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The Afrīdī (Pashto: اپريدی‎ Aprīdai, plur. اپريدي Aprīdī; Urdu: آفریدی‎) is a Pashtun tribe
Pashtun tribe
present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan. The Afridis
Afridis
are most dominant in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, inhabiting about 100p mi² (3000 km²) of rough hilly area in the eastern Spin Ghar
Spin Ghar
range west of Peshawar, covering most of Khyber Agency, FR Peshawar
Peshawar
and FR Kohat.[2] Their territory includes the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
and Maidan in Tirah. Afridi
Afridi
migrants are also found in India, mostly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Bihar
and Jammu and Kashmir.[3] The Afridis
Afridis
are historically known for the strategic location they inhabit and their belligerence against outside forces; battling the Mughal dynasty's armies throughout Mughal rule.[1] The later clashes against British expeditions comprised the most savage fighting of the Anglo-Afghan Wars.[4] After the independence of Pakistan, Afridi
Afridi
tribesmen also helped attack Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
for Pakistan
Pakistan
during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947.[5] Today, Afridis
Afridis
make use of their dominant social position in FATA and areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
by controlling transport and various businesses, including trade in arms, munitions, and other goods.[1] The Afridi
Afridi
are Pashtuns, part of the Karlani
Karlani
tribal confederacy, who fought both against and with the British in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
during all three Anglo-Afghan wars. The British frequently classified the peoples that they conquered with fixed personality or “racial” traits and regarded the Pashtun Afridi
Afridi
tribesmen as “warlike” peoples and one of the Martial Race. Different Afridi
Afridi
clans cooperated with the British forces in exchange for subsidies, and some even served with the Khyber Rifles, an auxiliary force of the British Indian Army.[6] Afridis
Afridis
speak the Afridi
Afridi
Pashto.

Contents

1 Etymology and origins

1.1 A tribe of ancient Pashtuns 1.2 Theory of Afridi
Afridi
descent from Israelites

2 Clans 3 Religion 4 History

4.1 Resistance against the Mughals 4.2 Resistance against the British

5 Cuisine 6 List of notable Afridis 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Etymology and origins[edit] The Afridis, classically called the Abaörteans (/ˌæbə.ɔːrˈtiːənz/; Latin: Abaortae), have their original homeland as Tirah, in Khyber Agency. According to Pashtun folklore, the Afridi
Afridi
tribe traces its origin back to the eponymous ancestor of all Pashtuns, Qais Abdur Rashid, through his youngest son, Karlan. Thus, the Afridi
Afridi
tribe are one of the Karlani
Karlani
tribe. A tribe of ancient Pashtuns[edit] Herodotus
Herodotus
mentions a tribe of the Pactyans as Aparytai (Ἀπαρύται).[7] Scholars Grierson, Stein and Olaf Caroe equate these with modern Afridis
Afridis
on the basis of linguistic and geographic analysis.[8] Theory of Afridi
Afridi
descent from Israelites[edit] See also: Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites, Ten Lost Tribes, and Ten Lost Tribes The Afridis
Afridis
and other Pashtuns of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
have also been alleged to be the descendants of the lost Jewish tribes such as the Efraim[citation needed]. However, DNA
DNA
and other research towards validating such claims has been inconclusive.[9][10][11] Clans[edit] The Afridi
Afridi
Tribe is sub classified into eight sub tribes listed below.

Kuki Khel Malik din Khel Qambar Khel Kamar Khel Zakha Khel Aka Khel Sepah Adam Khel

All Afridi
Afridi
clans have their own areas in the Tirah
Tirah
Valley, and most of them extend down into the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
over which they have always exercised the right of toll. The Malikdin Khel live in the centre of the Tirah
Tirah
and hold Bagh, the traditional meeting place of Afridi jirgas or assemblies. The Aka Khel are scattered in the hills south of Jamrud. All of this area is included in the Khyber Agency. The Adam Khel live in the hills between Peshawar
Peshawar
and Kohat. The Burki live in Kanigoram Valley, Waziristan and Peshawar. Their preserve is the Kohat Pass in which several of the most important Afridi
Afridi
gun factories are located. Religion[edit] All modern Afridis
Afridis
follow Islam. Their conversion to Islam
Islam
is attributed to Sultan (Emperor) Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
by sources such as Ibbetson[12] and Haroon Rashid.[13] History[edit] Resistance against the Mughals[edit] The Afridis
Afridis
and their allies Khalils were first mentioned in the memoirs of Mughal Emperor Babar as violent tribes in need of subduing.[14] The Afridi
Afridi
tribes controlled the Khyber Pass, which has served as a corridor connecting the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Central Asia. Its strategic value was not lost on the Mughals to whom the Afridis
Afridis
were implacably hostile.[15] Over the course of Mughal rule, Emperors Akbar and Jahangir both dispatched punitive expeditions to suppress the Afridis, to little success.[16] The Afridis
Afridis
once destroyed two large Mughal armies of Emperor Aurangzeb: in 1672, in a surprise attack between Peshawar
Peshawar
and Kabul, and in the winter of 1673, in an ambush in the mountain passes.[17] The emperor himself had to lead an army into the mountains to suffocate the revolt and liberate the mountain passes and even then, another large army was "badly mauled" in Bajaur.[17][18] Allegedly, only five Mughals made it out of the battle alive.[19][20][21] Resistance against the British[edit]

Afridi
Afridi
fighters photographed by John Burke in 1878.

The Khyber Rifles
Khyber Rifles
in 1895 comprising an all- Afridi
Afridi
personnel.

The British connection with the Adam Khel Afridis
Afridis
commenced immediately after the annexation of the Peshawar
Peshawar
and Kohat
Kohat
districts. Following the example of all theprevious rulers, the British agreed to pay the tribe a subsidy to protect the pass. However, in 1850, 100p Afridis
Afridis
attacked a body of British sappers engaged in making a road, killing 12 and wounding 6. It was supposed that they disliked the construction of a road. An expedition of 3200 British troops was despatched, which traversed the country and punished them. When the Afridis
Afridis
of the Kohat
Kohat
Pass resisted, the Jowaki Afridis offered the use of their route instead; but they turned out more aggressive than the others, and in 1853, a force of 1700 British traversed their country and destroyed their stronghold at Bori.[citation needed] In 1854, the Aka Khels Afridis, not finding themselves admitted to a share of the allowances of the Kohat
Kohat
Pass, commenced a series of raids on the Peshawar
Peshawar
border and attacked a British camp. An expedition of 1500 troops entered the country and inflicted severe punishment on the tribe, who made their submission and paid a fine.[citation needed] In 1877, the British government proposed to reduce the Jowaki allowance for guarding the Kohat
Kohat
Pass, and the tribesmen showed their resentment of this by cutting the telegraph wire and raiding into British territory. A force of 1500 troops penetrated their country in three columns in the Jowaki Expedition and did considerable damage by way of punishment. However, the attitude of the Jowakis continued the same, and their raids into British territory went on. A much stronger force, therefore, of 7400 British troops, divided into three columns, in 1877 and 1878, destroyed their principal villages and occupied their country for some time, until the tribe submitted and accepted government terms. The Kohat
Kohat
Pass was afterwards practically undisturbed.[citation needed] At the time of the British advance into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1878, during the Second Afghan War, the Zakka Khel opposed the British advance and attacked their outposts. A force of 2500 British troops traversed their country, and the tribesmen made their submission. The Afridis
Afridis
of the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
continued to cause the British trouble during the progress of the Second Afghan War
Second Afghan War
so another force of 3750 British troops traversed their country, and after suffering some loss the tribesmen made their submission.[citation needed] In 1897, Afridis
Afridis
suddenly rose, captured all the posts in the Khyber held by their own countrymen and attacked the forts on the Samana Range near the city of Peshawar. The Tirah
Tirah
Expedition of the British forces followed, and negotiations for peace were then begun with the Afridis, who, under the threat of another expedition into Tirah
Tirah
in spring 1898, at length agreed to pay the fines and surrender the rifles demanded.[citation needed] In February 1908, the restiveness of the Zakka Khel again made a British expedition necessary, but the campaign was speedily ended.[citation needed] Cuisine[edit] See also: Pashtun cuisine Meat is an important part of their diet, which they often eat in the form of kabab (minced meat fried in oil), lamb curry, chicken curry or goat curry. The hotels in Peshawar
Peshawar
Namak Mandi Bazar represent the traditional food of Afridis, especially lamb karahi. In vegetarian cuisine, traditional Indian Ingredients such as bindi (okra), rajma (kidney beans), dal (lentils) and sag (spinach) are notably eaten.[citation needed] List of notable Afridis[edit]

Shahid Afridi
Shahid Afridi
at the County Ground, Taunton, during Pakistan's 2010 tour of England

Javed Afridi owner of PSL team Peshawar
Peshawar
Zalmi and owner of Haier Pakistan. Khatir Afridi, a famous pashtun poet Ayub Afridi, drug lord credited as founder of the Afghan heroin trade Sher Ali Afridi, a former policeman from Peshawar
Peshawar
who assassinated Lord Mayo, the Viceroy of British India, in 1872.[22] Malik Mehrun Nisa Afridi, twice member of the National Assembly of Pakistan
Pakistan
from Pakistan
Pakistan
Peoples Party. Shahid Afridi, Pakistani cricketer and former national captain, and was the world record-holder for the fastest century in One Day International cricket, until Corey Anderson, a New Zealand cricketer broke his record by hitting a 36 ball century against West Indies, and which again was broken by AB de Villiers of South Africa in 2015.[23] He still holds the record for the most sixes hit in ODI cricket history.[24] Umar Gul, of the Malak Din Khel is a cricketer who made his debut in 2003. Umar Gul
Umar Gul
was the highest wicket taker in the 2007 T20 world cup and played a vital role in Pakistan's 2009 T20 world cup success. Umar Gul has many records to his name. Umar Gul's most successful year was 2009, in which he impressed for Pakistan, in the IPL and in the BBL. Riaz Afridi, former cricketer for the Pakistan
Pakistan
Cricket Team. Shaheen Afridi, Pakistani cricketer

See also[edit]

Pakthas Pashtun people Yusufzai (Pashtun tribe) Pashtun tribes Khyber Rifles

References[edit]

^ a b c Afridi
Afridi
demographics in Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
The excessive figure sometimes mentioned in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
reflects in a particular way the Afghan claim to Pashtunistan and actually represents an estimate of the whole of the Afridi
Afridi
tribe on both sides of the frontier. ^ Afridi
Afridi
demographics in FATA and FR Kohat ^ Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India, Khyber.org (retrieved 30 January 2008) ^ L. Thomas, Beyond Khyber Pass, London, n.d. (ca. 1925) ^ M.K. Teng (2001) Kashmir: The Bitter Truth Archived 26 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Kashmir Information Network ^ Library of Congress ^ "The History of Herodotus
Herodotus
Chapter 3, Verse 91; Written 440 B.C.E, Translated by G. C. Macaulay". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  ^ Caroe, Olaf (1957). The Pathans. Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-19-577221-0.  ^ Amir Mizroch (9 January 2010). "Are Taliban descendants of Israelites?". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.  ^ Sachin Parashar (11 January 2010). "Lucknow Pathans have Jewish roots?". Times of India.  ^ Rory McCarthy (17 January 2010). "Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel". The Observer.  ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 217, Vol III, Published by Asian Educational Services ^ History of the Pathans By Haroon Rashid Published by Haroon Rashid, 2002 Item notes: v. 1 Page 45 Original from the University of Michigan ^ A. S. Beveridge, Babor-nama London, 1922 [repr. 1969], p. 412 ^ History of Khyber Agency: Gateway to the Subcontinent, Office of the Political Agent, Khyber Agency ^ C.M. Kieffer, Afridi, Encyclopædia Iranica ^ a b Richards, John F. (1996), "Imperial expansion under Aurangzeb 1658–1869. Testing the limits of the empire: the Northwest.", The Mughal Empire, New Cambridge history of India: The Mughals and their contemporaries, 5 (illustrated, reprint ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 170–171, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2  ^ Khyber Agency
Khyber Agency
Khyber.org, 3 July 2005 ^ Geoffrey Powell; J. S. W. Powell (1983), Famous regiments (illustrated ed.), Secker & Warburg, p. 69, ISBN 978-0-436-37910-9  ^ Robert E. L. Masters; Eduard Lea (1963). Perverse crimes in history: evolving concepts of sadism, lust-murder, and necrophilia from ancient to modern times. Julian Press. p. 211. Retrieved 5 April 2011.  ^ Robert E. L. Masters; Eduard Lea (1963). Sex crimes in history: evolving concepts of sadism, lust-murder, and necrophilia, from ancient to modern times. Julian Press. p. 211. Retrieved 5 April 2011.  ^ Helen Ellis (July 2009) The Assassination of Lord Mayo: The 'First' Jihad? Australian National University ^ ODI Records:- Fastest 100s ^ Yuvraj Singh vs Shahid Afridi
Shahid Afridi
Who's The Greatest?

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Afridi.

Encyclopædia Iranica: AFRĪDĪ[permanent dead link]

v t e

Pashtun tribes

Bettani

Ghilji

Akakhel Alikhel Andar Gulwal Hotak Ibrahimkhel Ibrahimzai Kharoti

Nasher

Nasar Sulaimankhel

Ahmadzai Jabbarkhel

Tarakai Tokhi Painda Khel

Lodi

Dawlatzai Kundi Lodi Lohani

Marwat

Niazi

Kharotakhel

Sarwani Shirani

Harifal Miani

Sur

Gharghashti

Babai Dawi Gandapur

Hafizkhel Ibrahimzai Nattuzai Yaqubzai

Jadun Kakar

Bazai Jalalzai Khudiadadzai Mirdadzai

Ludin Mandokhel Mashwanis Musakhel Nasozai Panni

Barozai

Safi

Karlani

Afridi

Adamkhel Kalakhel

Bangash

Baizais

Banuchi Dawar Dilazak Khattak Khogyani

Kharboni

Sherzad

Wazir

Mahsud

Bahlolzai Shamankhel

Mangal Muqbil Orakzai

Mamozai Zaimukhts

Ormur Tirahi Turi Wardak Wazir

Ahmadzai Darweshkhel Utmanzai

Zadran Zazi

Sarbani

Durrani

Achakzai Alakozai Alizai

Hanbhi

Badozai Barakzai

Nawabi

Barech Ishakzai Kiral Loni Mohammadzai Nurzai Panjpai Popalzai

Habibzai Sadozai Wazirzada

Zirak

Shinwari

Mullagori

Yusufzai

Abakhel Adokhel Akazai Babuzai Balarkhel Chagharzai Degankhel Hassanikhel Hassanzai Khanan Khail Kamalzai Khwaja Khel (Khwajgan) Madakhel Mir khail Mahabatkhel Mulakhel,Malakhail Mandanr

Khadarzai

Niamatkhel Ranizai Tahirkheli Utmankhel Kamal Khel

Other Sarbani

Babar Ghoryakhel

Chamkani Khalil Mulagori

Kasi Zhmaryani Kheshgi Mohmand

Halimzai

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Sherpao

Storyani Tareen Tarkani

Kakazai Mamund Salarzai Wur

Allied tribes

Awanzai Ismailkhel Sakzai Sheikh Mohammadi

Authority control

LCCN

.