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The Prophet's Mosque
Mosque
(Classical Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ‎, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي‎, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina
Medina
in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia. It was the third mosque built in the history of Islam,[a] and is now one of the largest mosques in the world. It is the second-holiest site in Islam, after the Great Mosque
Mosque
in Mecca.[8] It is always open, regardless of date or time. The site was originally adjacent to Muhammad's house; he settled there after his migration from Mecca
Mecca
to Medina
Medina
in 622 CE. He shared in the heavy work of construction. The original mosque was an open-air building. The mosque served as a community center, a court, and a religious school. There was a raised platform for the people who taught the Quran. Subsequent Islamic rulers greatly expanded and decorated it. In 1909, it became the first place in the Arabian Peninsula to be provided with electrical lights.[9] The mosque is under the control of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The mosque is located in what was traditionally the center of Medina, with many hotels and old markets nearby. It is a major pilgrimage site. Many pilgrims who perform the Hajj
Hajj
go on to Medina
Medina
to visit the mosque, due to its connection to Muhammad. After an expansion during the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, it now incorporates the final resting place of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the first two Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar.[10] One of the most notable features of the site is the Green Dome
Green Dome
in the south-east corner of the mosque,[11] originally Aisha's house,[10] where the tomb of Muhammad is located. In 1279, a wooden cupola was built over the tomb which was later rebuilt and renovated multiple times in late 15th century and once in 1817. The current dome was added in 1818 by the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II,[11] and it was first painted green in 1837, hence becoming known as the "Green Dome".[10]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early days 1.2 Middle years 1.3 Saudis

2 Architecture

2.1 Rawdah 2.2 Green Dome 2.3 Mihrab 2.4 Minbar 2.5 Minarets

3 See also 4 References 5 Notes 6 Bibliography and further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Early days[edit]

Part of a series on

Muhammad

Life

Life in Mecca Migration to Medina Life in Medina Farewell Pilgrimage Milestones and records

Career

First revelation Military career Diplomatic career Conquest of Mecca Hadith

Miracles

Quran Isra and Mi'raj Splitting of the moon Miracles of Muhammad

Views

Jews Christians

Succession

Farewell Sermon Hadith
Hadith
(Pen and Paper) Saqifah Ahl al-Bayt Sahaba History

Praise

Durood Naat Mawlid

Perspectives

Islamic Muhammad
Muhammad
in the Bible Jewish Medieval Christian Historicity Criticism

Related

Mosque
Mosque
of the prophet Possessions Relics

Muhammad
Muhammad
portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

View of Masjid-e-Nabawi Gate 21, 22

The mosque was built by Muhammad
Muhammad
in 622, after his arrival in the city of Medina.[12] Riding on a camel called Qaswa he arrived at the place where this mosque was built. The land was owned by Sahal and Suhayl, partly as a place for drying dates, and at one end had been previously used as a burial ground.[13] Refusing to "accept the land as a gift", he bought the land and it took seven months to complete the construction of the mosque. It measured 30.5 m × 35.62 m (100.1 ft × 116.9 ft).[13] The roof which was supported by palm trunks was made of beaten clay and palm leaves. It was at a height of 3.60 m (11.8 ft). The three doors of the mosque were Bab-al-Rahmah to the south, Bab-al- Jibril
Jibril
to the west and Babal-Nisa to the east.[14][13] After the Battle of Khaybar, the mosque was "enlarged".[15] The mosque extended for 47.32 m (155.2 ft) on each side and three rows of columns were built beside the west wall, which became the place of praying.[16] The mosque remained unaltered during the reign of the first Rashidun caliph Abu Bakr.[16] The second caliph Umar
Umar
demolished all the houses around the mosque except that of Muhammad's wives
Muhammad's wives
to expand it.[17] The new mosque's dimensions became 57.49 m × 66.14 m (188.6 ft × 217.0 ft). Sun-dried mud bricks were used to construct the walls of the enclosure. Besides strewing pebbles on the floor, the roof's height was increased to 5.6 m (18 ft). Umar
Umar
moreover constructed three more gates for entrance. He also added the Al-Butayha for people to recite poetry.[18] The third caliph Uthman
Uthman
demolished the mosque in 649. Ten months were spent in building the new rectangular shaped mosque whose face was turned towards the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca. The new mosque measured 81.40 m × 62.58 m (267.1 ft × 205.3 ft). The number of gates as well as their names remained the same.[19] The enclosure walls were made of stones laid in mortar. The palm trunk columns were replaced by stone columns which were joined by iron clamps. Teakwood
Teakwood
was used in reconstructing the ceiling.[20] Middle years[edit]

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
during the Ottoman Era, 19th Century

In 707, Umayyad caliph Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik renovated the mosque. It took three years for the work to be completed. Raw materials were procured from the Byzantine Empire.[21] The area of the mosque was increased from 5094 sq. metre of Uthman's time to 8672 sq metre. A wall was built to segregate the mosque and the houses of the wives of Muhammad. The mosque was reconstructed in a trapezoid shape with a length of 101.76 metres (333.9 ft). For the first time, porticoes were built in the mosque connecting the northern part of the structure to the sanctuary. For the first time, minarets were built in Medina
Medina
as he constructed four minarets around it.[22] Abbasid caliph Al-Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
extended the mosque to the north by 50 metres (160 ft). His name was also inscribed on the walls of the mosque. He also planned to remove six steps to the minbar, but abandoned this idea, owing to this causing damage of the woods on which they were built.[23] According to an inscription of Ibn Qutaybah, the third caliph Al-Mamun
Al-Mamun
did "unspecified work" on the mosque. Al-Mutawakkil lined the enclosure of Muhammad's tomb with marble.[24] Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri built a dome of stone over his grave in 1476.[25]

The Green Dome, in Richard Francis Burton's Pilgrimage, ca. 1850 CE.

The Rawdah (referred to as al-Rawdah al-Mutaharah), covered by the dome over the south-east corner of the mosque,[11] was constructed in 1817C.E. during the reign of Sultan Mahmud II. The dome was painted green in 1837 C.E. and came to be known as the "Green Dome".[10] The Sultan Abdul Majid I took thirteen years to rebuild the mosque, which started in 1849.[26] Red stone bricks were used as the main material in reconstruction of the mosque. The floor area of the mosque was increased by 1293 square metre. On the walls, verses from the Quran
Quran
were inscribed in Islamic calligraphy. In the northern side of the mosque, a madrasah was built for "teaching Quranic lessons".[27] Saudis[edit] When Saud bin Abdul-Aziz took Medina
Medina
in 1805, his followers, the Wahhabis, demolished nearly every tomb dome in Medina
Medina
in order to prevent their veneration,[28] and the Green Dome
Green Dome
is said to have narrowly escaped the same fate.[29] They considered the veneration of tombs and places thought to possess supernatural powers as an offence against tawhid.[30] Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornaments, but the dome was preserved either because of an unsuccessful attempt to demolish its hardened structure, or because some time ago Ibn Abd al-Wahhab wrote that he did not wish to see the dome destroyed despite his aversion to people praying at the tomb.[28] Similar events took place in 1925 when the Saudi ikhwans retook—and this time managed to keep—the city.[31][32][33][34] After the foundation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1932, the mosque underwent several major modifications. In 1951 King Ibn Saud (1932–1953) ordered demolitions around the mosque to make way for new wings to the east and west of the prayer hall, which consisted of concrete columns with pointed arches. Older columns were reinforced with concrete and braced with copper rings at the top. The Suleymaniyya and Majidiyya minarets were replaced by two minarets in Mamluk revival style. Two additional minarets were erected to the northeast and northwest of the mosque. A library was built along the western wall to house historic Qurans and other religious texts.[27][35] In 1974, King Faisal added 40,440 square metres to the mosque.[36] The area of the mosque was also expanded during the reign of King Fahd in 1985. Bulldozers were used to demolish buildings around the mosque.[37] In 1992, when it was completed, the area of the mosque became 1.7 million square feet. Escalators and 27 courtyards were among the additions to the mosque.[38] A $6 billion project for increasing the area of the mosque was announced in September 2012. RT reported that after the end of the work, it would accommodate 1.6 million people.[39] In March of the following year, Saudi Gazette
Saudi Gazette
wrote "95 percent of the demolition work has been completed. About 10 hotels to the eastern side of the expansion were leveled to the ground in addition to a number of houses and other utilities to make way for the expansion."[40] Architecture[edit] The two tiered mosque has a rectangular plan. The Ottoman prayer hall faces towards the south.[41] It has a flat paved roof topped with 27 sliding domes on square bases.[42] Holes pierced into the base of each dome illuminate the interior. The roof is also used for prayer during peak times, when the domes slide out on metal tracks to shade areas of the roof, creating light wells for the prayer hall. At these times, the courtyard of the Ottoman mosque is also shaded with umbrellas affixed to freestanding columns.[43] The roof is accessed by stairs and escalators. The paved area around the mosque is also used for prayer, equipped with umbrella tents.[44] Sliding Domes and retractable umbrella-like canopies were designed by the German architect Mahmoud Bodo Rasch, his firm SL Rasch GmbH, and Buro Happold.[45] Rawdah[edit] The Rawḍah (Arabic: رَوْضَـة‎, literally "Garden") is an area between the minbar and burial chamber of Muhammad. It is regarded as one of the riyāḍ al- Jannah
Jannah
(Arabic: رِيَـاض الْـجَـنَّـة‎, gardens of Paradise).[46][10][47] A green carpet distinguishes the area from the rest of the mosque, which is covered in a red carpet. Pilgrims attempt to visit the confines of the area, for there is a tradition that supplications and prayers uttered here are never rejected. Access into the area is not always possible, especially during the Hajj
Hajj
season, as the space can only accommodate a few hundred people.[47] Green Dome[edit] Main article: Green Dome The chamber adjacent to the Rawdah holds the tombs of Muhammad
Muhammad
and two of his companions, father-in-laws and caliphs, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab. A fourth grave is reserved for ‘Īsā (Arabic: عِـيـسَى‎, Jesus), as it is believed that he will return and will be buried at the site. The site is covered by the Green Dome. It was constructed in 1817 CE during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II
Mahmud II
and painted green in 1837 CE.[10] Mihrab[edit] There are two mihrabs in the mosque, one was built by Muhammad
Muhammad
and another was built by the third Rashidun caliph Uthman. The one built by the latter was larger than that of Muhammad's and act as the functional mihrab, whereas Muhammad's mihrab is a "commemorative" mihrab.[48] Besides the mihrab, the mosque also has other niches which act as indicators for praying. This includes the miḥrâb Fâṭimah (Arabic: مِـحْـرَاب فَـاطِـمَـة‎) or miḥrāb aṫ-Ṫahajjud (Arabic: مِـحْـرَاب الـتَّـهَـجُّـد‎), which was built by Muhammad
Muhammad
for the Ṫahajjud (Arabic: تَـهَـجُّـد‎).[49] Minbar[edit]

Minbar
Minbar
in use at the Masjid

The original minbar (Arabic: مِـنـۢبَـر‎) used by Muhammad was a "wood block of date tree". This was replaced by him with a tamarisk one, which had dimensions of 50 cm × 125 cm (20 in × 49 in). Also in 629, a three staired ladder was added to it. The first two caliphs, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, did not use the third step "due to respect for the Prophet", but the third caliph Uthman
Uthman
placed a fabric dome over it and the rest of the stairs were covered with ebony. The minbar was replaced by Baybars I
Baybars I
in 1395, and later by Shaykh al-Mahmudi in 1417. This was also replaced by a marble one by Qaitbay in the late fifteenth century, which as of August 2013, is still used in the mosque.[49] Minarets[edit] The first minarets (four in number) of 26 feet (7.9 m) high were constructed by Umar. In 1307, a minaret titled Bab al-Salam was added by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Kalavun which was renovated by Mehmed IV. After the renovation project of 1994, there were ten minarets which were 104 metres (341 ft) high. The minarets' upper, bottom and middle portion are cylindrical, octagonal and square shaped respectively.[49]

Entrance of the mosque with umbrella tents open

The main Mihrab

Details on the main entrance

The mosque at night

See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal Architecture portal

Burial places of founders of world religions Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes Holiest sites in Islam
Islam
(Shia) Holiest sites in Islam
Islam
(Sunni) Islamic art List of mosques

References[edit]

^ Google maps. "Location of Masjid an Nabawi". Google maps. Retrieved 24 September 2013.  ^ Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.  ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews
Jews
and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.  ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Quran 17:1–7 ^ Trofimov, Yaroslav (2008), The Siege of Mecca: The 1979 Uprising at Islam's Holiest Shrine, New York, p. 79, ISBN 0-307-47290-6  ^ The History of Electrical lights in the Arabian Peninsula ^ a b c d e f Ariffin, Syed Ahmad
Ahmad
Iskandar Syed (2005). Architectural Conservation in Islam : Case Study of the Prophet's Mosque. Penerbit UTM. pp. 88–89,109. ISBN 978-983-52-0373-2.  ^ a b c Petersen, Andrew (2002-03-11). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-203-20387-3.  ^ "The Prophet's Mosque
Mosque
[Al-Masjid An-Nabawi]". Islam
Islam
Web. Retrieved 17 June 2015.  ^ a b c Ariffin, p. 49. ^ "Gates of Masjid al-Nabawi". Madain Project. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ Ariffin, p. 50. ^ a b Ariffin, p. 51. ^ Atiqur Rahman. Umar
Umar
Bin Khattab: The Man of Distinction. Adam Publishers. p. 53. ISBN 978-81-7435-329-0.  ^ Ariffin, p. 54. ^ Ariffin, p. 55. ^ Ariffin, p. 56. ^ NE McMillan. Fathers and Sons: The Rise and Fall of Political Dynasty in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-137-29789-1.  ^ Ariffin, p. 62. ^ Munt, p. 116. ^ Munt, p. 118. ^ Wahbi Hariri-Rifai, Mokhless Hariri-Rifai. The Heritage of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. GDG Exhibits Trust. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-9624483-0-0.  ^ Ariffin, p. 64. ^ a b Ariffin, p. 65. ^ a b Mark Weston (2008). Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
from Muhammad
Muhammad
to the present. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4.  ^ Doris Behrens-Abouseif; Stephen Vernoit (2006). Islamic art
Islamic art
in the 19th century: tradition, innovation, and eclecticism. BRILL. p. 22. ISBN 978-90-04-14442-2.  ^ Peskes, Esther (2000). "Wahhābiyya". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 11 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 40, 42. ISBN 90-04-12756-9.  ^ "History of the Cemetery Of Jannat Al-Baqi". Al-Islam.org.  ^ Mark Weston (2008). Prophets and princes: Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
from Muhammad to the present. John Wiley and Sons. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4.  ^ Vincent J. Cornell (2007). Voices of Islam: Voices of the spirit. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-275-98734-3.  ^ Carl W. Ernst (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam
Islam
in the Contemporary World. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 173–174. ISBN 978-0-8078-5577-5.  ^ "New expansion of Prophet's Mosque
Mosque
ordered by king". Arab
Arab
News. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ "Prophet's Mosque
Mosque
to accommodate two million worshippers after expansion". Arab
Arab
News. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ "Expansion of the Prophet's Mosque
Mosque
in Madinah (3 of 8)". King Fahd Abdulaziz. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ "Expansion of the two Holy Mosques". Saudi Embassy. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
plans $6bln makeover for second holiest site in Islam". RT. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ "Prophet's Mosque
Mosque
to house 1.6m after expansion". Saudi Gazette. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ "Holy places: The Prophet's Mosque, Medina". Daily Monitor. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ Frei Otto, Bodo Rasch: Finding Form: Towards an Architecture of the Minimal, 1996, ISBN 3-930698-66-8 ^ "Archnet". archnet.org.  ^ MakMax (Taiyo Kogyo Group). "Large scale umbrellas (250 units) completed, covering the pilgrims worldwide with membrane architecture : MakMax". makmax.com.  ^ Walker, Derek (1998). The Confidence to Build. p 69: Taylor & Francis. p. 176. ISBN 0-419-24060-8.  ^ Malik ibn Anas. "14.5.11". Muwatta Imam Malik.  ^ a b ""Islamic Guidelines for Visitors to the Prophet's Mosque"". Islam-QA. It is prescribed for the one who visits the Prophet's Mosque to pray two rakats in the Rawdah or whatever he wants of supplementary prayers, because it is proven that there is virtue in doing so. It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said, "The area between my house and my mimbar is one of the gardens of Paradise, and my mimbar is on my cistern (hawd)." Narrated by al-Bukhari, 1196; Muslim, 1391.  ^ Ariffin, p. 57. ^ a b c "The Prophet's Mosque". Last Prophet. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 

Notes[edit]

^ Assuming that Islam
Islam
started with Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam
Islam
did not start with him, but that it represents even previous Prophets, such as Jesus, David, Moses, Abraham, Noah
Noah
and Adam.[2][3][4] In addition, the Quran
Quran
treats the Masjidayn (Arabic: مَـسْـجِـدَيْـن‎, literally "two places of prostration") of Al-Haram[5][6] and Al-Aqsa[7] as being no less old.

Ariffin, Syed Ahmad
Ahmad
Iskandar Syed. Architectural Conservation in Islam : Case Study of the Prophet's Mosque. Penerbit UTM. ISBN 978-983-52-0373-2.  Munt, Harry. The Holy City of Medina: Sacred Space in Early Islamic Arabia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-04213-1. 

Bibliography and further reading[edit]

Fahd, Salem Bahmmam. Pilgrimage in Islam: A description and explanation of the fifth pillar of Islam. Modern Guide, 2014. ISBN 978-1-78338-174-6.  Hasrat Muhammad
Muhammad
the Prophet of Islam. Adam
Adam
Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7435-582-9.  Muhammad, Asad. The Road To Mecca. The Book Foundation, 1954. ISBN 978-0-9927981-0-9.  Sir, Richard Francis Burton. Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah, Volume 2. ISBN 978-0-486-21218-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Medina.

Wikinews has related news: Annual Islamic pilgrimage takes place

Complete compendium of Masjid al-Nabawi on Madain Project Watch Live Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Detailed information on Masjid Al-Nabawi الْمَسْجِد النَّبَوي The curious tale of the Abyssinian Guardians of Masjid Nabawi SAW Visiting the Prophet’s Mosque prophet muhammad's mosque 360º Virtual Tour

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Mosques in Saudi Arabia

Al Jum'ah Mosque Al-Fuqair Mosque Al-Ijabah Mosque Al-Rayah mosque Anbariya Mosque As-Sabaq Mosque As-Sajadah Mosque Bani Bayadhah Mosque Bani Haritsah Mosque Bay'ah Mosque Fas'h mosque Grand mosque of Masjid al-Haram Jawatha Mosque King Saud Mosque Manartain mosque Masjid al-Nabawi Masjid al-Qiblatayn Masjid e Taneem Masjid-u-Shajarah Mosque
Mosque
of Al-Fadeekh Mosque
Mosque
of Al-Ghamama Mosque
Mosque
of Al-Saqiya Mosque
Mosque
of Atban Bin Malik Mosque
Mosque
of Bani Haram Mosque
Mosque
of the Jinn Quba Mosque The Seven Mosques

Category Islam
Islam
in Saudi Arabia Mosques by country

v t e

Hajj
Hajj
topics

Every year, from the eighth to the twelfth day of Dhu al-Hijjah.

Preparation

Ihram Meeqath Dhu'l-Hulayfah Juhfah Yalamlam

Sequence

Tawaf Zamzam Well Safa and Marwa Mina Mount Arafat Muzdalifah Rami al-Jamarat Eid al-Adha Tawaf
Tawaf
al-Ifadah Tawaf
Tawaf
al-Wida

Mosques

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Masjid-u-Shajarah Rabigh

History

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 246942

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