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 Canada: 96,145[1][2]  United States: 901,260

 Quebec 32,950

 New Brunswick 25,400

 France 20,400

 Nova Scotia 11,180

 Ontario 8,745

 Prince Edward Island 3,020

 Maine 30,000

 Louisiana 815,260

 Texas 56,000

Languages

Acadian French
Acadian French
(a dialect of French with 370,000 speakers in Canada),[3] English, or both; some areas speak Chiac; those who have resettled to Quebec
Quebec
typically speak Quebec
Quebec
French.

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholicism

Related ethnic groups

French (Poitevin and Saintongeais), Cajuns, French-Canadians, Métis

The Acadians
Acadians
(French: Acadiens, IPA: [akadjɛ̃]) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia
Acadia
during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.[a][4] The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island), as well as part of Quebec, and present-day Maine
Maine
to the Kennebec River. Although today most of the Acadians
Acadians
and Québécois are French-speaking (francophone) Canadians, Acadia
Acadia
was a distinctly separate colony of New France. It was geographically and administratively separate from the French colony of Canada
Canada
(modern-day Quebec). As a result, the Acadians
Acadians
and Québécois developed two distinct histories and cultures.[5] They also developed a slightly different French language. France
France
has one official language and to accomplish this they have an administration in charge of the language. Since the Acadians
Acadians
were separated from this council, their French language
French language
evolved independently, and Acadians
Acadians
retain several elements of 17th-century French that have been lost in France. The settlers whose descendants became Acadians
Acadians
came from many areas in France, but especially regions such as Île-de-France, Normandy, Brittany, Poitou
Poitou
and Aquitaine.[6] Acadian family names have come from many areas in France. For example, the Maillets are from Paris; the LeBlancs of Normandy; the surname Melanson is from Brittany, and those with the surnames Bastarache and Basque came from Aquitaine. During the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(the North American theater of the Seven Years' War), British colonial officers suspected Acadians
Acadians
were aligned with France
France
after finding some Acadians
Acadians
fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beausejour. Though most Acadians
Acadians
remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England
New England
legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion (Le Grand Dérangement) of the Acadians
Acadians
during the 1755–1764 period. They deported approximately 11,500 Acadians
Acadians
from the maritime region. Approximately one-third perished from disease and drowning.[7] The result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians
Acadians
from Maritime Canada. Other historians indicate that it was a deportation similar to other deportations of the time period. Most Acadians
Acadians
were deported to various American colonies, where many were forced into servitude, or marginal lifestyles. Some Acadians
Acadians
were deported to England, sent to the Caribbean, and some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians
Acadians
were eventually recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present day Louisiana
Louisiana
state (known then as Spanish colonial Luisiana), where they developed what became known as Cajun
Cajun
culture.[8] In time, some Acadians
Acadians
returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada, mainly to New Brunswick because they were barred by the British from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the US Revolutionary War, the Crown settled New England Planters
New England Planters
in former Acadian communities and farmland as well as Loyalists after the war (including nearly 3,000 Black Loyalists, who were freed slaves). British policy was to assimilate Acadians
Acadians
with the local populations where they resettled.[7] Acadians
Acadians
speak a dialect of French called Acadian French. Many of those in the Moncton
Moncton
area speak Chiac and English. The Louisiana
Louisiana
Cajun descendants speak a dialect of American English
American English
called Cajun
Cajun
English, with many also speaking Cajun
Cajun
French, a close relative of the original dialect from Canada
Canada
influenced by Spanish and West African languages.

Contents

1 Pre-deportation history 2 Deportation 3 Geography 4 Culture

4.1 Artistic commemorations of The Expulsion 4.2 Flags

5 Prominent Acadians 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Pre-deportation history[edit] Main articles: History of the Acadians
History of the Acadians
and Military history of the Acadians

Acadia
Acadia
(1754)

During the seventeenth century,[when?] about sixty French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the Wabanaki Confederacy
Wabanaki Confederacy
(particularly the Mi'kmaq), learning their hunting and fishing techniques. The Acadians
Acadians
lived mainly in the coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy; farming land reclaimed from the sea through diking. Living in a contested borderland region between French Canada
Canada
(modern Quebec) and British territories, the Acadians often became entangled in the conflict between the powers. Over a period of seventy-four years, six wars took place in Acadia
Acadia
and Nova Scotia in which the Confederacy and some Acadians
Acadians
fought to keep the British from taking over the region (See the four French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale's War
Father Rale's War
and Father Le Loutre's War). While France
France
lost political control of Acadia
Acadia
in 1713, the Mí'kmaq did not concede land to the British. Along with some Acadians, the Mi'kmaq from time to time used military force to resist the British. This was particularly evident in the early 1720s during Dummer's War but hostilities were brought to a close by a treaty signed in 1726.

Acadians
Acadians
at Annapolis Royal by Samuel Scott, 1751, earliest image of Acadians; the only pre-deportation image of Acadians

The British Conquest of Acadia
Acadia
happened in 1710. Over the next forty-five years the Acadians
Acadians
refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. Many were influenced by Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, who from his arrival in 1738 until his capture in 1755 preached against the 'English devils'.[9] During this time period Acadians
Acadians
participated in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour.[10] During the French and Indian War, the British sought to neutralize any military threat Acadians
Acadians
posed and to interrupt the vital supply lines Acadians
Acadians
provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians
Acadians
from Acadia.[11][12] With the founding of Halifax in 1749 the Mi'kmaq resisted British (Protestant) settlements by making numerous raids on Halifax, Dartmouth, Lawrencetown and Lunenburg. During the French and Indian War, the Mi'kmaq assisted the Acadians
Acadians
in resisting the British during the Expulsion of the Acadians.[13]

Acadians
Acadians
by Samuel Scott, Annapolis Royal, 1751

Many Acadians
Acadians
might have signed an unconditional oath to the British monarchy had the circumstances been better, while other Acadians
Acadians
did not sign because they were clearly anti-British.[14] For the Acadians who might have signed an unconditional oath, there were numerous reasons why they did not. The difficulty was partly religious, in that the British monarch was the head of the (Protestant) Church of England. Another significant issue was that an oath might commit male Acadians
Acadians
to fight against France
France
during wartime. A related concern was whether their Mi'kmaq neighbours might perceive this as acknowledging the British claim to Acadia
Acadia
rather than the Mi'kmaq. As a result, signing an unconditional oath might have put Acadian villages in dangers of attack from Mi'kmaq.[15] Deportation[edit]

St. John River Campaign: Raid on Grimrose (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick). This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.

In the Great Expulsion
Great Expulsion
(le Grand Dérangement), after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour beginning in August 1755 under Lieutenant Governor Lawrence, approximately 11,500 Acadians
Acadians
(three-quarters of the Acadian population in Nova Scotia) were expelled, their lands and property confiscated, and in some cases their homes burned. The Acadians
Acadians
were deported throughout the British eastern seaboard colonies from New England to Georgia. Although measures were taken during the embarkation of the Acadians
Acadians
to the transport ship, some families became split up. After 1758, thousands were transported to France. Most of the Acadians
Acadians
who went to Louisiana
Louisiana
were transported there from France
France
on five Spanish ships provided by the Spanish Crown to populate their Louisiana
Louisiana
colony and provide farmers to supply New Orleans. The Spanish had hired agents to seek out the dispossessed Acadians
Acadians
in Brittany
Brittany
and the effort was kept secret so as not to anger the French King. These new arrivals from France
France
joined the earlier wave expelled from Acadia, creating the Cajun
Cajun
population and culture.

Sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert's sculpture of Evangeline
Evangeline
at the Grand-Pré National Historic Site
Grand-Pré National Historic Site
in Nova Scotia

The Spanish forced the Acadians
Acadians
they had transported to settle along the Mississippi River, to block British expansion, rather than Western Louisiana
Louisiana
where many of them had family and friends and where it was much easier to farm. Rebels among them marched to New Orleans and ousted the Spanish governor. The Spanish later sent infantry from other colonies to put down the rebellion and execute the leaders. After the rebellion in December 1769 the Spanish Governor O'Reilly permitted the Acadians
Acadians
who had settled across the river from Natchez to resettle on the Iberville or Amite river closer to New Orleans.[16] A second and smaller expulsion occurred when the British took control of the North Shore of what is now New Brunswick. After the fall of Quebec
Quebec
the British lost interest and many Acadians
Acadians
returned to British North America, settling in coastal villages not occupied by American colonists. A few of these had evaded the British for several years but the brutal winter weather eventually forced them to surrender. Some returnees settled in the region of Fort Sainte-Anne, now Fredericton, but were later displaced by the arrival of the United Empire Loyalists after the American Revolution. In 2003, at the request of Acadian representatives, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada
Canada
issued a Royal Proclamation acknowledging the deportation and establishing July 28 as an annual day of commemoration, beginning in 2005. The day is called the "Great Upheaval" on some English-language calendars. Geography[edit]

Present-day Acadian communities

The Acadians
Acadians
today live predominantly in the Canadian Maritime provinces, as well as parts of Quebec, Louisiana
Louisiana
and Maine. In New Brunswick, Acadians
Acadians
inhabit the northern and eastern shores of New Brunswick, from Miscou Island
Miscou Island
(French: Île Miscou) Île Lamèque including Caraquet
Caraquet
in the center, all the way to Neguac in the southern part, Grande-Anse in the eastern part and Campbellton through to Saint-Quentin in the northern part. Other groups of Acadians
Acadians
can be found in the Magdalen Islands
Magdalen Islands
and throughout other parts of Quebec. Many Acadians
Acadians
still live in and around the area of Madawaska, Maine where the Acadians
Acadians
first landed and settled in what is now known as the St. John Valley. There are also Acadians
Acadians
in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
such as Chéticamp, Isle Madame, and Clare. East and West Pubnico, located at the end of the province, are the oldest regions still Acadian. The Acadians
Acadians
settled on the land before the deportation and returned to some of the same exact land after the deportation. Still others can be found in the southern and western regions of New Brunswick, Western Newfoundland and in New England. Many of these latter communities have faced varying degrees of assimilation. For many families in predominantly Anglophone communities, French-language attrition has occurred, particularly in younger generations. The Acadians
Acadians
who settled in Louisiana
Louisiana
after 1764, known as Cajuns, have had a dominant cultural influence in many parishes, particularly in the southwestern area of the state known as Acadiana.

Culture[edit] Today Acadians
Acadians
are a vibrant minority, particularly in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Louisiana
Louisiana
(Cajuns), and northern Maine. Since 1994, Le Congrès Mondial Acadien has united Acadians
Acadians
of the Maritimes, New England, and Louisiana.

The Tintamarre
Tintamarre
in Caraquet, New Brunswick

August 15, the feast of the Assumption, was adopted as the national feast day of the Acadians
Acadians
at the First Acadian National Convention, held in Memramcook, New Brunswick
New Brunswick
in 1881. On that day, the Acadians celebrate by having the tintamarre which consists mainly of a big parade where people can dress up with the colours of Acadia
Acadia
and make a lot of noise. The national anthem of the Acadians
Acadians
is "Ave, maris stella", adopted at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
in 1884. The anthem was revised at the 1992 meeting of the Société Nationale de l'Acadie, where the second, third and fourth verses were changed to French, with the first and last kept in the original Latin. The Federation des Associations de Familles Acadiennes of New Brunswick and the Société Saint-Thomas d'Aquin of Prince Edward Island has resolved that December 13 each year shall be commemorated as "Acadian Remembrance Day" to commemorate the sinking of the Duke William and the nearly 2000 Acadians
Acadians
deported from Ile-Saint Jean who perished in the North Atlantic from hunger, disease and drowning in 1758.[17] The event has been commemorated annually since 2004 and participants mark the event by wearing a black star. Today, there are cartoons featuring Acadian characters and an Acadian show named Acadieman. Artistic commemorations of The Expulsion[edit]

A statue of Longfellow's Evangeline
Evangeline
– at St. Martinville, Louisiana.

In 1847, American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
published Evangeline, an epic poem loosely based on the events surrounding the 1755 deportation. The poem became an American classic, and contributed to a rebirth of Acadian identity in both Maritime Canada
Canada
and in Louisiana. In the early 20th century, two statues were made of Evangeline, one in St. Martinville, Louisiana
Louisiana
and the other in Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia, which both commemorate the Expulsion. Robbie Robertson
Robbie Robertson
wrote a popular song based on the Acadian Expulsion titled Acadian Driftwood, which appeared on The Band's 1975 album, Northern Lights – Southern Cross. Antonine Maillet's Pélagie-la-charette concerns the return voyage to Acadia
Acadia
of several deported families starting 15 years after the Great Expulsion. The Acadian Memorial (Monument Acadien)[18] honors those 3,000 who settled in Louisiana. Throughout the Canadian Maritime Provinces there are Acadian Monuments to the Expulsion, such as the one at Georges Island (Nova Scotia)
Georges Island (Nova Scotia)
and Beaubears Island. Flags[edit]

Flag of the Acadiana
Acadiana
region of Louisiana

Flag of the New England
New England
Acadians

The flag of the Acadians
Acadians
is the French tricolour with a golden star in the blue field (see above), which symbolizes the Saint Mary, Our Lady of the Assumption, patron saint of the Acadians
Acadians
and the "Star of the Sea". This flag was adopted in 1884 at the Second Acadian National Convention, held in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island. Acadians
Acadians
in the diaspora have adopted other symbols. The flag of Acadians
Acadians
in Louisiana, known as Cajuns, was designed by Thomas J. Arceneaux of the University of Louisiana
Louisiana
at Lafayette, and adopted by the Louisiana
Louisiana
legislature as the official emblem of the Acadiana region in 1974.[19] A group of New England
New England
Acadians
Acadians
attending Le Congrès Mondial Acadien in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
in 2004, endorsed a design for a New England
New England
Acadian flag[20] by William Cork, and are advocating for its wider acceptance. Prominent Acadians[edit]

Monument to Imprisoned Acadians
Acadians
at Bishops Landing, Halifax, overlooking Georges Island

Notable Acadians
Acadians
in the 18th century include Noël Doiron (1684–1758). Noel was one of more than 350 Acadians
Acadians
that perished on the Duke William on December 13, 1758.[21] Noel was described by the Captain of the Duke William as the "father of the whole island", a reference to Noel's place of prominence among the Acadian residents of Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island).[22] For his "noble resignation" and self-sacrifice aboard the Duke William, Noel was celebrated in popular print throughout the 19th century in England and America.[23][24][25] Noel also is the namesake of the village Noel, Nova Scotia. Another prominent Acadian from the 18th century was militia leader Joseph Broussard
Joseph Broussard
who joined French priest Jean-Louis Le Loutre
Jean-Louis Le Loutre
in resisting the British occupation of Acadia. More recent notable Acadians
Acadians
include singers Angèle Arsenault and Edith Butler, singer Jean-François Breau, writer Antonine Maillet; film director Phil Comeau; singer-songwriter Julie Doiron; artist Phoebe Legere, boxers Yvon Durelle
Yvon Durelle
and Jacques LeBlanc; pitcher Rheal Cormier; former Governor General Roméo LeBlanc; former premier of Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
Aubin-Edmond Arsenault, the first Acadian premier of any province and the first Acadian appointed to a provincial supreme court; Georges Hebert, guitarist - most notably having played with Anne Murray
Anne Murray
for over 30 years, as well as for the New Brunswick Playboys 1960s rock band; Aubin-Edmond Arsenault's father, Joseph-Octave Arsenault, the first Acadian appointed to the Canadian Senate from Prince Edward Island; Peter John Veniot, first Acadian Premier of New Brunswick; and former New Brunswick
New Brunswick
premier Louis Robichaud, who was responsible for modernizing education and the government of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
in the mid-20th century. Singers Beyoncé and Solange Knowles
Solange Knowles
have Acadian ancestry. Prominent Louisiana
Louisiana
Acadians
Acadians
include Senator Dudley J. LeBlanc, Singer-Songwriter Zachary Richard, Attorney-cultural activist Warren Perrin, and historian and President of the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana
Louisiana
(CODOFIL) William Arceneaux. See also[edit]

Acadia
Acadia
portal New France
France
portal

List of Acadians History of Nova Scotia Military history of Nova Scotia Military history of the Acadians Acadian cuisine Lee Roy J. Pitre, Jr., Author, Software Engineer Pitre *Pitres.us *History & Origin of Pitre "Acadians/Cajuns"

Notes[edit]

^ For information on Acadians
Acadians
who also have Indigenous ancestry, see:

Parmenter, John; Robison, Mark Power (April 2007). "The Perils and Possibilities of Wartime Neutrality on the Edges of Empire: Iroquois and Acadians
Acadians
between the French and British in North America, 1744–1760". Diplomatic History. 31 (2): 182. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2007.00611.x.  Faragher (2005), pp. 35-48, 146-67, 179-81, 203, 271-77 Paul, Daniel N. (2006). We Were Not the Savages: Collision Between European and Native American Civilizations. Fernwood. pp. 38–67, 86, 97–104. ISBN 978-1-55266-209-0.  Plank, Geoffrey (2004). An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 23–39, 70–98, 111–14, 122–38. ISBN 0-8122-1869-8.  Robison, Mark Power (2000). Maritime frontiers: The evolution of empire in Nova Scotia, 1713-1758 (PhD). University of Colorado at Boulder. pp. 53–84.  Wicken, Bill (Autumn 1995). "26 August 1726: A Case Study in Mi'kmaq- New England
New England
Relationships in the Early 18th Century". Acadiensis. XXIII (1): 20–21.  Wicken, William C. (1998). "Re-examining Mi'kmaq-Acadian Relations, 1635-1755". In Dépatie, Sylvie; Desbarats, Catherine. Vingt ans apres, Habitants et marchands: Lectures de l'histoire des XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles canadiens. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 93–109. ISBN 978-0-7735-6702-3.  Morris, Charles. A Brief Survey of Nova Scotia. Woolwich: The Royal Artillery Regimental Library. The people are tall and well proportioned, they delight much in wearing long hair, they are of dark complexion, in general, and somewhat of the mixture of Indians; but there are some of a light complexion. They retain the language and customs of their neighbours the French, with a mixed affectation of the native Indians, and imitate them in their haunting and wild tones in their merriment; they are naturally full cheer and merry, subtle, speak and promise fair,...  Bell, Winthrop Pickard (1961). The Foreign Protestants and the Settlement of Nova Scotia: The History of a Piece of Arrested British Colonial Policy in the Eighteenth Century. University of Toronto Press. p. 405. Many of the Acadians
Acadians
and Mi'kmaq people
Mi'kmaq people
were mixed bloods , foreign aboriginals or métis example, when Shirley put a bounty on the Mi'kmaq people
Mi'kmaq people
during King George's War, the Acadians appealed in anxiety to Mascarene because of the "great number of Mulattoes amongst them". 

References[edit]

^ "Canadian census, ethnic data". Retrieved 18 March 2013. A note on interpretation: With regard to census data, rather than going by ethnic identification, some would define an Acadian as a native French-speaking person living in the Maritime provinces of Canada. According to the same 2006 census, the population was 25,400 in New Brunswick; 34,025 in Nova Scotia; 32,950 in Quebec; and 5,665 in 03-18  ^ "Detailed Mother Tongue, Canada– Île-du-Prince-Édouard". Archived from the original on July 25, 2009.  ^ " File
File
not found - Fichier non trouvé". statcan.ca. Retrieved 2 April 2016.  ^ Pritchard, James (2004). In Search of Empire: The French in the Americas, 1670-1730. Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-521-82742-3. Abbé Pierre Maillard claimed that racial intermixing had proceeded so far by 1753 that in fifty years it would be impossible to distinguish Amerindian from French in Acadia.  ^ Landry, Nicolas; Lang, Nicole (2001). Histoire de l'Acadie. Les éditions du Septentrion. ISBN 978-2-89448-177-6.  ^ Griffiths, N.E.S. (2005). From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604-1755. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7735-2699-0.  ^ a b Lockerby, Earle (Spring 1998). "The Deportation of the Acadians from Ile St.-Jean, 1758". Acadiensis. XXVII (2): 45–94. JSTOR 30303223.  ^ Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M. (2017-02-07). "Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America". Nature Communications. 8. doi:10.1038/ncomms14238. ISSN 2041-1723.  ^ Parkman, Francis (1914) [1884]. Montcalm and Wolfe. France
France
and England in North America. Little, Brown.  ^ Grenier, John (2008). The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-8566-8.  ^ Patterson, Stephen E. (1998). "Indian-White Relations in Nova Scotia, 1749–61: A Study in Political Interaction". In Buckner, Phillip Alfred; Campbell, Gail Grace; Frank, David. The Acadiensis Reader: Atlantic Canada
Canada
Before Confederation. pp. 105–106.  ^ Patterson, Stephen. Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-919107-44-1.  ^ Faragher (2005), pp. 110–112. ^ For the best account of Acadian armed resistance to the British, see Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008. ^ Reid, John G. (2009). Nova Scotia: A Pocket History. Fernwood. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-55266-325-7.  ^ Holmes, Jack D.L. (1970). A Guide to Spanish Louisiana, 1762-1806. A. F. Laborde. p. 5.  ^ Pioneer Journal, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, 9 December 2009.[full citation needed] ^ "Acadian Memorial - The Eternal Flame". Retrieved October 18, 2012.  ^ "Acadian Flag". Acadian-Cajun.com. Retrieved 2011-10-02.  ^ "A New England
New England
Acadian Flag". Archived from the original on 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2011-10-02.  ^ Scott, Shawn; Scott, Tod (2008). "Noel Doiron and East Hants Acadians". The Journal of Royal Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Historical Society. 11: 45.  ^ Journal of William Nichols, "The Naval Chronicle", 1807. ^ Frost, John (1846). The Book
Book
of Good Examples; Drawn From Authentic History and Biography. New York: D. Appleton & Co. p. 46.  ^ Reubens Percy, "Percey's Anecdotes", New York: 1843, p. 47 ^ "The Saturday Magazine", New York: 1826, p. 502.

References[edit]

Dupont, Jean-Claude (1977). Héritage d'Acadie (in French). Montreal: Éditions Leméac.  Faragher, John Mack (2005). A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians
Acadians
from Their American Homeland. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-24243-0.  Frink, Tim (1999). New Brunswick, A Short History (2nd ed.). Summerville, New Brunswick: Stonington Books. ISBN 978-0-9682-5001-3.  Scott, Michaud. "History of the Madawaska Acadians". Retrieved 2008-03-05. . Mosher, Howard Frank (1997). North Country: A Personal Journey Through the Borderland. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-544-39124-6. 

Further reading[edit]

Chetro-Szivos, J. Talking Acadian: Work, Communication, and Culture, YBK 2006, New York ISBN 0-9764359-6-9. Griffiths, Naomi. From Migrant to Acadian: a North American border people, 1604–1755, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005. Hodson, Christopher. The Acadian Diaspora: An Eighteenth-Century History (Oxford University Press; 2012) 260 pages online review by Kenneth Banks Jobb, Dean. The Acadians: A People's Story of Exile and Triumph, John Wiley & Sons, 2005 (published in the United States
United States
as The Cajuns: A People's Story of Exile and Triumph) Kennedy, Gregory M.W. Something of a Peasant Paradise? Comparing Rural Societies in Acadie and the Loudunais, 1604-1755 (MQUP 2014) Laxer, James. The Acadians: In Search of a Homeland, Doubleday Canada, October 2006 ISBN 0-385-66108-8. Le Bouthillier, Claude, Phantom Ship, XYZ editors, 1994, ISBN 978-1-894852-09-8 Magord, André, The Quest for Autonomy in Acadia
Acadia
(Bruxelles etc., Peter Lang, 2008) (Études Canadiennes - Canadian Studies, 18). Naomi E. S. Griffiths, The Acadian Deportation: Deliberate Perfidy or Cruel Necessity? Toronto: Copp Clark, 1969. Runte, Hans R. (1997). Writing Acadia: The Emergence of Acadian Literature 1970–1990. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-0237-1. 

External links[edit]

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of Madawaska, Maine Quit rents paid by Acadians
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(1743-53)

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v t e

French diaspora

Africa

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Africa
(Afrikaners)

Asia

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See also

Basques Bretons Walloons Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico

1Overseas parts of France
France
proper Migration of minorities in France
France
(i.e. Basques) can be considered as separate (ethnically) or French migration (by n

.