HOME
The Info List - Alamannia





Alamannia
Alamannia
or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Germanic Alemanni
Alemanni
after they broke through the Roman limes in 213. The Alemanni expanded from the Main basin during the 3rd century, raiding the Roman provinces and settling on the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
from the 4th century. Ruled by independent tribal kings during the 4th to 5th centuries, Alamannia
Alamannia
lost its independence and became a duchy of the Frankish Empire in the 6th century, and with the beginning formation of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
under Conrad I in 911 became the Duchy of Swabia. The term Suebia was often used interchangeably with Alamannia
Alamannia
in the 10th to 12th centuries.[1] The territory of Alamannia
Alamannia
as it existed from the 7th to 9th centuries was centered on Lake Constance
Lake Constance
and included the High Rhine, the Black Forest and the Alsace
Alsace
on either side of the Upper Rhine, the upper Danube
Danube
basin as far as the confluence with the Lech, with an unclear boundary towards Burgundy
Burgundy
to the south-west in the Aare
Aare
basin (the Aargau). Raetia
Raetia
Curiensis, although not part of Alemannia, was ruled by Alemannic counts, and became part of the Duchy of Swabia
Duchy of Swabia
as it was established by Burchard I. The territory corresponds to what was still the areal of Alemannic German in the modern period, i.e. French Alsace, German Baden
Baden
and Swabia, German-speaking Switzerland
German-speaking Switzerland
and Austrian Vorarlberg.[2]

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Tribal kingdoms 2.2 Merovingian
Merovingian
duchy 2.3 Carolingian
Carolingian
rule

3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References

Geography[edit] Further information: List of Alamannic pagi The Alamanni
Alamanni
were pushed south from their original area of settlement in the Main basin and in the 5th and 6th century settled new territory on either side of the Rhine. Alemannia under Frankish rule later the Duchy of Swabia
Duchy of Swabia
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
covered a territory that was more or less undisputed during the 7th to 13th centuries, organised into counties or pagi. In Swabia: Hegowe (Hegau), between Lake Constance, the upper Danube and the Swabian Jura. Perahtoltaspara (Berchtoldsbaar) in the upper Neckar
Neckar
basin, left of the upper Danube
Danube
as far as Ulm, including the source of the Danube. Nekargowe (named for the Neckar, capital Canstatt). Swiggerstal (the modern Ermstal), Filiwigawe (Filsgau, named for the Fils), Trachgowe (Drachgau, near Schwäbisch Gmünd) and Alba (Albuch) between the Neckar
Neckar
and the Danube. Duria (Duriagau) between Ulm
Ulm
and Augsburg. Albegowe (Allgäu), Keltinstein (between Geltnach and Wertach) and Augestigowe (capital Augsburg) along the Lech forming the border to Bavaria. Rezia (Ries, ultimately from the name of the Roman province of Raetia) in the Northeastern corner, left of the Danube
Danube
(capital Nördlingen). Linzgowe (Linzgau) and Argungowe (named for Argen River) north of Lake Constance. Eritgau, Folcholtespara (Folcholtsbaar), Rammegowe (Rammachgau) and Illargowe (named for the Iller, capital Memmingen) on the right side of the Danube. In Baden: Brisigowe (Breisgau) along the Upper Rhine
Rhine
opposite Sundgau, and Mortunova, the later Ortenau, along the Upper Rhine
Rhine
opposite Nordgau. Alpegowe (Albgau), centered on St. Blaise Abbey, Black Forest In modern France (the Alsace): Suntgowe (Sundgau) and Nordgowe (Nordgau) In modern Switzerland: Augestigowe (the territory surrounding Augst) and Turgowe (modern Thurgau, named for the Thur; Zürichgau
Zürichgau
was detached from Thurgau
Thurgau
in the 8th century) The territory between Alamannia
Alamannia
and Upper Burgundy
Burgundy
was known as Argowe (modern Aargau, named for the Aare). The pertinence of this territory to either Alamannia
Alamannia
or Upper Burgundy
Burgundy
was disputed. The county of Raetia Curiensis
Raetia Curiensis
was absorbed into Alamannia
Alamannia
in the early 10th century. It comprised the Ringowe (Rheingau, named for the Rhine) and Retia proper. History[edit] Tribal kingdoms[edit] Main article: Alamanni Further information: Crisis of the Third Century Originally a loose confederation of unrelated tribes, the Alemanni underwent coalescence or ethnogenesis during the 3rd century, and were ruled by kings throughout the 4th and 5th centuries until 496, when they were defeated by Clovis I
Clovis I
of the Franks
Franks
at the Battle of Tolbiac. The Alemanni
Alemanni
during the Roman Empire period were divided into a number of cantons or goviae, each presided by a tribal king. But there appears to have been the custom of the individual kings uniting under the leadership of a single king in military expeditions.

Area settled by the Alamanni
Alamanni
during the 3rd to 6th centuries; notable raids or battles of the 3rd to 4th centuries are also indicated.

Some kings of the Alemanni
Alemanni
of the 4th and 5th centuries are known by name, the first being Chrocus (died 306), a military leader who organized raids across the limes during the 3rd century. Chnodomarius (fl. 350) supported Constantius II
Constantius II
in the rebellion of Magnentius. Chnodomarius was the leader of the Alemannic army in the battle of Strasbourg in 357. Macrian, Hariobaud, Urius, Ursicinus, Vadomar, and Vestralp were Alemannic kings who in 359 made treaties with Julian the Apostate. Macrian was deposed in an expedition ordered by Valentinian I
Valentinian I
in 370. Macrian appears to have been involved in building a large alliance of Alemannic tribes against Rome, which earned him the title of turbarum rex artifex ("king and crafter of unrest"). The Romans installed Fraomar as a successor of Marcian, but the Bucinobantes would not accept him and he was expelled and Macrian restored and Valentinian made the Bucinobantes his foederati in the war against the Franks. Macrian was killed on campaign against the Franks, in an ambush laid by the Frankish king Mallobaudes. Gibuld
Gibuld
(fl. 470) is the last known king of the Alemanni. His raid on Passau
Passau
is mentioned in the vita of Saint Lupus. The name of Gibuld's successor who was defeated at Tolbiac is not known. Merovingian
Merovingian
duchy[edit] After their defeat in 496, the Alemanni
Alemanni
bucked the Frankish yoke and put themselves under the protection of Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great
of the Ostrogoths,[citation needed] but after his death they were again subjugated by the Franks
Franks
(539),[citation needed] under Theuderic I and Theudebert I. Thereafter, Alamannia
Alamannia
was a nominal dukedom within Francia. Though ruled by their own dukes, it is not likely that they were very often united under one duke in the 6th and 7th centuries. The Alemanni most frequently appear as auxiliaries in expeditions to Italy. The Duchy of Alsace
Alsace
was Alemannic, but it was ruled by a line of Frankish dukes and the region around the upper Danube
Danube
and Neckar
Neckar
rivers was ruled by the Ahalolfing family and not by the ducal house which ruled central Alamannia
Alamannia
around Lake Constance. Rhaetia
Rhaetia
too, though Alamannic, was ruled by the Victorids
Victorids
coterminously with the Diocese of Chur. Alamannia
Alamannia
was Christianised during the 7th century, although not as thoroughly[dubious – discuss] as either Francia
Francia
to its west or Bavaria
Bavaria
to its east. The first Alamannic law code, Pactus Alamannorum, dates to this period. The Roman dioceses of Strasbourg and Basel covered Alsace
Alsace
and that of Chur, as mentioned, Rhaetia. Alamannia itself only had a diocese in the east, at Augsburg
Augsburg
(early 7th century). There were two Roman bishoprics, Windisch and Octodurum, which were moved early to other sites ( Avenches
Avenches
and Sitten respectively). Western Alamannia
Alamannia
did eventually (7th century) receive a diocese (Constance) through the cooperation of the bishops of Chur and the Merovingian
Merovingian
monarchs. The foundation of Constance is obscure, though it was the largest diocese in Germany
Germany
throughout the Merovingian
Merovingian
and early Carolingian
Carolingian
era. The dioceses of Alamannia, including Chur, which had been a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Milan, were placed under the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Mainz
Archdiocese of Mainz
by the Carolingians. After the death of Dagobert I
Dagobert I
in 638, Alamannia, like Bavaria, Aquitaine, and Brittany, broke its ties with its Frankish sovereigns and struggled for independence. This was largely successful until the early 8th century, when a series of campaigns waged by the Arnulfing mayors of the palace reduced Alamannia
Alamannia
to a province of Francia
Francia
once again. It was, however, during this period of de facto independence that the Alamanni
Alamanni
began to be ruled by one duke, though Alsace
Alsace
and Rhaetia
Rhaetia
remained outside of the scope of Alamannia. Between 709 and 712, Pepin of Heristal
Pepin of Heristal
fought against Lantfrid, who appears as dux of the Alamanni, and who committed to writing the second Alamannic law code, the Lex Alamannorum. In 743, Pepin the Short and Carloman waged a campaign to reduce Alamannia
Alamannia
and in 746 Carloman began a final thrust to subdue the Alamannic nobility. Several thousand Alamanni
Alamanni
noblemen were summarily arrested, tried, and executed for treason at a Council at Cannstatt. Carolingian
Carolingian
rule[edit] See also: Duchy of Swabia During the reign of Louis the Pious, there were tendencies to renewed independence in Alamannia, and the 830s were marked by bloody feuds between the Alamannic and Rhaetian nobility vying for dominion over the area. Following the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
of 843, Alamannia
Alamannia
became a province of East Francia, the kingdom of Louis the German, the precursor of the Kingdom of Germany. It was called a regnum in contemporary sources, though this does not necessarily mean that it was a kingdom or subkingdom. At times, however, it was. It was granted to Charles the Bald
Charles the Bald
in 829, though it is not certain whether he was recognised as duke or king. It was certainly a kingdom, including Alsace
Alsace
and Rhaetia, when it was granted to Charles the Fat in the division of East Francia
East Francia
in 876. Under Charles, Alammania became the centre of the Empire, but after his deposition, it found itself out of favour. Though ethnically singular, it was still plagued by Rhaetian-Alamannic feuds and fighting over the control of the Alammanic church. Alamannia
Alamannia
in the late 9th century, like Bavaria, Saxony, and Franconia, sought to unite itself under one duke, but it had considerably less success than either Saxony or Bavaria. Alammannia was one of the jüngeres Stammesherzogtum, one of the "younger" stem duchies, or tibal duchies, which formed the basis of the political organisation of East Francia
East Francia
after the collapse of the Carolingian dynasty in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. In the 10th century, no noble house of Alamannia
Alamannia
succeeded in founding a ducal dynasty, as the Ottonians
Ottonians
did in Saxony or the Liutpolding
Liutpolding
in Bavaria, though the Hunfridings came closest. The duchy encompassed the area surrounding Lake Constance, the Black Forest, and the left and right banks of the Rhine, including Alsace and parts of the Swiss plateau, bordering on Upper Burgundy. The boundary with Burgundy, fixed in 843, ran along the lower Aare, turning towards the south at the Rhine, passing west of Lucerne
Lucerne
and across the Alps
Alps
along the upper Rhône
Rhône
to the Saint Gotthard Pass. In the north, the boundary ran from the Murg (some 30 km south of Karlsruhe) to Heilbronn
Heilbronn
and the Nördlinger Ries. The eastern boundary was at the Lech. Argovia
Argovia
was disputed territory between the dukes of Alamannia
Alamannia
and Burgundy. Burchard II, son of the late Burchard I and count in Raetia
Raetia
Curiensis, took the title of duke of Swabia,[3] Duke acknowledged by the newly elected king Henry the Fowler
Henry the Fowler
in 919. The duchy of Swabia
Swabia
was ruled by the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
during 1079–1268 and was disestablished with the execution of Conradin
Conradin
and its territory was politically fragmented during the succeeding interregnum period. Legacy[edit] Alemannic German
Alemannic German
persists as a separate family of dialects within High German. The distribution of the Low Alemannic
Low Alemannic
and High Alemannic subgroups largely correspond to the extent of historical Alemannia, while the Highest Alemannic
Highest Alemannic
dialects spread beyond its limits during the High Middle Ages. The Brünig-Napf-Reuss line
Brünig-Napf-Reuss line
is a cultural boundary within High Alemannic
High Alemannic
which marks the division of Alemannia proper and the Argovia
Argovia
marches between Alemannia and Burgundy. The names for Germany
Germany
in modern Arabic (ألمانيا), Catalan (Alemanya), Welsh (Yr Almaen), Cornish (Almayn), French (Allemagne), Persian (Alman), Portuguese (Alemanha), Spanish (Alemania), and Turkish (Almanya) all derive from Alamannia. A similar correspondence exists for "German", both as the language and the adjectival form of "Germany". See also[edit]

List of rulers of Alamannia List of Alamannic pagi Lex Alamannorum Annales Alamannici Early history of Switzerland Alemannic German

References[edit]

^ The name Alamannia
Alamannia
itself was in use from at least the 8th century; in pago Almanniae 762, in pago Alemannorum 797, urbs Constantia in ducatu Alemanniae 797; in ducatu Alemannico, in pago Linzgowe 873. From the 9th century, Alamannia
Alamannia
is increasingly used of the Alsace specifically, while the Alamannic territory in generally is increasingly called Suebia; by the 12th century, the name Suebia had mostly replaced Alamannia. S. Hirzel, Forschungen zur Deutschen Landeskunde 6 (1888), p. 299. ^ in what is now Switzerland, the Alemannic areal has expanded during the high medieval period, with the Valser migration into the Alps, with the Zähringer
Zähringer
and later the influence of Bern
Bern
towards Upper Burgundy, and into Grisons
Grisons
as lower Raetia
Raetia
came under the rule of the Werdenberg counts. ^ Bernd Schneidmüller, Die Welfen. Herrschaft und Erinnerung (819–1252). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2000, 82–83.

Reuter, Timothy. Germany
Germany
in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991.

v t e

Barbarian kingdoms
Barbarian kingdoms
established around the Migration Period

Germanic kingdoms

Alamannian Kingdom Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Bavarian Duchy Burgundian Kingdom Frankish Kingdom Frisian Kingdom Gepid Kingdom Odoacer's Kingdom Lombard Kingdom Petty kingdoms of Norway Suevian Kingdom Ostrogothic Kingdom Rugian Kingdom Saxonian Duchy Thuringii
Thuringii
Kingdom Vandal Kingdom Visigothic Kingdom

Hunnic kingdoms

Hunnic Empire

Turkic kingdoms

Great Bulgaria Bulgar Khanate Khazar Khaganate

Iranian kingdoms

Alani Kingdom Avar Khaganate

Celtic kingdoms

Bro Gwened Cantabri Cornouaille Domnonée Hen Ogledd Gaelic Ireland Petty kingdoms of Wales

Slavic kingdoms

Carantian Principality S

.