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Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
(30 November 1880 – 23 July 1942) was a Polish-Jewish engineer and senator; head of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Jewish Council (Judenrat) during World War II. He committed suicide on 23 July 1942 by swallowing a cyanide pill, a day after the commencement of mass extermination of Jews known as the Grossaktion Warsaw.[1][2]

Contents

1 Life and career

1.1 The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto deportations 1.2 Diary of Adam Czerniaków

2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading

Life and career[edit] Czerniaków was born on 30 November 1880 in Warsaw, Poland (then part of the Russian Partition). He studied engineering in Warsaw
Warsaw
and Dresden
Dresden
and taught in the Jewish community's vocational school in Warsaw. From 1927 to 1934 he served as member of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Municipal Council, and in May 1930 was elected to the Polish Senate.[3] On 4 October 1939, a few days after Warsaw
Warsaw
surrendered to Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the aftermath of the invasion of Poland, Czerniaków was made head of the 24 member Jewish Council (Judenrat), responsible for implementing German orders in the new Jewish Ghetto, which later, on November 15, 1940, was closed off to the outside world.[4] The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto deportations[edit]

Tenement house at 20 Chłodna Street in Warsaw, home to Adam Czerników from 13 December 1941 till his death.

Czerniaków's diary

As the German authorities began preparing for mass deportations of Jews from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto to the newly built Treblinka extermination camp in July 1942, the Jewish Council was ordered to provide lists of Jews and maps of their residences. On 22 July 1942, the Judenrat received instructions from the SS that all Warsaw
Warsaw
Jews were to be "resettled" to the East. Exceptions were made for Jews working in Nazi German factories, Jewish hospital staff, members of the Council and the Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police
with their families. Over the course of the day, Czerniaków was able to obtain exemptions for a handful of individuals, including sanitation workers, husbands of women working in factories, and some vocational students. Despite all his pleading however he was unable to obtain an exemption for the orphans of the Janusz Korczak's orphanage and other ghetto orphanages. The orders further stated that the deportations would begin immediately at the rate of 6,000 people per day, to be supplied by the Jewish Council and rounded up by the Ghetto Police. Failure to comply would result in immediate execution of some one hundred hostages, including employees of the Council itself and Czerniaków's own wife.[4]

Jewish council building at 26/28 Grzybowska Street, Warsaw
Warsaw
where Czerniaków committed suicide on 23 July 1942

Realizing that deportation meant death, Czerniaków went to plead for the orphans. When he failed, he returned to his office at 26/28 Grzybowska Street and took one of the cyanide capsules he had been keeping for such an occurrence. He left a suicide note to his wife, reading “They demand me to kill children of my nation with my own hands. I have nothing to do but to die,” and one to his fellow members of the Council, explaining: "I can no longer bear all this. My act will prove to everyone what is the right thing to do."[4] He was succeeded by his deputy Marek Lichtenbaum. Diary of Adam Czerniaków[edit] Czerniaków kept a diary from 6 September 1939 until the day of his death. It was published in 1979 and has been translated into English. His wife, Niunia (dr Felicja Czerniaków), survived the war and preserved his diaries; their only son, Jaś (Jan), fled to Soviet territory but did not survive the war.[5] Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
is interred in the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery
Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery
in Warsaw.[4][6]

Adam Czerniaków's and his wife's grave at Jewish Cemetery in Warsaw

In the 2001 Warner Bros motion picture, Uprising, actor Donald Sutherland portrayed Adam Czerniaków. Excerpts of his diary are featured in the 2010 documentary film A Film Unfinished. The theatre company Voices of the Holocaust toured England during 2013-14 with the play Fragile Fire based on the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto uprising which featured scenes depicting Czerniaków. In 2015 the actor and writer Tim Dalgleish (formerly of Voices of the Holocaust) wrote a full-length play based on Czerniaków's journals called The Last Days of Adam: The true story of Adam Czerniaków. The play powerfully depicted Czerniaków as a conflicted character, torn between the need to ameliorate the worst excesses of the Nazi’s and the danger of being manipulated into becoming a collaborator. American composer Arnold Rosner's From the Diaries of Adam Czerniaków, Op. 82 is a half-hour classical music work composed in 1986 and scored for full orchestra and a narrator, who reads selected diary entries. The work was commissioned and later recorded by the conductor David Amos. According to the work’s only commercial recording, made in 2015, the English translation of Czerniaków's words was made by Raul Hilberg and Stanislaw Staron, in collaboration with Josef Kermisz of Yad Vashem in Jerusalem. See also[edit]

A Film Unfinished, documentary featuring Czerniaków's Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto diary Julian Tuwim, a nephew of Adam Czerniaków Chaim Rumkowski, Jewish Council's head in the Łódź Ghetto

References[edit]

^ Israel Gutman, Resistance. Houghton Mifflin. p. 200. ^ Gutman, Resistance, p. 203. ^ Marcin Urynowicz, Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
1880-1942. Prezes Getta Warszawskiego, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Warszawa 2009, p. 138 ^ a b c d Czerniaków's Biography, at www.diapozytyw.pl ^ "Adam Czerniakow and His Diary". Holocaust Research Project. Retrieved 2011-09-28.  ^ Okopowa street cemetery in Warsaw

Further reading[edit]

Hilberg, Raul (1999). The Warsaw
Warsaw
Diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom. Chicago, IL: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-230-7.  Lichten, Joseph L. (1984). "Adam Czerniakow and His Times". The Polish Review. 29 (1 & 2): 71–89. JSTOR 25778050.  Dalgleish, Tim (2015) The Last Days of Adam: The True Story of Adam Czerniakow

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71410995 LCCN: n83195004 ISNI: 0000 0000 8150 8412 GND: 118825895 SUDOC: 028802594 BNF: cb120563431 (data) BIBSYS: 4076267

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