Albany's violent crime rate is nearly on a par with Rochester (1028 violent crimes/100,000 population vs 968/100,000 in Rochester) and much lower than Buffalo at 1514/100,000. By comparison, New York City's violent crime rate was 639/100,000 in 2013.[126] Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Albany and the Hudson River
Hudson River
from Rensselaer, looking southwest

Neighborhoods[edit] Main article: Neighborhoods of Albany, New York

Housing in Ten Broeck Triangle, a subset of the Arbor Hill neighborhood

The neighborhoods of Albany are varied demographically, geographically, architecturally, and historically. Downtown Albany is the city's oldest neighborhood, centered on State Street, one of Albany's oldest streets and its original main street. North and south of Downtown Albany are old residential communities often consisting of row houses; to the north, those neighborhoods include Sheridan Hollow, Arbor Hill, and North Albany, while to the south is the super-neighborhood of the South End, which includes several smaller neighborhoods. West of Downtown Albany is the Empire State
Empire State
Plaza, which effectively cuts Downtown off from the gentrified neighborhoods of Center Square and Hudson/Park. Single-family detached homes, duplexes, and apartments, along with single-family houses that have been divided into multiple units, can be found west of the older neighborhoods. These neighborhoods, such as Pine Hills, Delaware
Avenue, Whitehall, Helderberg, and New Scotland/Woodlawn, tend to have larger lots and more suburban surroundings than the neighborhoods nearer to the Hudson River.[127] Further west, the neighborhoods become more affluent and are dominated almost exclusively by single-family dwellings. The western portion of the City includes the W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
State Office Building Campus
and the University at Albany's main campus, as well as offices and commercial properties lining frontage roads along Washington Avenue Extension. Parks and recreation[edit]

The 1929 Washington Park Lake
Washington Park Lake
House replaced a wooden lake house built in 1876.[128]

Albany has more than 60 public parks and recreation areas.[129] Washington Park was organized as the Middle Public Square in 1806. Its current location has been public property since the Dongan Charter
Dongan Charter
of 1686 gave the city title to all property not privately owned. Washington Park was designed by John Bogart and John Cuyler in 1870,[130] and opened for public use the following year. The original lake house, designed by Frederick W. Brown, was added in 1876. The park had previously been used as a cemetery; its graves were moved to Albany Rural Cemetery. Washington Park is a popular place to exercise and play sports; skate during the winter; people-watch during Tulip Fest; and attend plays at the amphitheater during the summer.[130][131][132][133]

Lincoln Park is flanked on the north by the Empire State
Empire State

Other parks in Albany include Lincoln Park, Buckingham Park, the Corning Preserve, and the Pine Bush. Lincoln Park, southwest of the Empire State
Empire State
Plaza, was organized in 1886 and was originally known as Beaver Park.[134] Today, the park has a pool that is open during the summer months. Buckingham Lake
Buckingham Lake
Park is between Manning Boulevard and Route 85 in the Buckingham Pond neighborhood; it contains a pond with fountains, a footpath, a playground, and picnic tables.[135] The Albany Riverfront Park at the Corning Preserve has an 800-seat amphitheatre that hosts events in non-winter months, most notably the Alive at 5 summer concert series. The Preserve's visitors center details the ecology of the Hudson River
Hudson River
and the local environment.[136] The park has a bike trail and boat launch[136] and was effectively separated from downtown by Interstate 787
Interstate 787
until the opening of the Hudson River
Hudson River
Way in 2002.[137] Other public parks include Westland Hill Park, Hoffman Park, Beverwyck Park,[138] and Liberty Park, today a small circular grassy patch in downtown on Hudson Avenue, which is Albany's oldest park.[139] Ridgefield Park is home to the clay courts of the Albany Tennis Club, one of the oldest tennis clubs in the United States.[140] The municipal golf course, New Course at Albany, was constructed in 1929 as the Albany Municipal Golf Course, later renamed the Capital Hills at Albany, and remodeled in 1991.[141] Architecture[edit]

The New York State Capitol

Main article: Architecture of Albany, New York See also: List of tallest buildings in Albany, New York

Aerial view of Albany looking northeast

System Administration Building of the State University of New York

The Empire State
Empire State
Plaza, a collection of state agency office buildings, dominates almost any view of Albany. Built between 1965 and 1978 at the hand of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller
Nelson A. Rockefeller
and architect Wallace Harrison, the complex is a powerful example of late American modern architecture[142] and remains a controversial building project both for displacing city residents and for its architectural style. The most recognizable aspect of the complex is the Erastus Corning
Erastus Corning
Tower, the tallest building in New York outside of New York City.[142] Juxtaposed at the north end of the Plaza is the 19th-century New York State Capitol, the seat of the New York State Legislature
New York State Legislature
and the home of the Governor's office.[143]

This 1789 etching shows the Dutch influence on the architecture of early Albany.

Albany's initial architecture incorporated many Dutch influences, followed soon after by those of the English.[144] Quackenbush House, a Dutch Colonial brick mansion, was built c. 1736;[145] Schuyler Mansion, a Georgian-style mansion, was built in 1765;[146] and the oldest building in Albany is the 1728 Van Ostrande-Radliff House
Van Ostrande-Radliff House
at 48 Hudson Avenue.[147] Albany's housing varies greatly, with mostly row houses in the older sections of town, closer to the river. Housing type quickly changes as one travels westward, beginning with two-family homes of the late 19th century, and one-family homes built after World War II
World War II
in the western end of the city.[148] Albany City Hall, designed by Henry Hobson Richardson, was opened in 1883. The New York State Capitol
New York State Capitol
was opened in 1899 (after 32 years of construction)[143] at a cost of $25 million, making it the most expensive government building at the time.[149] Albany's Union Station, a major Beaux-Arts design,[150] was under construction at the same time; it opened in 1900. In 1912, the Beaux-Arts styled New York State Department of Education Building opened on Washington Avenue near the Capitol. It has a classical exterior, which features a block-long white marble colonnade.[151] The 1920s brought the Art Deco movement, which is illustrated by the Home Savings Bank Building (1927) on North Pearl Street[152] and the Alfred E. Smith Building (1930) on South Swan Street,[153] two of Albany's tallest high-rises.[154] Architecture from the 1960s and 1970s is well represented in the city, especially at the W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
State Office Building Campus (1950s and 1960s) and on the uptown campus of the University at Albany (1962–1971). The state office campus was planned in the 1950s by governor W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
to offer more parking and easier access for state employees.[155] The uptown SUNY campus was built in the 1960s under Governor Rockefeller on the site of the city-owned Albany Country Club. Straying from the popular open campus layout, SUNY Albany has a centralized building layout with administrative and classroom buildings at center surrounded by four student housing towers. The design called for much use of concrete and glass, and the style has slender, round-topped columns and pillars reminiscent of those at Lincoln Center
Lincoln Center
in New York City.[156] Downtown has seen a revival in recent decades, often considered to have begun with Norstar Bank's renovation of the former Union Station as its corporate headquarters in 1986.[o] The Times Union Center
Times Union Center
(TU Center) was originally slated for suburban Colonie,[158] but was instead built downtown and opened in 1990.[159] Other development in downtown includes the construction of the State Dormitory Authority headquarters at 515 Broadway (1998);[160] the State Department of Environmental Conservation building, with its iconic green dome, at 625 Broadway (2001);[161] the State Comptroller headquarters on State Street (2001);[7] the Hudson River
Hudson River
Way (2002), a pedestrian bridge connecting Broadway to the Corning Preserve;[137] and 677 Broadway (2005), "the first privately owned downtown office building in a generation".[162][163] Demographics[edit] City of immigrants[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 3,498

1800 5,349


1810 10,762


1820 12,630


1830 24,209


1840 33,721


1850 50,763


1860 62,367


1870 69,422


1880 90,758


1890 94,923


1900 94,151


1910 101,253


1920 113,344


1930 127,412


1940 130,577


1950 134,995


1960 129,726


1970 115,781


1980 101,727


1990 101,082


2000 95,658


2010 97,856


Est. 2016 98,111 [4] 0.3%

Sources: 1790–1950,[164] 1960–1980,[165] 1990–2000[166]

Historically, Albany's population has been mixed. First dominated by the Dutch and Germans, it was overtaken by the English in the early 19th century. Irish immigrants soon outnumbered most other ethnicities by the mid-19th century, and were followed by Italians and Poles. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the African-American population increased with thousands of people from the rural South, as part of the Great Migration. As historian (and Albany Assemblyman) John McEneny puts it,

Dutch and Yankee, German and Irish, Polish and Italian, black and Chinese—over the centuries Albany's heritage has reflected a succession of immigrant nationalities. Its streets have echoed with a dozen languages, its neighborhoods adapting to the distinctive life-style and changing economic fortunes of each new group.[167]

Until after the Revolution, Albany's population consisted mostly of ethnic Dutch descendants. Settlers migrating from New England tipped the balance toward British ethnicity in the early 19th century.[168] Jobs on the turnpikes, canals, and railroads attracted floods of Irish immigrants in the early 19th century, especially in the 1840s during the Irish potato famine, solidifying the city's Irish base. Albany elected its first Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
mayor (Michael Nolan) two years before Boston
did.[169] Polish and Italian immigrants began arriving in Albany in the wave of immigration in the latter part of the 19th century. Their numbers were smaller than in many other eastern cities mainly because most had found manufacturing jobs at General Electric in Schenectady.[170] The Jewish community had been established early, with Sephardic Jewish members as part of the Beverwijck
community. Its population rose during the late 19th century, when many Ashkenazi Jews immigrated from eastern Europe.[170] In that period, there was also an influx of Chinese and east Asian immigrants, who settled in the downtown section of the city. Many of their descendants have since moved to suburban areas.[171] Immigration all but halted after the Immigration Act of 1924. Albany was also a destination of internal migration, as many African Americans moved north in their Great Migration from the rural South before and after World War I
World War I
to fill industrial positions and find new opportunities. In the early years, they lived together with Italians, Jews and other immigrants in the South End, where housing was older and less expensive.[172] The black community has grown as a proportion of the population since then: African Americans made up 3 percent of the city's population in 1950, 6 percent in 1960, 12 percent in 1970, and 30 percent in 2010. The change in proportion is related mostly to middle-class white families moving to the suburbs, and black families remaining within city limits during the same time period.[5][166] Since 2007 the number of Burmese refugees has increased, who are mostly of the Karen ethnicity; an estimated 5,000 reside in Albany as of January 2015.[173][174] Modern overview[edit] As of the 2010 census,[166] there were 97,856 people residing in the city.[166] The population of the census area in 2009 was estimated to be 1,170,483.[6][24] The population density in 2010 was 4,572.7 per square mile (1,779.2/km²). There were 46,362 housing units at an average density of 2,166.4 per square mile (842.9/km²); 5,205 of these units (11.2%) were vacant. The racial makeup of the city residents was 52.3% white; 27% black or African American; 0.06% Native American or Native Alaskan; 7.4% Asian; 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; .06% from other races; and 3.6% from two or more races. A total of 9.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[p] Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites
were 52.0% of the population in 2010,[109] compared to 87.0% in 1970.[175] As of the 2000 census, the top five ancestry groups in the city were African (27%), Irish (18.1%), Italian (12.4%), German (10.4%), and English (5.2%); (33.1%) of the population reported "other ancestries". Albany is home to a Triqui language-speaking community of Mexican-Americans.[176][177] The population had 20.0% under the age of 18, 19.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.4 years. For every 100 females there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. Some 81.3% of the population had completed high school or earned an equivalency diploma.[166] There were 40,709 households in 2000, out of which 22.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.8% were non-families. 41.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.95.[166] The median income for a household in the city in 2000 was $73,512, and the median income for a family was $76,294 (male, year-round worker) and $69,209 (female, year-round worker). The per capita income for the city was $56,236.[178][q] About 16.0% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.8% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over.[166] The rate of reported violent crimes for 2008 (1,095 incidents per 100,000 residents) is more than double the rate for similarly sized US cities. Reported property crimes (4,669 incidents per 100,000 residents) are somewhat lower.[179][180] Demographically speaking, the population of Albany and the Capital District mirrors the characteristics of the United States
United States
consumer population as a whole better than any other major municipality in the country. According to a 2004 study conducted by the Acxiom Corporation, Albany and its environs are the top-ranked standard test market for new business and retail products. Albany, Rochester, and Syracuse all scored within the top five.[181] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture in New York's Capital District Nightlife and entertainment[edit]

Price Chopper sponsors the annual Fourth of July
Fourth of July
fireworks show at the Empire State Plaza
Empire State Plaza
(2009 show pictured).[182]

Albany's geographic situation—roughly equidistant between New York City to the south and Montreal
to the north, as well as approximately 4.5 hours east of Buffalo, and 2.5 hours west of Boston—makes it a convenient stop for nationally touring artists and acts. The Palace Theatre and The Egg provide mid-sized forums for music, theater, and spoken word performances, with the Capital Repertory Theatre filling the small-sized niche.[183] The TU Center serves as the city's largest musical venue for nationally and internationally prominent bands. It also hosts trade shows, sporting events, and other large-scale community gatherings.[184] While some praise the cultural contributions of Albany and the greater Capital District,[102] others suggest the city has a "cultural identity crisis" due to its widespread geography, which requires a car (and driving time) to experience most of what the area has to offer, a necessity not seen in larger and more densely populated metropolitan areas such as New York and Boston.[185] In recent years, the city's government has invested resources to cultivate venues and neighborhoods that attract after-hours business. Madison Avenue, Pearl Street, Delaware
Avenue and Lark Street
Lark Street
serve as the most active entertainment areas in the city. Many restaurants, clubs, and bars have opened since the mid-1990s, revitalizing numerous areas that had once been abandoned; various establishments have reclaimed old row houses, businesses, and even a pump station.[183] The bar scene generally incorporates three main strips. The downtown scene is focused on Pearl Street, stretching about two blocks. Up State Street, past the business district, is the Lark Street
Lark Street
strip, home to smaller bars that fit into the neighborhood's artistic and eclectic style. Lastly, the midtown strip, with several bars on Western and Madison Avenues, centers around the campuses of the College of Saint Rose
College of Saint Rose
and SUNY Albany's downtown campus. The midtown strip generally draws a younger crowd, as it is popular to the local college students.[186] Last call in Albany is 4:00 am nightly; New York law sets that time as last call throughout the state by default, and although counties may set an earlier time, individual municipalities may not. More than half of the state's counties have an earlier closing time, but Albany County, as with all counties in the Capital District, has retained the 4:00 am last call time.[187] Festivals[edit]

An artist paints tulips during the Tulip Fest at Washington Park.

Alive at 5 is a free, weekly concert series held downtown during the summer on Thursdays;[188] with 10 concerts in 2010, total attendance was roughly 100,000.[189]The Tulip Festival is set in Washington Park and celebrates the city's Dutch heritage. This traditional Albany event marks the beginning of spring as thousands of tulips bloom in the park in early May;[190] attendance to the Tulip Festival in 2010 was approximately 80,000.[189] Another large festival in Albany is the Capital Pride Parade and Festival, a major gay pride event held each June, attended by an estimated 30,000 spectators annually from across Upstate New York.[191] The Price Chopper Fabulous Fourth and Fireworks Festival at the Empire State Plaza celebrates Independence Day with musical performances and the region's largest fireworks display.[182] Freihofer's Run for Women is a 5-kilometer run through the city that draws more than 4,000 participants from across the country; it is an annual event that began in 1978.[192]The Albany Chefs' Food & Wine Festival: Wine & Dine for the Arts is an annual Festival that hosts more than 3500 people over 3 days. The Festival showcases more than 70 Regional Chefs & Restaurants, 250 Global Wines & Spirits, a NYS Craft Beer Pavilion, 4 competitions (The Signature Chef Invitational, Rising Star Chef, Barista Albany and Battle of the Bartenders) and one Grand Gala Reception, Dinner & Auction featuring 10 f Albany's Iconic Chefs. The Albany Chefs' Food & Wine Festival donates all net proceeds to deserving Albany Arts Organizations and is held the Thursday-Saturday preceding Martin Luther King Weekend. Smaller events include the African American
African American
Family Day Arts Festival each August at the Empire State Plaza;[182] the Latin Fest, held each August at the Corning Preserve;[193] the Albany Jazz Festival, an annual end-of-summer event held at the Corning Preserve;[194] and Lark Fest, a music and art festival held each fall.[195] Museums and historic sites[edit] Main article: National Register of Historic Places listings in Albany, New York

Ten Broeck Mansion
Ten Broeck Mansion
is home to the Albany County Historical Association.[196]

Southwest corner of the Cultural Education Center
Cultural Education Center
on Empire State Plaza housing the State Museum, Library, and Archives.

Because of Albany's historical and political significance, the city has numerous museums, historical buildings, and historic districts. Albany is home to the New York State Museum, the New York State Library and the New York State Archives; all three facilities are in the Cultural Education Center
Cultural Education Center
at the south end of Empire State
Empire State
Plaza and are free to the public.[197] The USS Slater
USS Slater
(DE-766), a decommissioned World War II
World War II
destroyer escort that was restored in 1998, is a museum ship docked in the Hudson River
Hudson River
at Quay Street. It is the only ship of its kind still afloat.[198] The Albany Heritage Area Visitors Center, at the corner of Clinton Avenue and Broadway at Quackenbush Square, hosts a museum, gift shop, and the Henry Hudson Planetarium.[199] In early 2012, the Irish American
Irish American
Heritage Museum opened in downtown Albany. The museum is home to exhibits highlighting the contributions of the Irish people in America.[200] The Albany Institute of History and Art, on Washington Avenue near the Center Square Neighborhood and State Capitol, is "dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting and promoting interest in the history, art, culture of Albany and the Upper Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
region." The museum's most notable permanent exhibits include an extensive collection of paintings by the Hudson River
Hudson River
School and an exhibit on Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
featuring the Institute's "Albany Mummies." Albany is home to 57 listings on the National Register of Historic Places[201] (NRHP) and five National Historic Landmarks.[202] The Ten Broeck Mansion, a 1797 Federal-style mansion (later renovated in the Greek-Revival style) built for Abraham Ten Broeck
Abraham Ten Broeck
(mayor of Albany 1779–1783 and 1796–1798)[203] is a historic house museum and the headquarters of the Albany County Historical Association;[196] it was added to the NRHP in 1971.[204] Later known as "Arbor Hill", it gave the current neighborhood its name.[205] Literature and film[edit] Albany has been the subject, inspiration, or location for many written and cinematic works. Many non-fiction works have been written on the city. One of the city's more notable claims to fame is Ironweed (1983), the 1984 Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Albany native William Kennedy. Ironweed was the third in a series of books by Kennedy known as the "Albany Cycle".[206][207] The elusive author Trevanian also grew up in Albany and wrote The Crazyladies of Pearl Street (2005), about a North Albany neighborhood along Pearl Street. The book is considered a semi-autobiographical memoir.[208] In 1987, the film version of Ironweed premiered at the Palace Theatre.[209] The movie starred Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
and Meryl Streep, each of whom were nominated for Academy Awards for their performances;[210] much of the filming was done on location in Albany.[209] Most recently the downtown area was the site of filming for the action-thriller Salt, starring Angelina Jolie,[211] and the action-comedy The Other Guys, starring Will Ferrell
Will Ferrell
and Mark Wahlberg.[212] Authors Herman Melville
Herman Melville
and Henry James
Henry James
lived with their families in Albany when young, before their careers. James identified his character Isabel Archer, the heroine of his novel The Portrait of a Lady, as being from Albany.[213] Gregory Maguire, author of Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked
Witch of the West (adapted for the Broadway hit Wicked), grew up in North Albany[214] and graduated from SUNY Albany.[215] Education[edit] See also: List of colleges and universities in New York's Capital District and List of school districts in New York's Capital District

Albany High School is the central high school of the City School District of Albany.[216]

The City School District of Albany
City School District of Albany
(CSDA) operates the city's public school system, which consists of 17 schools and learning centers;[216] in addition, there are 7 charter schools.[217] [r] In the 2015-16 school year, over 9,000 students were enrolled in the public school system.[216] The district had an average class size of 18,[221] an 81-percent graduation rate,[s] and a 5-percent dropout rate.[222] The district's 2010–11 budget is $202.8 million.[223] Although considered by the state to be one of the lowest-achieving high schools in New York, Albany High was listed as the nation's 976th best high school in a 2010 Newsweek/ Washington Post
Washington Post
report.[224] Albany also has a number of private schools, including the coed Bishop Maginn High School and Albany Free School; the all-boys Albany Academy;[t] and the all-girls Academy of the Holy Names and Albany Academy
Albany Academy
for Girls.[226]

State Quad is one of the four iconic dormitory towers at SUNY Albany's Uptown Campus.[227]

Albany has a prominent history in higher education and was ranked third in a Forbes
survey called "The Best Places with the Best Education" in 2005;[228] it ranked top on Forbes' "IQ Campuses" list as part of its 150 Cheap Places to Live series in 2006.[229] The Albany Medical College
Albany Medical College
(private), today part of Albany Medical Center, was founded in 1838. Albany Law School
Albany Law School
(private) is the oldest law school in New York and the fourth-oldest in the country; it was opened in 1851. President William McKinley
William McKinley
was an alumnus. The Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (private) is the second-oldest pharmacy school in New York and the fifteenth-oldest in the United States. The New York State Normal School, one of the oldest teachers colleges in the United States, opened in 1844; it was later known as the State Teachers College. It eventually evolved into the University at Albany, also known as SUNY Albany
SUNY Albany
(public), which inherited the Normal School's original downtown campus on Western Avenue. The center of the campus moved to its current Uptown Campus
in the west end of the city in 1970. SUNY Albany
SUNY Albany
is a unit of the State University of New York
State University of New York
and one of only four university centers in the system.[227] Other colleges and universities in Albany include Empire State
Empire State
College, The College of Saint Rose, Excelsior College, Maria College, Mildred Elley, and Sage College of Albany. Nearby Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
Community College (HVCC) fills the community college niche in the Albany-Troy area.[230] The effect of the campuses on the city's population is substantial: Combining the student bodies of all the aforementioned campuses (except HVCC) results in 63,149 students, or almost 70 percent of the 2008 estimate of Albany's permanent population.[231] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of New York's Capital District

One Commerce Plaza
One Commerce Plaza

Albany's economy, along with that of the Capital District in general, is heavily dependent on government, health care, education, and more recently, technology. Because of these typically steady economic bases, the local economy has been relatively immune to national economic recessions in the past.[233] More than 25 percent of the city's population works in government-related positions.[234] The current recession has been more difficult to deal with because of the many issues on Wall Street, from which the state government receives much of its tax revenue. In March 2010, the Albany area had the lowest unemployment rate of any major metropolitan area in New York, at 7.8%, compared to 9.4% in New York as a whole.[235] Albany's estimated daytime population is more than 162,000. Companies based in Albany include Trans World Entertainment and Clough Harbour. Tech Valley[edit] Main article: Tech Valley

SUNY Polytechnic Institute's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering embodies Albany's emerging high-tech industry.[233]

Since the 2000s, the economy of Albany and the surrounding Capital District has been redirected toward a high technology focus. Tech Valley is a marketing name for the eastern part of New York State, encompassing Albany, the Capital District, and the Hudson Valley.[236] Originated in 1998 to promote the greater Albany area as a high-tech competitor to regions such as Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
and Boston, it has since grown to represent the counties in the Capital District and extending to 19 counties from IBM's Westchester County plants in the south to the Canada–US border in the north. The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
and the State University of New York Polytechnic Institute.[237] Tech Valley encompasses 19 counties straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway,[236] and with heavy state taxpayer subsidy, has experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry,[233] with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing.[238] In 2012, the Albany- Schenectady
area was listed fourth on Forbes Magazine's annual "Best Cities for Jobs" list, noting that job losses in state and local government were overcome by expansion of the high-tech field.[239] Government[edit] See also: Government of New York (state)
New York (state)
and List of mayors of Albany, New York

Albany City Hall, an 1883 Richardsonian Romanesque
Richardsonian Romanesque
structure, is the seat of Albany's government.

Albany has a mayor-council form of government, which functions under the Dongan Charter, adopted in 1686 when Albany was incorporated as a city. A revised charter was adopted by referendum in 1998, but was applied strictly as an amendment to Dongan. This gives Albany the distinction of having the oldest active city charter in the United States and "arguably the longest-running instrument of municipal government in the Western Hemisphere."[9][240] The mayor, who is elected every four years, heads the executive branch of city government.[241] The current mayor, Kathy Sheehan, was first elected in 2013. She replaced former mayor Gerald Jennings
Gerald Jennings
who was mayor for 20 years from 1994 to 2013.[242] The Common Council represents the legislative branch of city government and is made up of fifteen council members (each elected from one ward) and an at-large Common Council President.[240] The current president is Corey Ellis;[243] he began his term in January 2018.[244] While Albany has its own city government, it has also been the seat of Albany County since the county's formation in 1683 and the capital of New York since 1797. As such, the city is home to all branches of the county and state governments, as well as its own. Albany City Hall sits on Eagle Street, opposite the State Capitol,[245] and the Albany County Office Building is on State Street.[246] The state government has offices scattered throughout the city. Albany is in the 20th Congressional district, represented by Paul Tonko (D) in the United States
United States
House of Representatives. The city is represented by Chuck Schumer
Chuck Schumer
(D)[247] and Kirsten Gillibrand
Kirsten Gillibrand
(D)[248] in the United States
United States
Senate. On the state level, the city is in the 44th district in the New York Senate, represented by Neil Breslin (D). In the New York Assembly, the western portion of the city is in the 109th district, represented by Patricia Fahy (D) and the eastern portion is in the 108th district, represented by John T. McDonald III (D). As the seat of Albany County, the city is the location of the county's courts including Family Court, County Court, Surrogate Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Appeals.[249] Albany is the site of a United States
United States
district court for the Northern District of New York courthouse.[250] Politics[edit] Albany's politics have been dominated by the Democratic Party since the 1920s; Daniel (Uncle Dan) O'Connell established a political machine in the city with the election of William Stormont Hackett as mayor in 1922.[251] Prior to that, William Barnes Jr.
William Barnes Jr.
had set up a Republican machine in the 1890s. Barnes' success is attributed to the fact that he owned two newspapers in Albany and that he was the grandson of Thurlow Weed, the influential newspaper publisher and political boss.[252] O'Connell's organization overcame Barnes' in 1922 and survived well into the 1980s (even after his death), as the machine put forth candidates for whom the electorate dutifully voted. In many instances, votes were outright bought;[253] it was not uncommon for the machine to "buy poor folks' loyalty and trust with a fiver".[254] Gerald Jennings' upset in the 1993 Democratic mayoral primary over Harold Joyce, who had the Democratic Party's formal endorsement and had only recently been its county chairman, is often cited as the end of the O'Connell era in Albany.[255] Albany continues to be dominated by the Democratic party as enrollment in the city was 38,862 in 2009 compared to Republican enrollment of 3,487.[256] This gives Democrats a 10–1 advantage in the general election. Every elected city position has been held by a Democrat since 1931.[257] In November 2013, Kathy Sheehan
Kathy Sheehan
became the first woman to be elected Mayor of Albany.[258] Religious life[edit]

The First Church in Albany (Reformed)
First Church in Albany (Reformed)
is the oldest congregation in Upstate New York.[259]

Like most cities of comparable age and size, Albany has well-established Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish communities. Albany is home to the oldest Christian congregation in Upstate New York
Upstate New York
and the Mother Churches of two Christian dioceses. As of June 2010[update], eight churches or religious buildings in the city were listed on the National Register of Historic Places,[201] one of which—St. Peter's Episcopal Church on State Street—is a National Historic Landmark.[202] Established in 1642,[260] the congregation of the First Church in Albany (Reformed), also known as the North Dutch Church (lon North Pearl Street), is the second-oldest Reformed Church in America.[259] The Cathedral
of the Immaculate Conception (Eagle Street and Madison Avenue, built 1852) is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic
diocese, led by Bishop Edward Scharfenberger,[261][262] and the Cathedral
of All Saints (South Swan Street and Elk Street, built 1888) is the cathedral of the Episcopal diocese, led by Bishop William Love.[263][264] The city is home to eleven Catholic
churches[265] and six Episcopal churches.[266] A significant Jewish presence has existed in Albany since as early as 1658,[267] and today includes many synagogues; there are two Conservative, a Chabad-Lubavitch, an Orthodox, and two Reform synagogues.[268] Albany is also home to one of the few Karaite synagogues outside Israel.[269] The city has a membership of between 12,000 and 13,000.[267] Exact numbers on religious denominations in Albany are not readily available. Demographic statistics in the United States
United States
depend heavily on the United States
United States
Census Bureau, which cannot ask about religious affiliation as part of its decennial census.[270] It does compile some national and statewide religious statistics,[271] but these are not representative of a city the size of Albany. One report from 2000 offers religious affiliations for Albany County. According to the data, 59.2% of Albany County residents identified as Christian: 47% are Roman Catholic, 8.4% are mainline Protestants, 2.7% are Evangelical Protestants, and 1.1% are Eastern or Oriental Orthodox Christians. Residents who practice Judaism make up 4.2% of the population and Muslims represent 0.2%.[272] Note that these values are county-wide; city values could be significantly different. Media[edit] Main article: Media in New York's Capital District

(headquarters pictured), WXXA, and Spectrum News
broadcast from within city limits.

The Times Union is Albany's primary daily newspaper and the only one based close to the city; its headquarters moved from within city limits to suburban Colonie in the 1960s after a dispute with Mayor Corning over land needed for expansion.[273] Its circulation totals about 73,000 on weekdays and 143,000 on Sundays.[274] Serving Albany to a lesser degree are The Daily Gazette, based in Schenectady,[275] and The Record, of Troy.[276] Metroland is the alternative newsweekly in the area, publishing each Thursday,[277] while The Business Review is a business weekly published each Friday.[278] The Legislative Gazette, another weekly newspaper, focuses exclusively on issues related to the Legislature
and the state government.[279] The Albany-Schenectady-Troy media market is the 63rd-largest in the country in terms of radio[280] and the 57th-largest in terms of television audiences.[281] It is a broadcast market with historical significance. The pioneering influence of General Electric
General Electric
in Schenectady
directly contributed to the area emerging as the birthplace of station-based television with WRGB; the station was also the first affiliate of NBC.[282] In 1947, the region was home to the first independently owned and operated commercial FM radio
FM radio
station in the United States: W47A.[282] WGY was the second commercial radio station in New York and the twelfth in the nation.[282] The Capital District is home to ABC affiliate WTEN
10,[283] CBS
affiliate WRGB
6 (also operating CW affiliate WCWN
45),[284] Fox affiliate WXXA 23,[285] NBC
affiliate WNYT 13 (also operating MyNetworkTV
affiliate WNYA
51),[286] and PBS
member station WMHT 17. Charter Communications hosts Spectrum News
Capital Region, the area's only local 24-hour news channel.[287] The area has numerous radio stations. Transportation[edit]

Albany-Rensselaer Amtrak

See also: Streets of Albany, New York

Albany International Airport

The Port of Albany-Rensselaer
Port of Albany-Rensselaer
adds $428 million to the Capital District's $70.1 billion gross product.[288]

Highways[edit] The Northway (Interstate 87 north of the New York State Thruway) connects Albany by car to Canada at Champlain; Autoroute 15 continues into Quebec, linking Albany to Montreal. Interstate 90
Interstate 90
connects Albany to both Buffalo and Boston, via the New York State Thruway
New York State Thruway
and the Massachusetts Turnpike
Massachusetts Turnpike
respectively, both of which use I-90 (the NYS Thruway partially, the Massachusetts Turnpike
Massachusetts Turnpike
fully). South of Albany, I-87 becomes part of the Thruway and ends at Interstate 278
Interstate 278
in the Bronx. Albany is literally at the crossroad of I-87 and I-90, creating a junction between Buffalo and Boston, and Montreal
and New York. Interstate 787
Interstate 787
links Albany to Watervliet, Colonie, and Menands; by way of Route 7, I-787 connects to the Northway, offering Saratoga County residents a rather direct, albeit congested route to and from Albany during rush hour.[289] Trains[edit] With the closure of Union Station on Broadway, area passenger-rail service is provided by Amtrak
at the Albany-Rensselaer station across the river in Rensselaer. In 2009, the station saw more than 720,000 passengers, making it Amtrak's second-busiest in New York, behind New York's Penn Station.[290] Amtrak
provides service south to New York City; north to Montreal, and Rutland (Vermont); west to Niagara Falls, Toronto and Chicago; and east to Boston. Airport[edit] Albany's nearest airport is Albany International Airport
Albany International Airport
in Colonie. Major airline service to Albany includes service by: American Airlines, Cape Air, Delta Air Lines, Southwest Airlines, JetBlue Airlines, and United Air Lines; Million Air
Million Air
is the local fixed-base operator.[291] In 2010, Albany had the highest average airfare in New York, though the per-mile cost on its busiest routes was second-lowest in the state.[292] Bus[edit] The Capital District Transportation Authority
Capital District Transportation Authority
(CDTA) provides bus service throughout Albany and the surrounding area, including Schenectady, Troy, and Saratoga Springs.[293] The city was once served by an urban streetcar service maintained by the United Traction Company. As in many American cities, after the advent of the automobile, light rail services declined in Albany and were replaced by bus and taxi services.[294] Greyhound Lines,[295] Trailways,[296] Peter Pan,[297] Short Line, Vermont
Translines, and Yankee Trails[298] buses all serve a downtown terminal. Brown Coach provides commuter service.[299] Low-cost curbside bus service from the SUNY Albany campus and the Rensselaer station is also provided by Megabus, with direct service to New York City. Boat[edit] Albany, long an important Hudson River
Hudson River
port, today serves domestic and international ships and barges through the Port of Albany-Rensselaer, on both sides of the river. The port has the largest mobile harbor crane in the state of New York.[300] The New York State Barge Canal, the ultimate successor of the Erie Canal, is in use today, largely by tourist and private boats.[301]

Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in New York's Capital District

Siena guard Ronald Moore dribbles toward the basket in a game against Loyola in January 2010.[302][303]

Albany has no major league professional sports teams, and minor league teams have low support.[304] The most recent attempt at a minor league team in Albany were the Albany Devils
Albany Devils
ice hockey team, which moved to the city for the 2010–2011 season. They played in the American Hockey League
American Hockey League
and were affiliated with the New Jersey Devils
New Jersey Devils
of the National Hockey League.[305][306] The Devils replaced the Albany River Rats, who played in the Capital Region from 1990 to 2010, when they relocated to Charlotte, North Carolina. They moved to Binghamton, New York
Binghamton, New York
in 2017. The Albany Firebirds
Albany Firebirds
played in the Arena Football League
Arena Football League
from 1990 to 2000, while a second team, originally known as the Albany Conquest
Albany Conquest
and later the Firebirds, played in af2, the AFL's developmental league, from 2002 to 2009. The Tri-City ValleyCats
Tri-City ValleyCats
short season minor league baseball team have played at the Joseph L. Bruno Stadium
Joseph L. Bruno Stadium
on the Hudson Valley Community College campus in North Greenbush since 2002. Prior to the ValleyCats' arrival, the Albany-Colonie Diamond Dogs (1995–2002) played at Heritage Park in Colonie; due to financial pressures, and facing impending competition from the ValleyCats, the franchise folded in 2002.[307] The local basketball team is the Albany Legends (International Basketball League), who play in the Washington Avenue Armory.[308] The Albany Patroons
Albany Patroons
were two basketball teams that played at the Armory. Both folded due to financial problems.[309] With the large number of local colleges and universities around Albany, college sports are popular. The University at Albany's Great Danes play at the Division I level in all sports. The football team is a member of the Colonial Athletic Association (CAA), while all other sports teams play as members of the America East Conference (AEC).[310] In 2006, UAlbany became the first SUNY-affiliated school to send a team to the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament.[311] UAlbany has also hosted the New York Giants
New York Giants
training camp since 1996.[312] The Siena Saints
Siena Saints
have seen a rise in popularity after their men's basketball team made it to the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship (March Madness) in 2008, 2009, and 2010.[313] All 18 Saints teams are Division I and play in the Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference (MAAC).[314] Although Siena's campus is in nearby Colonie, the men's basketball team plays at the TU Center.[302]

Sister cities[edit] Albany has five official sister city agreements and two other twin-city relationships. The city of Nijmegen, Netherlands
Nijmegen, Netherlands
connected with Albany following World War II. With the help of the Catholic university in Albany, the Catholic
University of Nijmegen
(Radboud University Nijmegen) rebuilt its partly destroyed library, with over 50,000 books being donated to the Dutch university. To show its gratitude for post-war assistance, the city sent Albany 50,000 tulip bulbs in 1948; this act led to the establishment of the annual Tulip Festival.[102] Most of the other connections were made in the 1980s during Mayor Whalen's term in office as part of his cultural expansion program.[102] The official sister cities are:[315]

Nassau, Bahamas; Nijmegen, Netherlands; Quebec
City, Quebec; Tula, Russia; and Verona, Italy.

The additional twin-city relationships are with:[102]

Ghent, Belgium Extremadura
(region), Spain.

See also[edit]

Capital District portal Geography portal Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
portal New York portal

List of capitals in the United States List of cities in New York List of incorporated places in New York's Capital District List of people associated with Albany County, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Albany, New York Neighborhoods of Albany, New York


^ In this instance, assiduity, "the quality of acting with constant and careful attention."[2] ^ The State University of New York
State University of New York
at Albany (its official name) is also known locally as the University at Albany, SUNY Albany, UAlbany (especially when talking about athletics), and simply SUNY. ^ The Dongan Charter
Dongan Charter
incorporated Albany three months after New York City's charter was ratified. However, the latter forfeited its charter during Leisler's Rebellion, making Albany's the oldest effective charter in the country.[21][22] ^ This name would later be adopted by the city of Schenectady, to the west.[25] ^ James Stuart (1633–1701), brother and successor of Charles II, was both the Duke of York
Duke of York
and Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany
before being crowned James II of England and James VII of Scotland
in 1685. His title of Duke of York is the source of the name of the province of New York.[33] ^ The Plan of Union's original intention was to unite the colonies in defense against aggressions of the French to the north; it was not an attempt to become independent from the auspices of the British crown.[44] ^ A rough grid pattern was established in 1764, aligning the streets with Clinton Avenue, which marked the northern border of Albany at the time. Patroon of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck
Manor of Rensselaerswyck
Stephen Van Rensselaer II followed the same directional system north of Clinton Avenue on his lands; however, the two systems were not related otherwise, which is why cross streets north and south of Clinton Avenue do not align. The stockade surrounding the city was taken down shortly before the Revolutionary War, allowing for expansion. De Witt, city surveyor at the time, continued the grid pattern to the west and renamed on his 1794 map any streets that had honored British Royalty. Hawk Street is the only road that retained its original name; the rest were renamed after birds and mammals.[51][52] ^ "The Colonie" made up the current area of Arbor Hill and was the more urban part of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck, which surrounded Albany.[58] It is the source of the name of the current town and village of Colonie.[59] ^ Grondahl summarizes it as, "This hard-line position of isolationism on the part of the machine was a curse economically – but a strange blessing unintentionally in architectural terms. While downtown went to seed and plans for large-scale construction and improvements came to a virtual standstill in Albany without federal money, pockets of the city's historic housing stock escaped the wrecking ball."[92] ^ The Empire State Plaza
Empire State Plaza
was originally known as the South Mall; the South Mall Arterial
South Mall Arterial
is the only remnant of that naming scheme. ^ For example, the Plaza has four traffic tunnels, two intended for through traffic, and two for local traffic (only the outer, local traffic tunnels are in use); the Arterial ends abruptly between Jay Street and Hudson Avenue just west of South Swan Street (42°39′6.17″N 73°45′43.54″W / 42.6517139°N 73.7620944°W / 42.6517139; -73.7620944); the east end of the Dunn Memorial Bridge ends abruptly in Rensselaer (42°38′33.33″N 73°44′44.78″W / 42.6425917°N 73.7457722°W / 42.6425917; -73.7457722); and Henry Johnson Boulevard, which would have extended as part of the Mid-Crosstown Arterial, ends abruptly at Livingston Avenue (42°39′49.92″N 73°45′30.58″W / 42.6638667°N 73.7584944°W / 42.6638667; -73.7584944). ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ According to the National Weather Service, the snowfall data has been readjusted as of June 3, 2015. As such, snowfall data is based the source at Albany Snowfall Normals ^ Official records for Albany kept January 1874 to May 1938 at downtown and at Albany Int'l since June 1938. For more information, see Threadex ^ In 2009, Bank of America
Bank of America
(which now owns FleetBank, the bank that eventually bought Norstar) consolidated its operations in an office building on State Street, leaving the former train station vacant.[157] Mayor Corning made great efforts to save the building, which had been owned by his great-grandfather's railroad a hundred years before. He was able to do it when governor Rockefeller brought state money in to purchase the building.[97] ^ The percentages listed here were calculated using the raw population data given by the Census Bureau divided by the total population, rounded to the nearest hundredth. Note that these percentages were calculated using the total population value of 97,856 as the divisor, not the 94,233 people claiming one race.[166] ^ These values were given in 1999 dollars; here they have been adjusted for inflation.[166] ^ Albany was once home to 12 charter schools[218] until the closing of New Covenant Charter School in 2010.[219] It was announced in July 2010 that the Harriet Gibbons High School, an alternative high school for at-risk ninth graders, would close after a negative report from the State Department of Education demanded the elimination of ineffective programs.[220] ^ The Accountability and Overview Report[221] puts the class of 2009 at 513 students and the Comprehensive Information Report[222] states that 416 of them graduated. ^ Christian Brothers Academy was located in various Albany locations throughout the 19th century and then moved to the University Heights neighborhood in 1937. The school moved out of the city to Colonie in 1998 and has remained there since.[225]


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MSN Encarta
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Anderson, George Baker. Landmarks of Rensselaer County New York. Syracuse, New York: D. Mason and Company; 1897. OCLC
1728151.(Full text via the Internet Archive.) Brodhead, John Romeyn. History of the State of New York. New York City: Harper & Brothers, Publishers; 1874. OCLC
458890237. Burger, Joanna. Whispers in the Pines: a Naturalist in the Northeast. Piscataway, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press; 2006. ISBN 0-8135-3794-0.(Full text via Google
Books.) French, John Homer. Historical and Statistical Gazetteer of New York State. Syracuse, New York: R. Pearsall Smith; 1860. OCLC 224691273.(Full text via Google
Books.) Grondahl, Paul. Mayor Erastus Corning: Albany Icon, Albany Enigma. Albany: State University of New York
State University of New York
Press; 2007. ISBN 978-0-7914-7294-1. Howell, George Rogers. Bi-centennial History of Albany: History of the County of Albany, N.Y. from 1609 to 1886 (Volume I). Jonathan Tenney. New York City: W. W. Munsell & Co; 1886. OCLC
11543538.(Full text via Google
Books.) Howell, George Rogers. Bi-centennial History of Albany: History of the County of Albany, N.Y. from 1609 to 1886 (Volume II). Jonathan Tenney. New York City: W. W. Munsell & Co; 1886. OCLC
11543538.(Full text via Google
Books.) McEneny, John. Albany, Capital City on the Hudson: An Illustrated History. Sun Valley, California: American Historical Press; 2006. ISBN 1-892724-53-7. National Municipal League. Proceedings of the Conference for Good City Government and the Annual Meeting of the National Municipal League (Volume 5). Philadelphia: Selheimer Printing Company; 1896. OCLC 40371852. p. 137–148.(Full text via Google
Books.) Reynolds, Cuyler. Albany Chronicles: A History of the City Arranged Chronologically, From the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company; 1906. OCLC
457804870.(Full text via Google Books.) Rittner, Don. Then & Now: Albany. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing; 2002. ISBN 0-7385-1142-0. Rittner, Don. Remembering Albany: Heritage on the Hudson. Charleston, South Carolina: History Press; 2009. ISBN 978-1-59629-770-8. Venema, Janny. Beverwijck: A Dutch Village on the American Frontier, 1652–1664. Hilversum: Verloren; 2003. ISBN 0-7914-6079-7. Waite, Diana S. Albany Architecture: A Guide to the City. Albany: Mount Ida Press; 1993. ISBN 0-9625368-1-4. Whish, John D. Albany Guide Book. Albany: J.B. Lyon Company; 1917. OCLC
17438709.(Full text via Google

Further reading[edit]

The Albany Lumber
Trade: Its History and Extent. Albany: The Argus Company; 1872. OCLC
8260640.(Full text via Google
Books.) The Charter of the City of Albany; and the Laws and Ordinances Ordained and Established by the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the Said City, in Common Council Convened. Albany: Barber and Southwick; 1800. OCLC
55813771.(Full text via Google
Books.) Button, Daniel Evan. Take City Hall!. Albany: Whitston Publishing Company; 2003. ISBN 978-0-87875-542-4. Gehring, Charles T. Fort Orange Records 1656–1678. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press; 2000. ISBN 978-0-585-30922-4. Kennedy, William. O Albany! Improbable City of Political Wizards, Fearless Ethnics, Spectacular Aristocrats, Splendid Nobodies, and Underrated Scoundrels. Albany: Viking Press; 1983. ISBN 978-0-670-52087-9. McEneny, John. Albany: Capital City on the Hudson. Sun Valley, California: American Historical Press; 1998. ISBN 978-0-965-47549-5. Munsell, Joel. The Annals of Albany. 2nd ed. Albany: Joel Munsell; 1869. OCLC
11500714. Munsell, Joel. Collections on the History of Albany: from its Discovery to the Present Time (Volume 1). Albany: Joel Munsell; 1865. OCLC
2750413.(Full text via Google
Books.) Rittner, Don. Images of America: Albany. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing; 2000. ISBN 0-7385-0088-7. Roberts, Warren. A Place in History: Albany in the Age of Revolution, 1775–1825. Albany: SUNY Press; 2010. ISBN 978-1-4384-3329-5. Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds). Exploring Historic Dutch New York. New York: Museum of the City of New York / Dover Publications; 2011. ISBN 978-0-486-48637-6. Weise, Arthur James. The History of the City of Albany, New York, from the Discovery of the Great River in 1524 by Verrazzano to the Present Time. Albany: E.H. Bender; 1884. OCLC

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAlbany, New Yorkat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News
from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

Official website Albany, New York
Albany, New York
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Places adjacent to Albany, New York

Town of Colonie Hamlet of Karner; Village of Colonie Town of Colonie Hamlets of Loudonville, West Albany, and Roessleville; Village of Menands Hudson River Town of North Greenbush

Town of Guilderland Hamlets of McKownville and Westmere

City of Albany

Hudson River City of Rensselaer

Town of Bethlehem Hamlets of North Bethlehem and Slingerlands Town of Bethlehem Hamlets of Normansville, Delmar, Elsmere, Bethlehem Center, and Glenmont Hudson River Town of East Greenbush

v t e

Albany, New York



History (Prehistory–1664, 1664–1784, 1784–1860, 1860–1900, 1900–1942, 1942–1983, 1983–present) Architecture National Register of Historic Places listings

17th century

Mohawks Mahicans Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
(1621–1791) Fort Nassau (1614) Fort Orange (1624) Rensselaerswijck
(1629–1840) Beverwijck
(1652–1664) Stadt Huys
Stadt Huys
(1635, 1646, or 1673) Fort Frederick (1676–1789) Dongan Charter
Dongan Charter

18th century

Van Ostrande-Radliff House
Van Ostrande-Radliff House
(1728) Quackenbush House
Quackenbush House
(1736) Albany Plan of Union
Albany Plan of Union
(1754) Schuyler Mansion
Schuyler Mansion

19th century

Clermont (1807) Erie Canal
Erie Canal
(1825) Albany Basin
Albany Basin
(1825) Albany Lumber
District (1830s–1908) City Hall (1832) Governor's Mansion (1856) City Hall (1883) New York State Capitol
New York State Capitol

20th century

Albany Municipal Airport (1908) Miss Albany Diner
Miss Albany Diner
(1941) W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus
W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus
(1956–1994) Albany County Airport (1960) Empire State Plaza
Empire State Plaza
(1965–1978) Times Union Center
Times Union Center
(1990) Albany International Airport
Albany International Airport

21st century

Hudson River
Hudson River
Way (2002) Albany Convention Center
Albany Convention Center


Mayor of Albany (current: Kathy Sheehan) Albany City Hall Coat of arms Albany Fire Department See also: Government of New York (state)


Arbor Hill Buckingham Pond Center Square Chinatown Delaware
Avenue Dudley Heights Dunes Eagle Hill Helderberg Hudson-Park Melrose New Albany Normansville North Albany Park South Pine Hills Sheridan Hollow South End (Kenwood, Krank Park, Mansion District, Mount Hope, The Pastures, Second Avenue) University Heights Washington Park West Hill Whitehall


Thomas Dongan
Thomas Dongan
(1634–1715) Peter Schuyler
Peter Schuyler
(1657–1724) Erastus Corning
Erastus Corning
(1794–1872) Daniel P. O'Connell (1885–1977) Erastus Corning 2nd
Erastus Corning 2nd
(1909–1983) John McEneny
John McEneny



Albany Pine Bush Westerlo Island


Buckingham Lake Hudson River
Hudson River
(Valley) Normans Kill Patroon Creek Rensselaer Lake Tivoli Lake Washington Park Lake



Academy of the Holy Names The Albany Academy Albany Academy
Albany Academy
for Girls Albany Free School Bishop Maginn High School City School District of Albany
City School District of Albany
(Albany High School) LaSalle School See also: List of school districts in New York's Capital District


Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences Albany Law School Albany Medical College College of Saint Rose Excelsior College Maria College Mildred Elley Sage College of Albany SUNY Albany See also: List of colleges and universities in New York's Capital District


Episcopal Diocese of Albany
Episcopal Diocese of Albany
( Cathedral
of All Saints, Bishop William Love) Roman Catholic
Diocese of Albany ( Cathedral
of the Immaculate Conception, Bishop Howard Hubbard)


Culture in New York's Capital District Sports in New York's Capital District


Adirondack Northway Albany–Rensselaer Rail Station Albany International Airport CDTA Interstate 87 Interstate 90 Interstate 787 New York State Thruway Port of Albany–Rensselaer Streets of Albany, New York

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Municipalities and communities of Albany County, New York, United States

County seat: Albany


Albany Cohoes Watervliet


Berne Bethlehem Coeymans Colonie Green Island Guilderland Knox New Scotland Rensselaerville Westerlo


Altamont Colonie Green Island Menands Ravena Voorheesville


Preston-Potter Hollow Westmere

Other hamlets

Alcove Beckers Corners Boght Corners Clarksville Coeymans Coeymans Hollow Crescent Station Delmar Dormansville Dunsbach Ferry Elsmere Feura Bush Fort Hunter Fullers Glenmont Guilderland Guilderland Center Karner Latham Lisha Kill Loudonville Mannsville McKownville Medusa New Salem Newtonville Normansville Roessleville Selkirk Slingerlands South Bethlehem Verdoy West Albany

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Capital District, New York

Central communities

Albany (history City Hall coat of arms) Schenectady
(City Hall) Troy (history) List of all incorporated places

Largest communities (over 20,000 in 2010)

Bethlehem Clifton Park Town of Colonie Glenville Guilderland Halfmoon Niskayuna Queensbury Rotterdam Saratoga Springs

Medium-sized communities (10,000 to 20,000 in 2000)

City of Amsterdam Brunswick Cohoes East Greenbush Glens Falls Gloversville Malta North Greenbush Schodack Watervliet Wilton

Small communities (5,000 to 10,000 in 2000)

Town of Amsterdam Ballston Spa Cobleskill Village of Colonie Duanesburg City of Johnstown Town of Johnstown Kinderhook Mechanicville New Scotland Rensselaer Sand Lake Scotia Town of Stillwater Waterford


Albany Columbia Fulton Greene Montgomery Rensselaer Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Warren Washington


Mohawks Mahicans Fort Orange Rensselaerswyck Beverwyck Albany Plan
Albany Plan
of Union Timeline of town creation Toponymies of places Tech Valley


Hudson River
Hudson River
(Valley) Mohawk River Erie Canal Lake Albany Lake George Albany Pine Bush
Albany Pine Bush
(Rensselaer Lake Woodlawn Preserve) Adirondack Mountains Catskill Mountains Rensselaer Plateau

Religion and culture

Culture in New York's Capital District Sports in New York's Capital District Episcopal Diocese of Albany Roman Catholic
Diocese of Albany


List of school districts List of colleges and universities


Albany Times Union Metroland Glens Falls Post-Star The Saratogian Schenectady
Gazette Troy Record


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Broadcast television in the Capital District of New York and Berkshire County, Massachusetts, including Albany and Pittsfield

Reception may vary by location and some stations may only be viewable with cable television

Local stations

(6.1 CBS, 6.2 TBD, 6.3 Comet) WTEN
(10.1 ABC, 10.2 GetTV, 10.3 Justice, 10.4 Escape) WNYT (13.1 NBC, 13.2 MeTV, 13.3 H&I) WMHT (17.1 PBS, 17.2 Create, 17.3 World, 17.4 PBS
(23.1 Fox, 23.2 Capital OTB TV, 23.3 Laff, 23.4 Bounce TV) WNGN-LP 35 / WNGX-LD 42 Analog (FN) WCWN
(45.1 The CW, 45.2 Charge!, 45.3 CBS
simulcast) WNYA
(51.1 MNTV, 51.2 Light TV, 51.3 Decades)

Outlying area stations

WYCX-CD (2.1/.2 Retro, 2.3 Tuff TV; Manchester, VT) W04AJ 4 (PBS; Glens Falls, via WMHT) W04BD 4 (PBS; Schoharie, via WMHT) WNCE-CD (8.1 YTA; Glens Falls) WYBN-LD
(14.1 BUZZR, 14.2 ASN, 14.3 Tuff TV, 14.4 France 24, 14.5 Rev'n, 14.6 LATV, 14.7 This TV; Cobleskill) WNYT 18 (NBC, Troy) W21CP-D 21 (NBC, Gloversville, via WNYT) W28DA-D 28 (NBC, Pittsfield, MA, via WNYT) W38DL-D 38 (NBC, Adams, MA, via WNYT) WVBG-LP 41 Analog (Ind; Greenwich) WNYT 45 (NBC, Glens Falls) W47CM 47 Analog (silent; Glens Falls) WYPX (55.1 Ion, 55.2 qubo, 55.3 Life; Amsterdam)

Adjacent locals

Burlington, VT/Plattsburgh

(3.1 CBS, 3.2 Movies!, 3.3 Ion; Burlington, VT) WVER (28.1 PBS/VPBS, 28.2 PBS+/World, 28.3 Create, 28.4 PBS
Kids; Rutland)

New York City

(5.1 Fox, 5.2 Movies!, 5.4 Light TV; New York) WWOR-TV
(9.1 MNTV, 9.3 Buzzr, 9.4 H&I; Secaucus, NJ) WEPT-CD (15.1 AMGTV; Newburgh) WRNN-TV
(48.1 Ind / AMGTV
/ JTV / News, 48.2 Stadium, 48.3 Arirang TV, 48.4 NHK World; Kingston)


(2.1 NBC, 2.2 CBS, 2.3 CW, 2.4 MeTV; Utica) WUTR
(20.1 ABC, 20.2 MNTV, 20.3 Grit, 20.4 Bounce TV; Utica)

Cable-only stations

MSG Network MSG Plus Spectrum News
Capital Region SNY YES

Defunct stations

TW3 WEDG-TV (UPN, cable-only) WCDC-TV 19 (CBS/ABC, Adams, MA) WCDB 29 (CBS, Hagaman) W52DF 52 (TBN, Glens Falls)


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Radio stations in the Albany–Schenectady–Troy market

By AM frequency

590 8101 900 930 980 1160 1190 1230 1240 1300 1330 1340 1400 1440 1460 1490 1540 1570

By FM frequency

88.3 89.1 89.7 89.9 90.3 90.7 (Acra) 90.7 (Pattersonville) 90.9 91.1 91.5 92.3 92.9 93.1 93.5 93.7 94.3 94.5 94.9 95.5 96.3 96.7 97.3 97.5 (Albany) 97.5 (Hoosick Falls) 97.7 97.9 98.3 98.5 98.7 99.1 99.5 99.9 100.5 100.9 101.1 101.3 101.9 102.3 102.7 102.9 103.1 103.5 103.9 104.3 104.5 104.7 104.9 105.7 106.1 106.5 107.1 107.3 107.7

NOAA Weather Radio frequency


Digital radio by frequency & subchannel

810 980 89.1-1 89.1-2 90.3-1 90.3-2 98.3-1 98.3-2 99.5-1 99.5-2 102.3-1 102.3-2 103.1-1 103.1-2 105.7-1 105.7-2 106.5-1 106.5-2 107.7-1 107.7-2 107.7-3

By callsign





















WCKL/560 WGFM/99.5 WHRL/103.1 WRSA/1280 WROW-FM/95.5 WTRI WXKW

1 = Clear-channel stations with extended nighttime coverage.

Capital District Portal

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 State of New York

Albany (capital)


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v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in New York

Bill de Blasio (New York City) Byron Brown (Buffalo) Lovely Warren (Rochester) Mike Spano (Yonkers) Ben Walsh (Syracuse) Kathy Sheehan (Albany)

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Northeastern United States


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Hudson River
Hudson River


Batten Kill Black Meadow Creek Bowery Creek Breakneck Brook Canajoharie Creek Caroga Creek Casperkill Catskill Creek Cayadutta Creek Cedar River Claverack Creek Clove Brook Cobleskill Creek Coeymans Creek Coxsackie Creek Cross River Croton River East Branch Croton River East Branch Sacandaga River East Canada Creek Eightmile Creek Esopus Creek Fall Kill Fishkill Creek Fonteyn Kill Fulmer Creek Hannacrois Creek Honnedaga Brook Hoosic River Jackson Creek Jan De Bakkers Kill Kaaterskill Creek Kayaderosseras Kinderhook Creek Kisco River Lake Creek Little Shawangunk Kill Maritje Kill Miami River Mill Creek Mohawk River Moodna Creek Moordener Kill Moyer Creek Muddy Kill Neepaulakating Creek Normans Kill Nowadaga Creek Onesquethaw Creek Oriskany Creek Otsquago Creek Otter Kill Papakating Creek Peekskill Hollow Creek Pocantico River Pochuck Creek Poesten Kill Potic Creek Quassaick Creek Roeliff Jansen Kill Rondout Creek Sacandaga River Sauquoit Creek Saw Kill Saw Mill River Sawyer Kill Schoharie Creek Schroon River Shawangunk Kill Sparkill Creek Sprout Creek Steele Creek Stockport Creek Stony Clove Creek Taghkanic Creek Tenmile Creek Tin Brook Titicus River Verkeerder Kill Vloman Kill Wallkill River Walloomsac River Wappinger Creek Wawayanda Creek West Branch Papakating Creek West Branch Sacandaga River West Canada Creek West Kill Wynants Kill


Alcove Reservoir Ashokan Reservoir Basic Creek Reservoir Beacon Reservoir Bog Brook Reservoir Cedar Lake Chadwick Lake Chub Lake Cross River Reservoir Croton Falls Reservoir Dyken Pond East Branch Reservoir East Caroga Lake Fall Lake Franklinton Vlaie Garnet Lake Glenmere Lake Great Sacandaga Lake Great Vlaie Henderson Lake Honnedaga Lake Indian Lake Lizard Pond Lake Maratanza Muscoot Reservoir Lake Neepaulin New Croton Reservoir Notch Lake Piseco Lake Lake Pleasant Queechy Lake Rondout Reservoir Sacandaga Lake Saratoga Lake Sturgeon Pool Surprise Lake Sylvan Lake Lake Tear of the Clouds Thompson Pond Titicus Reservoir Trout Lake West Caroga Lake Whaley Lake Winnisook Lake


Albany Alpine Amsterdam Bayonne Beacon Bedford Beekman Bennington Bethlehem Blooming Grove Carmel Catskill Cliffside Park Clifton Park Cohoes Colonie Cortlandt East Fishkill East Greenbush Edgewater Englewood Cliffs Fishkill Fort Lee Glenville Gloversville Greenburgh Guilderland Halfmoon Herkimer Hoboken Hyde Park Jersey City Kingston Kirkland LaGrange Lloyd Malta Middletown Milton Monroe Montgomery Moreau Mount Pleasant New Castle New Hartford New Paltz New Windsor New York City Newburgh Niskayuna North Adams North Bergen Ossining Peekskill Plattekill Poughkeepsie Queensbury Rome Rotterdam Saugerties Schenectady Shawangunk Somers Southeast Sparta Tenafly Troy Utica Vernon Wallkill Wappinger Warwick Weehawken West New York Whitestown Wilton Yonkers Yorktown


Adirondack Mountains Adirondack Park Ashokan Bridge Blenheim Bridge Buskirk Bridge Catskill Mountains Champlain Canal Cohoes Falls Copeland Bridge Delaware
and Hudson Canal Eagleville Bridge East River Erie Canal George Washington Bridge Harlem River Helderberg Escarpment Hudson Highlands
Hudson Highlands
State Park Kaaterskill Clove Kaaterskill Falls Kill Van Kull Kingston–Rhinecliff Bridge Mid-Hudson Bridge Newburgh–Beacon Bridge New Tappan Zee Bridge The Palisades Perrine's Bridge Plotter Kill Preserve Pollepel Island Popolopen Rexleigh Bridge Rip Van Winkle Bridge Salisbury Center Bridge Schoharie Bridge Shushan Bridge Sleepy Hollow Statue of Liberty Taconic Mountains Tappan Zee Bridge Verkeerder Kill
Verkeerder Kill
Falls Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Walkway over the Hudson Wallkill River
Wallkill River
National Wildlife Refuge West Canada Lake Wilderness Area West Point

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157144736 GND: 4208941-4 BNF: cb1194