|Muhammad (570–632) prepared the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions|
|`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taught||Ali (607–661) fourth caliph taught||Aisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taught||Abd Allah ibn Abba|
However, George Makdisi and Ignác Goldziher consider this work as genuine, and Salafists maintain that the book marks al-Ash'ari's late repentance and his return to the beliefs of the salaf. Salafists expound that the book was written after he recanted his earlier beliefs and accepted Athari beliefs, following his encounter with the Hanbalite scholar Al-Hasan ibn 'Ali al-Barbahari, and was primarily an attempt to call his previous followers back to Islam. Professor Sherman Jackson recounts that Ibn Taymiyyah, citing the Ash'ari Historian Ibn `Asakir, presented Al-Ashari's words in the Ibāna as a defense during his trial on charges of anthropomorphism.