HOME
The Info List - Acoma Pueblo





Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
(/ˈækəmə/) is a Native American pueblo approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico
in the United States. Four villages make up Acoma Pueblo: Sky City
City
(Old Acoma), Acomita, Anzac, and McCartys. The Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
tribe is a federally recognized tribal entity.[3] The historical land of Acoma Pueblo totaled roughly 5,000,000 acres (2,000,000 ha). The community retains only 10% of this land, making up the Acoma Indian Reservation.[4] Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
is a National Historic Landmark. According to the 2010 United States Census, 4,989 people identified as Acoma.[5] The Acoma have continuously occupied the area for more than 800 years,[6] making this one of the oldest continuously inhabited communities in the United States (along with Hopi
Hopi
pueblos).[7] Acoma tribal traditions estimate that they have lived in the village for more than two thousand years.[8]

Contents

1 Names 2 Language 3 History

3.1 Origins and prehistory 3.2 European contact

3.2.1 San Esteban Del Rey Mission

3.3 19th and 20th century 3.4 Present day

4 Culture

4.1 Governance and reservation 4.2 Warfare and weaponry 4.3 Architecture 4.4 Family life 4.5 Religion 4.6 Subsistence 4.7 Economy

4.7.1 Tourism

4.8 Arts

4.8.1 Pottery

5 Communities 6 Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
people 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Names[edit] The English name Acoma was borrowed from Spanish Ácoma (1583) or Acóma (1598). The Spanish name was borrowed from the Acoma word ʔáák’u̓u̓m̓é meaning 'person from Acoma Pueblo'. ʔáák’u̓u̓m̓é itself is derived from ʔáák’u (singular, plural: ʔaak’u̓u̓m̓e̓e̓ʈʂʰa). The name does not have any meaning in the modern Acoma language. Some tribal authorities connect it to the similar word háák’u 'preparedness, place of preparedness' and suggest that this might be the origin of the name. The name does not mean 'sky city'.[9] Other tribal elders assert that it means 'place that always was' while outsiders say it means 'people of the white rock'.[7] Acoma has been spelled in various other ways in historical documents. ákuma, ákomage, Acus, Acux, Aacus, Hacús, Vacus, Vsacus, Yacco, Acco, Acuca, Acogiya, Acuco, Coco, Suco, Akome, Acuo, Ako, and A’ku-me. The Spanish mission name was San Esteban de Acoma.[9] Pueblo
Pueblo
is the Spanish word for ‘village’ or ‘small town.’ In general usage, it is applied both to the people and to the unique architecture of the southwestern native tribes.[4] The Acoma are called ʔáák’u [ʔɑ́ːk'ù] in Western Keresan, Hakukya in Zuni, and Haak’oh in Navajo. Language[edit] Main article: Keresan languages The Acoma language is classified in the western division of the Keresan languages.[4] In contemporary Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
culture, most people speak both Acoma and English. Elders might also speak Spanish.[3] History[edit]

Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
Sky City
City
aerial view

A view of the Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
mesa from the northwest

Origins and prehistory[edit] Pueblo
Pueblo
people are believed to have descended from the Anasazi, Mogollon, and other ancient peoples. These influences are seen in the architecture, farming style, and artistry of the Acoma. In the 13th century, the Anasazi
Anasazi
abandoned their canyon homelands due to climate change and social upheaval. For upwards of two centuries, migrations occurred in the area. The Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
emerged by the thirteenth century.[4] This early founding date makes Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
one of the earliest continuously inhabited communities in the United States.[10][11] The Pueblo
Pueblo
is situated on a 365 feet (111 m) mesa, about 60 miles (97 km) west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The isolation and location of the Pueblo
Pueblo
has sheltered the community for more than 1,200 years. They sought to avoid conflict with the neighboring Navajo
Navajo
and Apache
Apache
peoples.[11] European contact[edit] The first mention of Acoma was in 1539. Estevanico, a slave, was the first non-Indian to visit Acoma and reported it to Marcos de Niza, who related the information to the viceroy of New Spain after the end of his expedition. Acoma was called the independent Kingdom of Hacus. He called the Acoma people encaconados, which meant that they had turquoise hanging from their ears and noses.[12][13] Captain Hernando de Alvarado of conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's expedition described the Pueblo
Pueblo
(which they called Acuco) in 1540 as "a very strange place built upon solid rock" and "one of the strongest places we have seen." Upon visiting the Pueblo, the expedition "repented having gone up to the place." Further from Alvarado's report:

These people were robbers, feared by the whole country round about. The village was very strong, because it was up on a rock out of reach, having steep sides in every direction... There was only one entrance by a stairway built by hand... There was a broad stairway of about 200 steps, then a stretch of about 100 narrower steps and at the top they had to go up about three times as high as a man by means of holes in the rock, in which they put the points of their feet, holding on at the same time by their hands. There was a wall of large and small stones at the top, which they could roll down without showing themselves, so that no army could possibly be strong enough to capture the village. On the top they had room to sow and store a large amount of corn, and cisterns to collect snow and water.[14]

It is believed Coronado's expedition were the first Europeans to encounter the Acoma.[11] (Estevan was a native Moroccan.) Alvarado reported that first the Acoma refused entry even after persuasions but after Alvarado showed threats of an attack the Acoma guards welcomed the Spaniards peacefully noting that they and their horses were tired. The encounter shows that the Acoma had clothing made of deerskin, buffalohide, and woven cotton as well as turquoise jewelry, domestic turkeys, bread, pine nuts, and maize. The village seemed to contain about 200 men. Acoma was next visited by the Spanish 40 years later in 1581 by Fray Agustín Rodríguez and Francisco Sánchez Chamuscado with 12 soldiers, 3 other friars, and 13 others including Indian servants. The Acoma at this time were reported to be somewhat defensive and fearful. This response may have been due to the knowledge of the Spanish enslavement of other Indians to work in silver mines in the area. However, eventually the Rodríguez and Chamuscado party convinced them to trade goods for food. The Spaniard reports say the pueblo had about 500 houses of either three or four stories high. In 1582, Acoma was visited again by Antonio de Espejo
Antonio de Espejo
for three months. The Acoma were reported to be wearing mantas. Espejo also noted irrigation in Acomita, the farming village in the north valley near San Jose River which was two leagues from the mesa. He saw evidence of intertribal trade with "mountain Querechos". Acoma oral history does not confirm this trade but only tells of common messengers to and from the mesa and Acomita, McCartys Village, and Seama.[15][13][12][16] Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate
intended on colonizing New Mexico
New Mexico
starting from 1595. (He formally held the area by April 1598.) The Acoma warrior Zutacapan heard of this plan and warned the mesa and organized a defense. However, a pueblo elder Chumpo dissuaded war partly to prevent deaths and partly based on Zutancalpo's (Zutacapan's son) mentioning of the widespread belief that the Spaniards were immortal. Thus, when Oñate visited on October 27, 1598, Acoma met him peacefully with no resistance to Oñate's demand of surrender and obedience reported. Oñate demonstrated his military power by firing a gun salute. Zutacapan offered to meet Oñate formally in the religious kiva, which is traditionally used as the place to make sacred oaths and pledges. However, Oñate was scared of death and in suspicious ignorance of Acoma customs refused to enter via ladder from the roof into the dark kiva chambers. Purguapo was another Acoma man out of four chosen for Spaniard negotiations.[13][16] Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá
Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá
visited Acoma soon after Oñate's departure by himself with a dog and a horse and asked for other supplies. Villagrá refused to get off his horse and left to follow after Oñate's party. However, Zutacapan convinced him to return to receive supplies. In questioning by Zutacapan, Villagrá said that 103 armed men were two day away from Acoma. Zutacapan then told Villagrá to leave Acoma.[13][16] On December 1, 1598, Juan de Zaldívar, Oñate's nephew, reached Acoma with 20–30 men and peacefully traded with them and had to wait some days for their order of ground corn. On December 4, Zaldívar went with 16 armored men to Acoma to find out about the corn. Zutacapan met them and directed them to the homes with the corn. Zaldívar's people then divided into groups to collect the corn. The traditional oral Acoma narrative tells that a group attacked some Acoma women leading Acoma warriors to retaliate. The Spanish documents do not report an attack on the women and say that the division of the men was a reaction to Zutacapan's plan to kill Zaldívar's party. The Acoma killed 12 of the Spaniards including Zaldívar. Five men escaped although one died from jumping over the citadel leaving four to escape with the remaining camp.[16] On December 20, 1598, Oñate learned of Zaldívar's death and after encouraging advice from the friars planned an attack in revenge as well to teach a lesson to other pueblos. Acomas requested help from other tribes to defend against the Spanish. Among the leaders were Gicombo, Popempol, Chumpo, Calpo, Buzcoico, Ezmicaio, and Bempol (a recruited Apache
Apache
war leader). On January 21, 1599, Vicente de Zaldívar (Juan de Zaldívar's brother) reached Acoma with 70 soldiers. The Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
started the next day and lasted for three days. On January 23, men were able to climb the southern mesa unnoticed by Acoma guards and breach the pueblo. The Spanish dragged a cannon through the streets toppling adobe walls and burned most of the village killing 800 people (decimated 13% of the 6,000 population) and imprisoning approximately 500 others. The pueblo surrendered at noon on January 24. Zaldívar lost only one of his men. The Spanish amputated the right feet of men over 25 years old and forced them into slavery for 20 years. They also took males aged 12–25 and females over 12 away from their parents putting most of them in slavery for 20 years. The enslaved Acoma were given to government officials and various missions. Two other Indian men visiting Acoma at the time had their right hands cut off and were sent back to their respective Pueblos as a warning of the consequences for resisting the Spanish.[13][17][16] On the north side of the mesa, a row of houses still retain marks from the fire started by a cannon during this Acoma War.[11] (Oñate was later exiled from New Mexico
New Mexico
for mismanagement, false reporting, and cruelty by Philip III of Spain.)

Mission San Esteban Rey was built c.1641, photograph by Ansel Adams, c.1941

A view from 2009 of the same building, where architectural modifications are apparent

Survivors of the Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
rebuilt their community 1599–1620. Oñate forced the Acoma and other local Indians to pay taxes in crops, cotton, and labor. Spanish rule also brought Catholic
Catholic
missionaries into the area. The Spanish renamed the pueblos with the names of saints and started to construct churches at them. They introduced new crops to the Acoma, including peaches, peppers, and wheat. A 1620 royal decree created Spanish civil offices in each pueblo, including Acoma, with an appointed governor to take command. In 1680 the Pueblo Revolt took place, with Acoma participating.[11] The revolt brought refugees from other pueblos. Those who eventually left Acoma moved elsewhere to form Laguna Pueblo.[18] The Acoma suffered high mortality from smallpox epidemics, as they had no immunity to such Eurasian infectious diseases. They also suffered raiding from the Apache, Comanche, and Ute. On occasion, the Acoma would side with the Spanish to fight against these nomadic tribes. Forced to formally adopt Catholicism, the Acoma proceeded to practice their traditional religion in secrecy, and combined elements of both in a syncretic blend. Intermarriage and interaction became common among the Acoma, other pueblos, and Hispanic
Hispanic
villages. These communities would intermingle in a kind of creolization to form the culture of New Mexico.[19] San Esteban Del Rey Mission[edit] Main article: San Estevan Del Rey Mission Church Between 1629 and 1641 Father Juan Ramirez oversaw construction of the San Estevan Del Rey Mission Church. The Acoma were ordered to build the church, moving 20,000 short tons (18,000 t) of adobe, straw, sandstone, and mud to the mesa for the church walls. Ponderosa pine was brought in by community members from Mount Taylor, over 40 miles (64 km) away. The 6,000 square feet (560 m2) church has an altar flanked by 60 feet (18 m)-high wood pillars. These are hand carved in red and white designs representing Christian and Indigenous beliefs. The Acoma know their ancestors' hands built this structure, and they consider it a cultural treasure. In 1970 it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.[20] In 2007 the mission church was designated as a National Trust Historic Site, the only Native American site in that ranking as identified by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, a non-profit organization.[11] 19th and 20th century[edit]

The pueblo 1933–1942 (Ansel Adams)

During the nineteenth century, the Acoma people, while trying to uphold traditional life, also adopted aspects of the once-rejected Spanish culture and religion. By the 1880s, railroads brought increased numbers of settlers and ended the pueblos' isolation. In the 1920s, the All Indian Pueblo
Pueblo
Council gathered for the first time in more than 300 years. Responding to congressional interest in appropriating Pueblo
Pueblo
lands, the U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
passed the Pueblo
Pueblo
Lands Act in 1924. Despite successes in retaining their land, the Acoma had difficulty during the 20th century trying to preserve their cultural traditions. Protestant
Protestant
missionaries established schools in the area, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
forced Acoma children into boarding schools. By 1922, most children from the community were in boarding schools, where they were forced to use English and to practice Christianity.[19] Several generations became cut off from their own culture and language, with harsh effects on their families and societies. Present day[edit]

A street in the pueblo, 2012

Today, about 300 two- and three-story adobe buildings stand on the mesa, with exterior ladders used to access the upper levels where residents live. Access to the mesa is by a road blasted into the rock face during the 1950s. Approximately 30[18] or so people live permanently on the mesa, with the population increasing on the weekends as family members come to visit and tourists, some 55,000 annually, visit for the day. Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
has no electricity, running water, or sewage disposal.[18] A reservation surrounds the mesa, totaling 600 square miles (1,600 km2). Tribal members live both on the reservation and outside it.[11] Contemporary Acoma culture remains relatively closed, however.[3] According to the 2000 United States census, 4,989 people identify themselves as Acoma.[11] Culture[edit] Governance and reservation[edit] Acoma government was maintained by two individuals: a cacique, or head of the Pueblo, and a war captain, who would serve until their deaths. Both individuals maintained strong religious connections to their work, representing the theocracy of Acoma governance. The Spanish eventually imposed a group to oversee the Pueblo, but, their power was not taken seriously by the Acoma. The Spanish group would work with external situations and comprised a governor, two lieutenant governors, and a council. The Acoma also participated in the All Indian Pueblo
Pueblo
Council, which started in 1598 and arose again in the twentieth century.[21] Today, the Acoma controls approximately 500,000 acres (200,000 ha) of their traditional land. Mesas, valleys, hills, and arroyos dot the landscape that averages about 7,000 feet (2,100 m) in altitude with about 10 inches (250 mm) of rain each year. Since 1977, the Acoma have increased their domain through several land purchases. On the reservation, only tribal members may own land and almost all enrolled members live on the property. The cacique is still active in the community, and is from the Antelope clan. The cacique appoints tribal council members, staff, and the governor.[3] In 2011 Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
and the Pueblo
Pueblo
of Santa Clara were victims of heavy flooding. New Mexico
New Mexico
supplied more than $1 million to fund emergency preparedness and damage repair for victims and governor Susana Martinez
Susana Martinez
requested additional funding from the Federal Emergency Management Agency.[22]

A buttressed three-story building

A house with a decorated doorway

A traditional wooden ladder leads to the second story entrance of a kiva, a religious contemplation chamber

A traditional horno, a mud adobe oven

Warfare and weaponry[edit] Historically, engagements in warfare were common for Acoma, like other Pueblos. Weapons used included clubs, stones, spears, and darts. The Acoma later would serve as auxiliaries for forces under Spain and Mexico, fighting against raids and protecting merchants on the Santa Fe Trail. After the nineteenth-century, raiding tribes were less of a threat and Acoma military culture began to decline. The war captain position eventually would change to a civil and religious function.[6] Architecture[edit] Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
has three rows of three-story, apartment-style buildings which face south on top of the mesa. The buildings are constructed from adobe brick with beams across the roof that were covered with poles, brush, and then plaster. The roof for one level would serve as the floor for another. Each level is connected to others by ladders, serving as a unique defensive aid; the ladders are the only way to enter the buildings, as the traditional design has no windows or doors. The lower levels of the buildings were used for storage. Baking ovens are outside the buildings, with water being collected from two natural cisterns. Acoma also has seven rectangular kivas and a village plaza which serves as the spiritual center for the village.[21] Family life[edit] About 20 matrilineal clans were recognized by the Acoma. Traditional child rearing involved very little discipline. Couples were generally monogamous and divorce was rare. Funerary rites involved ceremony and quick burial after death, followed by four days and nights of vigil. Women would wear cotton dresses and sandals or high moccasin boots. Traditional clothing for men involved cotton kilts and leather sandals. Rabbit and deer skin was used for clothing and robes, as well.[6] In the seventeenth century horses were introduced to the Pueblo
Pueblo
by the Spanish. Education was overseen by kiva headmen who taught about human behavior, spirit and body, astrology, ethics, child psychology, oratory, history, dance, and music.[6] Since the 1970s, Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
has retained control over education services, which have been keys in maintaining traditional and contemporary lifestyles. They share a high school with Laguna Pueblo. Alcoholism, drug use, and other health issues are prominent on the reservation and Indian Health Service
Indian Health Service
hospitals and native healers cooperate to battle health problems. Alcohol is banned on the Pueblo.[23] The community is served by the Acoma-Canoncito-Laguna (ACL) Hospital run by the Indian Health Services and located in Acoma. Today, 19 clans still remain active.[3] Religion[edit] Traditional Acoma religion stresses harmony between life and nature. The sun is a representative of the Creator deity. Mountains surrounding the community, the sun above, and the earth below help to balance and define the Acoma world. Traditional religious ceremonies may revolve around the weather, including seeking to ensure healthy rainfall. The Acoma also use kachinas in rituals. The Pueblos also had one or more kivas, which served as religious chambers. The leader of each Pueblo
Pueblo
would serve as the community religious leader, or cacique. The cacique would observe the sun and use it as a guide for scheduling ceremonies, some which were kept secret.[19] Many Acoma are Catholic, but blend aspects of Catholicism and their traditional religion. Many old rituals are still performed.[3] In September, the Acoma honor their patron saint, Saint Stephen. For feast day, the mesa is opened to the public for the celebration. More than 2,000 pilgrims attend the San Esteban Festival. The celebration begins at San Esteban Del Rey Mission and a carved pine effigy of Saint Stephen is removed from the altar and carried into the main plaza with people chanting, shooting rifles, and ringing steeple bells. The procession then proceeds past the cemetery, down narrow streets, and to the plaza. Upon arriving at the plaza, the effigy is placed in a shrine lined with woven blankets and guarded by two Acoma men. A celebration follows with dancing and feasting. During the festival, vendors sell goods such as traditional pottery and cuisine.[11] Subsistence[edit] Before contact with the Spanish, Acoma people primarily ate corn, beans, and squash. Mut-tze-nee was a popular thin corn bread. They also raised turkeys, tobacco, and sunflowers. The Acoma hunted antelope, deer, and rabbits. Wild seeds, berries, nuts, and other foods were gathered. After 1700, new foods were noted in the historical record. Blue corn drink, pudding, corn mush, corn balls, wheat cake, peach-bark drink, paper bread, flour bread, wild berries, and prickly pear fruit all became staples. After contact with the Spanish, goats, horses, sheep and donkeys were raised.[6] In contemporary Acoma, other foods are also popular such as apple pastries, corn tamales, green-chili stew with lamb, fresh corn, and wheat pudding with brown sugar.[11] Irrigation
Irrigation
techniques such as dams and terraces were used for agricultural purposes. Farming tools were made of wood and stone. Harvested corn would be ground with hands and mortar.[6] Economy[edit] Historical Acoma economic practices are described as socialistic or communal. Labor was shared and produce was distributed equally. Trading networks were extensive, spreading thousands of miles throughout the region. During fixed times in the summer and fall, trading fairs were held. The largest fair was held in Taos by the Comanche. Nomadic traders would exchange slaves, buckskins, buffalo hide, jerky, and horses. Pueblo
Pueblo
people would trade for copper and shell ornaments, macaw feathers, and turquoise. The Acoma would trade via the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
starting in 1821, and with the arrival of railroads in the 1880s, the Acoma became dependent on American-made goods. This dependency would cause traditional arts such as weaving and pottery making to decline.[6] Today, the Acoma produce a variety of goods for economic benefit. Agriculturally they grow alfalfa, oats, wheat, chilies, corn, melon, squash, vegetables, and fruit. They raise cattle and have natural reserves of gas, geothermal, and coal resources. Uranium mines in the area provided work for the Acoma until their closings in the 1980s. After that, the tribe provided most employment opportunities. However, high unemployment rates trouble the Pueblo. The legacy of the uranium mines has left radiation pollution, causing the tribal fishing lake to be drained and some health problems within the community.[3] Tourism[edit]

The Sky City
City
Cultural Center, which includes the Haak'u Museum

Tourism is a major source of income for the tribe.[3] In 2008 Pueblo Acoma opened the Sky City
City
Cultural Center and Haak'u Museum at the base of the mesa, replacing the original, which was destroyed by fire in 2000. The center and museum seek to sustain and preserve Acoma culture. Films about Acoma history are shown and a café serves traditional foods. The architecture was inspired by pueblo design and indigenous architectural traditions with wide doorways in the middle, which in traditional homes make the bringing of supplies easier, Flecks of mica are in the windowpanes, a mineral which is used to create mesa windows. The complex is also fire resistant, unlike traditional pueblos, and is painted in light pinks and purples to match the landscape surrounding it. Traditional Acoma artwork is exhibited and demonstrated at the Center, including ceramic chimneys crafted on the rooftop.[11] Arts and crafts also bring income into the community.[3] Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
is open to the public by guided tour from March thru October, though June and July have periods of closure for cultural activities. It is advisable for visitors to call ahead to confirm whether they are open or not. Photography of the Pueblo
Pueblo
and surrounding land is restricted. Tours and camera permits are purchased at the Sky City
City
Cultural Center.[3] While photography may be produced with permit, video recordings, drawings, and sketching are prohibited.[24] The Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
also has a casino and hotel - the Sky City
City
Casino Hotel. The casino and hotel are alcohol-free and are maintained by the Acoma Business Enterprise which oversees most Acoma businesses.[23] Arts[edit]

Acoma seed pot by B. Aragon - traditionally, seeds were stored inside this type of pottery and the pots broken as needed

At Acoma, pottery remains one of the most notable artforms. Men created weavings and silver jewelry, as well.[6] Pottery[edit]

Pottery inside a house, c. 1900

Acoma pottery dates back to more than 1,000 years ago. Dense local clay, dug up at a nearby site, is essential to Acoma pottery. The clay is dried and strengthened by the addition of pulverized pottery shards. The pieces then are shaped, painted, and fired. Geometric patterns, thunderbirds, and rainbows are traditional designs, which are applied with the spike of a yucca. Upon completion, a potter would lightly strike the side of the pot, and hold it to their ear. If the pot does not ring, then the pot will crack during firing. If this was found, the piece would be destroyed and ground into shards for future use.[11] Communities[edit]

Acomita Anzac McCartys Sky Line Old Sky Line

Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
people[edit]

Marie Chino, traditional pottery artist Vera Chino, traditional pottery artist Lucy Lewis, traditional pottery artist Susan Sarracino, traditional pottery artist Simon J. Ortiz, poet, author, and educator Anton Docher, "The Padre of Isleta", French priest in Acoma during his long period in Isleta.[25]

Gallery[edit]

Acoma runners, circa 1909

Photograph of Enchanted Mesa
Mesa
taken from Acoma in 1899

Illustration of the Acoma mesa from 1846

Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
and its reflection in a pool of water

Acoma water girls by Edward S. Curtis

Fiesta de San Esteban, Acoma Pueblo, ca. 1900

The Sky City
City
Cultural Center

Fineline black-on-white olla by Lucy M. Lewis, ca. 1960–1970s, collection of the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art

Acoma dress made by men, ca. 1898

Acoma, Mesa
Mesa
Encantada, 1898

Acoma woman, 1926

Old trail (entrance) to Acoma Pueblo, 1904

view of Acoma from the south, 1904

corral between the rock walls near the Acoma Pueblo, 1886

an Acoma building

view of Acoma mesa, 1899

See also[edit]

NRHP portal Indigenous Peoples of North America portal New Spain portal New Mexico
New Mexico
portal

San Estevan Del Rey Mission Church Acoma Indian Reservation List of Indian reservations in the United States Solomon Bibo Enchanted Mesa National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Cibola County, New Mexico List of National Historic Landmarks in New Mexico List of Native American peoples in the United States

References[edit]

^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ "National Historic Landmarks Survey, New Mexico" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved December 17, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Barry Pritzker (2000). A Native American encyclopedia: history, culture, and peoples. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-19-513897-9. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ a b c d Barry Pritzker (2000). A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Purl=https://books.google.com/books?id=nQObO0Rzg1UC. Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-19-513897-9.  ^ U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Census 2000 American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File
File
(AIANSF) - Sample Data, Acoma alone, H38 ^ a b c d e f g h Barry Pritzker (2000). A Native American encyclopedia: history, culture, and peoples. Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-513897-9. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ a b "Acoma Pueblo." U*X*L Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. U*X*L. 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3048800041.html ^ "Acoma Pueblo", Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes, January 1, 2008 ^ a b Goddard, Ives. 1979. Acoma Pueblo: Synonymy. In Handbook of North American Indian: Southwest (Vol 9, pp 464–466). Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ^ " Lucy M. Lewis
Lucy M. Lewis
Dies; Self-Taught Potter, 93". Obituaries. New York Times. 1992.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l David Zax (2008). "Ancient Citadel". Travel. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ a b Wagner, Henry R. 1934. Father Marcos de Niza. New Mexico Historical Review, 9 (2): 184–227. ^ a b c d e Villagrá, Gaspar Pérez de. 1933. History of New Mexico (transl. G Espinosa). Los Angeles: Quivira Society. ^ Winship, George F. 1896. The Coronado expedition, 1540–1542. In 14th annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology for the years 1892–1893 (Part 1, pp. 490–491). Washington. https://archive.org/details/coronadoexpediti00winsrich ^ Bolton, Herbert E (ed.). 1916. Spanish exploration in the southwest, 1542–1706 (pp. 182–183). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ^ a b c d e Garcia-Mason, Velma. 1979. Acoma Pueblo. In Handbook of North American Indian: Southwest (Vol 9, pp 450–466). Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ^ Hall-Quest, Olga. 1969. Conquistadors and pueblos: The story of the American southwest, 1540–1848 (p. 84). New York. EP Dutton. ^ a b c "Acoma". Pueblo. Holmes Anthropology Museum. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ a b c Barry Pritzker (2000). A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-513897-9. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ Charles W. Snell (April 30, 1968). "National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings: San Estevan del Rey Mission Church (Acoma)" (pdf). National Park Service.  and "Accompanying photos, exterior and interior, from 19" (PDF).  (32 KB) ^ a b Barry Pritzker (2000). A Native American encyclopedia: history, culture, and peoples. Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-19-513897-9. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ Shaun Griswold (2011). "Gov. Susana Martinez
Susana Martinez
requests federal funding for flood victims". KOB. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ a b Neala Schwartzberg (2006). "Acoma Pueblo, Sky City
City
Cultural Center and Haak'u Museum". Offbeat Travel. Archived from the original on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ "Acoma and Laguna Pueblos: Planning a Trip", Frommers Guide ^ Keleher and Chant. The Padre of Isleta. Sunstone Press, 2009, chap.4- p. 30.36.

Further reading

Minge, Ward Alan and Simon Ortiz. Acoma: Pueblo
Pueblo
in the Sky. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico
New Mexico
Press (1991). ISBN 0-8263-1301-9

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acoma Pueblo.

Official Acoma Pueblo
Pueblo
website Official Sky City
City
Cultural Center and Haak'u Museum website Official Sky City
City
Casino
Casino
and Hotel website AcomaZuni.com: Acoma "Sky City" Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. NM-6, " Pueblo
Pueblo
of Acoma, Casa Blanca vicinity, Acoma Pueblo, Cibola County, NM", 87 photos, 86 measured drawings, 10 data pages, 1 photo caption page

v t e

Indian reservations and Pueblos in New Mexico

Reservations

Acoma Jicarilla Mescalero Navajo

Alamo Ramah Tohajiilee

Santa Clara Ute Mountain Zuni

Pueblos

Acoma Cochiti Isleta Jemez Kewa Laguna Nambe Ohkay Owingeh Picuris Pojoaque Sandia San Felipe San Ildefonso Santa Ana Santa Clara Taos Tesuque Zia Zuni

v t e

U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Topics

Architectural style categories Contributing property Historic district History of the National Register of Historic Places Keeper of the Register National Park Service Property types

Lists by states

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Lists by insular areas

American Samoa Guam Minor Outlying Islands Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

Lists by associated states

Federated States of Micronesia Marshall Islands Palau

Other areas

District of Columbia Morocco

Portal

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Cibola County, New Mexico, United States

County seat: Grants

City

Grants

Village

Milan

CDPs

Acomita Lake Anzac Village Bibo Bluewater Acres Bluewater Village Cubero Encinal Fence Lake Laguna McCartys Village Mesita Moquino North Acomita Village Paguate Paraje Pinehill San Fidel San Mateo San Rafael Seama Seboyeta Skyline-Ganipa South Acomita Village

Unincorporated communities

Alaska Candy Kitchen Casa Blanca El Rito New Laguna

Indian reservations

Acoma Pueblo Laguna Pueblo‡ Navajo
Navajo
Nation‡ Ramah Navajo
Navajo
Indian Reservation Zuni Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county

.