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Adamantios Korais or Koraïs (Greek: Ἀδαμάντιος Κοραῆς; Latin: Adamantius Coraes; French: Adamance Coray; 27 April 1748 – 6 April 1833) was a Greek humanist scholar credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and a major figure in the Greek Enlightenment. His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa. Encyclopædia Britannica asserts that "his influence on the modern Greek language and culture has been compared to that of Dante on Italian and Martin Luther on German".[1]

Contents

1 Life and views 2 Publications 3 On religion 4 Linguistic revolution 5 Influence on the Greek constitutional and legal system 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Life and views[edit]

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Korais was born in Smyrna, in 1748. He was exceptionally passionate about philosophy, literacy and linguistics and studied greatly throughout his youth. He initially studied in his home place, where he graduated from the Evangelical Greek School.[2] As an adult Korais traveled to Paris where he would continue his enthusiasm for knowledge. He translated ancient Greek authors and produced thirty volumes of those translations. Korais studied at the school of medicine of the University of Montpellier from 1782 to 1787. His 1786 diploma thesis was entitled Pyretologiae Synopsis, while his 1787 doctoral thesis was entitled Medicus Hippocraticus.[3] After 1788 he was to spend most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. A classical scholar, Korais was repelled by the Byzantine influence in Greek society and was a fierce critic of the ignorance of the clergy and their subservience to the Ottoman Empire, although he conceded it was the Orthodox Church that preserved the national identity of Greeks. While in Paris, he was witness to the French Revolution. He was influenced by the revolutionary and liberal sentiments of his age. He admired Thomas Jefferson; and exchanged political and philosophical thoughts with the American statesman. A typical man of the Enlightenment, Korais encouraged wealthy Greeks to open new libraries and schools throughout Greece. Korais believed that education would ensure not only the achievement of independence but also the establishment of a proper constitution for the new liberated Greek state. He envisioned a democratic Greece, recapturing the glory of the Golden Age of Pericles. Korais died in Paris aged 84 soon after publishing the first volume of his autobiography. In 1877, his remains were sent to Greece, to be buried there. Publications[edit] Korais's most lasting contributions were literary. Those who were instrumental in publishing, and presenting his work to the public were merchants from Chios. He felt eternally grateful to these merchants, since without them, it would have been financially impossible for him to publish his works. These works included Strabo in Greek, another on Marcus Aurelius, his translation of Herodotus, the translation of the Iliad, and his main literary work, the seventeen volumes of the "Library of Greek Literature". His political writing really begins with the publication at the opening of the nineteenth century of Asma Polemistirion ("War Chant") and Salpisma Polemistirion ("Military Bugal Call"), celebrating the presence of Greek troops fighting alongside the French in Egypt. Earlier he had attacked with his Adelphiki Didaskalia the Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem for urging the Sultan's Christian subjects to support him in the war against the 'atheistic' French. Korais went on to publish in 1803 his Report on the Present State of Civilization in Greece, based on a series of lectures he had given in Paris, extolling the link between the rise of a new Greek mercantile class and the advance of the Greek Enlightenment or Diafotismos. In What should we Greeks do in the Present Circumstances?, a work of 1805, he tried to win his compatriots over to Napoleon and away from the cause of their Russian co-religionists. In later years, though, his enthusiasm for the French Emperor diminished, and he ended by referring to him as the 'tyrant of tyrants.' Away from contemporary politics, Korais did much to revive the idea of Greece with the creation of the Hellenic Library, devoted to new editions of some of the classic texts, starting with Homer in 1805. Over the following twenty years many others appeared, with lengthy prefaces by Korais entitled 'Impromptu Reflections', with his views on political, educational and linguistic matters. Although the broad mass of the Greek people was beyond his reach, he played an important part in the shaping of a new consciousness among the intelligentsia, which was to play a part in the creation of a new national movement. On religion[edit] Korais was a Greek Orthodox but also a critic of many practices of the Orthodox church. He was a fierce critic of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, considering it as a useful tool in the hands of the Ottomans against the Greek independence. So, later, he was one of the supporters of the new established Church of Greece. He was also critic of the monasticism, the ignorance of the clergy, and practices like that of the "Holy Fire". He was a supporter of religious freedom, empiricism, rationalism and tolerance. He set himself in opposition to some metaphysical ideals of Greek custom and sought to mould Greek Orthodoxy towards a more syncretic religious basis, in order to bring it under the auspices of liberal thought and government. Linguistic revolution[edit]

Cenotaph of Korais; Montparnasse Cemetery.

One of his most significant accomplishments was his contribution to the redefining of the Greek Language. The Greeks were dispersed so widely across Europe, people who served several masters. He decided to purge the Demotic (the vernacular or spoken language) of foreign elements. His intent was to bring the language as close as possible to the classic of Ancient Greece. This effort ultimately led to his publishing the "Atakta", the first Modern Greek dictionary. Influence on the Greek constitutional and legal system[edit]

Statue of Korais in Athens (work of Ioannis Kossos).

Unknown to most, Korais held passionate views on how the legal system should function in a democracy (views which of course, were greatly influenced by the French Enlightenment, closer to Montesquieu than to Rousseau) and managed to have a great, albeit indirect, impact on the Constitutions of the Greek Revolution, but also, primarily, on the Constitutions or Syntagma created after the end of the Greek Revolution. This element holds significant importance if one takes into consideration the fact that these meta-Revolution Constitutions still, to the present day, form the basis of the Greek Constitution and the philosophy on which the guiding principles of the Greek legal and judicial system are rooted in. This influence Korais exercised on Greek Law, was due to a personal relationship the intellectual formed with another Greek intellectual, the legal scholar of international repute N. I. Saripolos, who, after the Greek Revolution, became the founding father of Greek Law and the "author" of the Greek Constitution. Proof of this relationship and of the strong and progressive views Korais held on how the legal system of the new Greek state should be formed, is based on correspondence exchanged between the two men, during a long period of time, beginning before the Greek Revolution. These letters which manifest the influence the older intellectual (Korais) had on the then aspiring lawmaker Saripolos, are in the possession of the archives of the Greek National Library, were discovered and brought to academic light, in 1996, by a Law School student, researching a project sponsored by the Faculty of Law of the University of Athens and the National Academy for Constitutional Research and Public Law (adjacent to the University of Athens). The ensuing thesis was published in [4] Korais' portrait was depicted on the reverse of the Greek 100 drachmas banknote of 1978–2001.[5] References[edit]

^ "Adamantios Korais - biography - Greek scholar". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Trencsényi, Balázs; Kopeček, Michal (2006). Discourses of collective identity in Central and Southeast Europe (1770–1945): texts and commentaries. Central European University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-963-7326-52-3.  ^ Ioannis Taifakos, "Korais and Latin" in Proceedings of Korais Congress and Chios (Chios 11–15 May 1983), I, Athens: Omirion Pnevmatikon Kentron Chiou, 1984, pp. 67–89, esp. p. 70 ^ Aμαλία Νεγρεπόντη, "Ν.Ι. Σαρίπολου "Περί της Δικαστικής Εξουσίας"" Archived 24 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine., "Εφαρμογές Δημοσίου Δικαίου", Τεύχος1/1996 ^ Bank of Greece Archived 28 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Drachma Banknotes & Coins: 100 drachmas Archived 5 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. – Retrieved on 27 March 2009.

Further reading[edit]

Chaconas, Stephen George. Adamantios Korais; A Study in Greek Nationalism. Studies in history, economics and public law, no. 490. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. Βίος Αδαμαντίου Κοραή συγγραφείς παρά του ιδίου (in Greek, Korais' autobiography)

External links[edit]

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Coraës, Adamantios.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adamantios Korais.

Koraes Library in Chios, Greece, webpage Koraes Library in Chios, blog

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The Age of Enlightenment

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Atheism Capitalism Civil liberties Counter-Enlightenment Critical thinking Deism Democracy Empiricism Encyclopédistes Enlightened absolutism Free markets Haskalah Humanism Human rights Liberalism Liberté, égalité, fraternité Methodological skepticism Nationalism Natural philosophy Objectivity Rationality Rationalism Reason Reductionism Sapere aude Science Scientific method Socialism Universality Weimar Classicism

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France

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Étienne Bonnot de Condillac Marquis de Condorcet Denis Diderot Claude Adrien Helvétius Baron d'Holbach Georges-Louis Leclerc Montesquieu François Quesnay Jean-Jacques Rousseau Marquis de Sade Voltaire

Germany

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Georg Hamann Johann Gottfried von Herder Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Immanuel Kant Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Moses Mendelssohn Friedrich Schiller Thomas Wizenmann

Greece

Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais

Ireland

Robert Boyle Edmund Burke

Italy

Cesare Beccaria Gaetano Filangieri Antonio Genovesi Pietro Verri

The Netherlands

Spinoza Hugo Grotius Balthasar Bekker Bernard Nieuwentyt Frederik van Leenhof Christiaan Huygens Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Jan Swammerdam

Poland

Tadeusz Czacki Hugo Kołłątaj Stanisław Konarski Ignacy Krasicki Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz Stanisław August Poniatowski Jędrzej Śniadecki Stanisław Staszic Józef Wybicki Andrzej Stanisław Załuski Józef Andrzej Załuski

Portugal

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

Russia

Catherine II

Spain

Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

United Kingdom (Scotland)

Francis Bacon Jeremy Bentham Joseph Black James Boswell Adam Ferguson Edward Gibbon Robert Hooke David Hume Francis Hutcheson Samuel Johnson John Locke Isaac Newton Thomas Reid Adam Smith Mary Wollstonecraft

United States

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison George Mason Thomas Paine

v t e

Modern Greek Enlightenment

Main Ideas

Greek Independence Nationalism Liberalism Constitutionalism Education Westernization Freedom of religion

Publications

Asma Polemistirion Salpisma Polemistirion Adelphiki Didaskalia Geographia Neoteriki Hellenic Nomarchy Ephimeris Hermes o Logios Politika Parallela Thourios or Patriotic hymn Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios New Map of Wallachia and part of Transylvania General Map of Moldavia Gnostike, Stoicheia Philosophias

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Ottoman Empire: Athonite Academy Evangelical School Kaplaneios Maroutsaia New Academy Phanar Greek Orthodox College Phrontisterion of Trapezous

Diaspora: Flanginian School Princely Academy of Bucharest Princely Academy of Iași

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Methodios Anthrakites Kosmas Balanos Athanasios Christopoulos Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Georgios Gennadios Theophilos Kairis Dimitrios Katartzis Theodore Kavalliotis Grigorios Konstantas Adamantios Korais Sevastos Leontiadis Veniamin Lesvios (fr) Iosipos Moisiodax Christodoulos Pablekis Daniel Philippidis Athanasios Psalidas Athanasios Stageiritis Nikephoros Theotokis Konstantinos Tzechanis Neophytos Vamvas Balanos Vasilopoulos Eugenios Voulgaris

Related

Filomousos Eteria

v t e

Greek War of Independence (1821–29)

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Ottoman Greece

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Ali Pasha Armatoloi Proestoi Klephts Daskalogiannis Cosmas of Aetolia Dionysius the Philosopher Lambros Katsonis Maniots Phanariotes Souliotes

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Orlov Revolt Souliote War (1803)

Greek Enlightenment

People

Athanasios Christopoulos Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Anthimos Gazis Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais Eugenios Voulgaris

Organizations

Ellinoglosso Xenodocheio Filiki Eteria Filomousos Eteria Society of the Phoenix Serene Grand Orient of Greece

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Adelphiki Didaskalia Asma Polemistirion Hellenic Nomarchy Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios Salpisma Polemistirion Thourios or Patriotic hymn

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Chian Committee Odysseas Androutsos Anagnostaras Markos Botsaris Laskarina Bouboulina Constantin Denis Bourbaki Hatzimichalis Dalianis Athanasios Diakos Germanos III of Old Patras Dimitrios Kallergis Athanasios Kanakaris Constantine Kanaris Ioannis Kapodistrias Stamatios Kapsas Georgios Karaiskakis Nikolaos Kasomoulis Ioannis Kolettis Theodoros Kolokotronis Georgios Kountouriotis Antonios Kriezis Nikolaos Kriezotis Kyprianos of Cyprus Georgios Lassanis Lykourgos Logothetis Andreas Londos Yannis Makriyannis Manto Mavrogenous Alexandros Mavrokordatos Petrobey Mavromichalis Andreas Metaxas Andreas Miaoulis Theodoros Negris Nikitaras Antonis Oikonomou Ioannis Orlandos Papaflessas Dimitrios Papanikolis Emmanouel Pappas Ioannis Papafis Christoforos Perraivos Nikolaos Petimezas Georgios Sachtouris Iakovos Tombazis Anastasios Tsamados Ioannis Varvakis Demetrios Ypsilantis

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London Philhellenic Committee Lord Byron François-René de Chateaubriand Richard Church Lord Cochrane Jean-Gabriel Eynard Vincenzo Gallina Charles Fabvier Thomas Gordon Frank Abney Hastings Carl von Heideck Johann Jakob Meyer Karl Normann Maxime Raybaud Giuseppe Rosaroll Santorre di Santa Rosa Friedrich Thiersch Ludwig I of Bavaria German Legion (el) Serbs

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Alexander Ypsilantis Sacred Band Alexandros Kantakouzinos Georgios Kantakouzinos Giorgakis Olympios Yiannis Pharmakis Dimitrie Macedonski Tudor Vladimirescu

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Stratford Canning Edward Codrington Henri de Rigny Nicholas I of Russia Login Geiden

Morea expedition

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Nicolas Joseph Maison Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Antoine Virgile Schneider Amédée Despans-Cubières Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély Camille Alphonse Trézel

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Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent Gabriel Bibron Gaspard Auguste Brullé Gérard Paul Deshayes Eugène Emmanuel Amaury Duval Pierre-Narcisse Guérin Edgar Quinet

Impact

Art

Eugène Delacroix Louis Dupré Peter von Hess Victor Hugo François Pouqueville Alexander Pushkin Karl Krazeisen Andreas Kalvos Dionysios Solomos Theodoros Vryzakis Hellas The Reception of Lord Byron at Missolonghi Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi The Massacre at Chios The Free Besieged Hymn to Liberty The Archipelago on Fire The Apotheosis of Athanasios Diakos

Remembrance

25 March (Independence Day) Hymn to Liberty Eleftheria i thanatos Pedion tou Areos Propylaea (Munich) Garden of Heroes (Missolonghi) Royal Phalanx Evzones (Presidential Guard)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 95174123 LCCN: n82208074 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 1591 GND: 118565346 SELIBR: 207683 SUDOC: 030418011 BNF: cb121835680 (data) NLA: 35280

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