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Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (Arabic: أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة‎; c. 573 CE – 22 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر),[1] was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha[2]—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
became the first openly declared Muslim
Muslim
outside Muhammad's family.[3][page needed][4] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.[5] He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim
Muslim
Caliph
Caliph
following Muhammad's death.[6] As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق, As-Saddīq).[2] Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, and 2 weeks ending with his death after an illness.

Contents

1 Lineage and title 2 Early life

2.1 Acceptance of Islam 2.2 Life after accepting Islam 2.3 Persecution by the Quraysh, 613

3 Last years in Mecca 4 Migration to Medina

4.1 Life in Medina

5 Military campaigns under Muhammad

5.1 Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
and Uhud 5.2 Conflict with Jewish tribes 5.3 Battle of the Trench

5.3.1 Military campaigns during final years of Muhammad

5.4 Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
and Ta'if 5.5 Expedition of Tabuk 5.6 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as Amir-ul-Hajj

5.6.1 Military campaigns as commander

6 Death of Muhammad 7 Election of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as Caliph 8 Reign as a Caliph

8.1 Preservation of the Qur'an

9 Death 10 Descendants 11 Legacy

11.1 Sunni view 11.2 Shia
Shia
view

12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Lineage and title[edit]

Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq

Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
during the reign of Abu Bakr.

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Abu Bakr's full name was Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq Abd Allah
Allah
ibn ' Uthman
Uthman
ibn Aamir ibn Amr ibn Ka'ab ibn Sa'ad ibn Taym (from whom the at-Taymi al-Quraishi) ibn Murrah ibn Ka'ab ibn Lu'ai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr al-Quraishi.[7][8] The lineage of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
joined that of Muhammad
Muhammad
in the eighth degree in their common ancestor Murrah ibn Ka'b. The patrilineal lineage of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was: Abu Bakr; the son of Uthman
Uthman
Abu Quhafa; the son of Amar; the son of Umru; the son of Saad; the son of Taym; the son of Murrah; the son of Kaab. The lineage of Muhammad
Muhammad
was: Muhammad; the son of Abd Allah
Allah
ibn Abd al Muttalib; the son of Abdul Muttalib; the son of Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf; the son of Abd Manaf ibn Qusai; the son of Qusai ibn Kilab; the son of Kilab ibn Murrah; the son of Murrah.[9] In Arabic, the name Abd Allah
Allah
means "servant of Allah". One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to Islam, was atiqe, "the saved one". Muhammad
Muhammad
later reaffirmed this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the "atiqe" (the one saved from hell fire by God).[10] He was called Al-Siddiq (the truthful)[2] by Muhammad
Muhammad
after he believed him in the event of Isra and Mi'raj
Isra and Mi'raj
when other people didn't, and Ali confirmed that title several times.[11] There is a dispute over his name being Abdullah. Ibn Hajar in Al-Isaabah, vol. 4, p. 146 and many other narrations, narrates from Qasim Ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Abi Bakr, "I asked Ayesha the name of Abu Bakr. She said Abdullah. I said people are saying Ateeq. She said Abu Quhafa had three children, one was Ateeq, second Mu’taq and third, Otaiq. All three names are similar and derived from the same root." He was mentioned in the Quran
Quran
as the "second of the two who lay in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, where with Muhammad
Muhammad
he hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr
Jabal Thawr
from the Meccan search party that was sent after them, thus being one of few who were given direct mention in the Quran.[12] Imam Jafar al Sadiq
Jafar al Sadiq
famously narrated how the title Siddiq was given to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
from Muhammad.[13][14] Jafar was a direct descendant of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
from his maternal side, as well as being a descendant of Ali from his father's side. Jafar al-Sadiq
Jafar al-Sadiq
was also the successor of the Naqshbandi
Naqshbandi
Sufi order believed to be originating from Abu Bakr himself.[15][16][17][18][19] Imam Muhammad
Muhammad
al Baqir, the father of Imam Jafar Sadiq, also called Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
with the title Siddiq.[20] Much of the available knowledge about Muhammad
Muhammad
comes through Abu Bakr's daughter, Aisha. After the death of Abu Bakr, her brother Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr was raised by Ali. After Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr was killed by the Umayyads, Aisha
Aisha
raised and taught her nephew al-Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr. Aisha
Aisha
also taught another nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr. He then taught his son Hisham ibn Urwah, who was the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas
whose views many Sunni follow. Qasim's mother was of ‘Ali's family and his daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim, who married Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir, was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Therefore al-Qasim was the grandson of the first caliph Abu Bakr and the grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq. Another of Abu Bakr's grandsons, Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr, was very close to Husayn bin Ali. After Hussein ibn Ali
Ali
was betrayed by the people of Kufa and killed by the army of Yazid I, the Umayyad ruler,[21] Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr confronted Yazid and expelled him from Iraq, southern Arabia
Arabia
and the greater part of Syria, and parts of Egypt. Following a lengthy campaign, on his last hour Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint Abu Bakr, the daughter of the first caliph, for advice. Asma' bint Abu Bakr replied to her son:[22] "You know better in your own self, that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for people more honourable than you have been killed and if you are not upon the truth, then what an evil son you are and you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say, that if you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others, then you will not truly be free". Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr left and was later also killed and crucified by the Syrian
Syrian
Army now under the control of the Umayyads. Early life[edit] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was born in Mecca
Mecca
some time in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Taym[9] clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. Abu Bakr's father's name was Uthman Abu Quhafa (nicknamed Abu Quhafa) and his mother was Salma bint Sakhar (nicknamed Umm-ul-Khair). He spent his early childhood like other Arab
Arab
children of the time among the Bedouins who called themselves Ahl-i-Ba'eer- the people of the camel, and developed a particular fondness for camels. In his early years he played with the camel calves and goats, and his love for camels earned him the nickname "Abu Bakr", the father of the camel's calf.[23][24] When Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was 10 years old, he went to Syria
Syria
along with his father with the merchants' caravan. Muhammad, who was 12 years old at the time, was also with the caravan. In 591 at the age of 18, Abu Bakr went into trade and adopted the profession of cloth merchant, which was the family's business. In the coming years Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
traveled extensively with caravans. Business trips took him to Yemen, Syria, and elsewhere. These travels brought him wealth and added to his experience. His business flourished and he rose in the scale of social importance. Though his father, Uthman
Uthman
Abu Quhafa, was still alive, he came to be recognized as chief of his tribe. Like other children of the rich Meccan merchant families, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was literate and developed a fondness for poetry. He used to attend the annual fair at Ukaz, and participate in poetical symposia. He had a very good memory and had a good knowledge of the genealogy of the Arab tribes, their stories and their politics.[25] A story is preserved that once when he was a child, his father took him to the Kaaba, and asked him to pray before the idols. His father went away to attend to some other business, and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was left alone with the idols. Addressing an idol, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
said "O my God, I am in need of beautiful clothes; bestow them on me". The idol remained indifferent. Then he addressed another idol saying "O God, give me some delicious food. See that I am so hungry". The idol remained cold. That exhausted the patience of young Abu Bakr. He lifted a stone, and addressing an idol said "Here I am aiming a stone; if you are a god protect yourself". Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
hurled the stone at the idol and left the Kaaba. Thereafter, he never went to the Kaaba
Kaaba
to pray to the idols.[26] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was a thin man with white skin.[27] Tabari relates (Suyuti also relates the same through Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's report) from Aisha
Aisha
her description of Abu Bakr:

He was a man with fair skin, thin, emaciated, with a sparse beard, a slightly hunched frame, sunken eyes and protruding forehead, and the bases of his fingers were hairless.[28]

Acceptance of Islam[edit] On his return from a business trip from Yemen, he was informed by friends that in his absence Muhammad
Muhammad
had declared himself the Messenger of God, and proclaimed a new religion. Tabari, the most famous Muslim
Muslim
historian, in his Ta'rikh quotes from Muhammad
Muhammad
Bin Sa'ad Bin Abi Waqqas, who said:

I asked my father whether Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was the first of the Muslims. He said, 'No, more than fifty people embraced Islam
Islam
before Abu Bakr; but he was superior to us as a Muslim. And Umar
Umar
ibn Khattab had embraced Islam
Islam
after forty-five men and twenty-one women. As for the foremost one in the matter of Islam
Islam
and faith, it was Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib.'[29][30]

Other Sunni and all Shi'a Muslims maintain that the second person to publicly accept Muhammed as the messenger of God was Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, the first being Muhammad's wife Khadija.[31] Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
in his Al Bidaya Wal Nihayah disregards the above. He stated that the first woman to embrace Islam
Islam
was Khadijah. Zaid bin Haarithah was the first freed slave to embrace Islam. And Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib was the first child to embrace Islam
Islam
for he has not even reached the age of puberty at the time. And Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was the first free man to embrace Islam.[32] Life after accepting Islam[edit]

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His wife Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza did not accept Islam
Islam
and he divorced her. His other wife, Um Ruman, became a Muslim. All his children except Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr accepted Islam, and Abu Bakr separated from his son Abdu'l-Rahman. His conversion brought many people to Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends to convert to Islam.[33][34] and presented Islam
Islam
to others in such a way that many of his friends accepted Islam. Those who converted to Islam
Islam
at the insistence of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
were:[3]

Uthman Ibn Affan
Uthman Ibn Affan
(who would become the 3rd Caliph) Al-Zubayr (played a part in the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Egypt) Talha Ibn Ubayd-Allah Abdur Rahman bin Awf
Abdur Rahman bin Awf
(who would remain an important part of the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphate) Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
(played a part in the Islamic conquest of Persia) Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
(who remained commander in chief of the Rashidun
Rashidun
army in Syria
Syria
) Abu Salama (Abdullah bin Abdul Asad) Khalid ibn Sa`id Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah

Abu Bakr's acceptance proved to be a milestone in Muhammad's mission. Slavery was common in Mecca, and many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves however, there was no such protection and they commonly experienced persecution. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
felt compassion for slaves, so he purchased eight slaves (four men and four women) and then freed them, paying 40,000 dinar for their freedom.[35][36] The men were

Bilal ibn Ribah Abu Fakih Ammar ibn Yasir Abu Fuhayra

The women were:

Lubaynah Al-Nahdiah Umm Ubays Harithah bint al-Muammil

Most of the slaves liberated by Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
were either women or old and frail men.[37] The father of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
asked him why he doesn't liberate strong and young slaves who could be a source of strength for him, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
replied that he was freeing the slaves for the sake of God, and not for his own sake. According to Sunni tradition the following verses of the Qur'an
Qur'an
were revealed due to this:[38][citation needed]

As for him who gives and is godfearing and confirms the reward most fair, We shall surely ease him to the Easing. 92:5–7 .

...he who gives his wealth to purify himself and confers no favour on any man for recompense, only seeking the Face of his Lord the Most High; and he shall surely be satisfied. 92:18–21 .

Shias maintain these verses were revealed about Ali.[39] Persecution by the Quraysh, 613[edit] Main article: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans For three years after the birth of Islam, Muslims kept secret their faith, and prayed in secret. In 613 Muhammad
Muhammad
was commanded by God to call people to Islam
Islam
openly. The first public address inviting people to offer allegiance to Muhammad
Muhammad
was delivered by Abu Bakr.[40] In a fit of fury the young men of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe rushed at Abu Bakr, and beat him mercilessly till he lost consciousness.[41] Following this incident Abu Bakr's mother converted to Islam. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was persecuted many times by the Quraysh. Abu Bakr's beliefs would have been defended by his own clan, but not by the entire Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe. Last years in Mecca[edit] In 617, the Quraysh
Quraysh
enforced a boycott against the Banu Hashim. Muhammad
Muhammad
along with his supporters from Banu Hashim, were cut off in a pass away from Mecca. All social relations with the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
were cut off and their state was that of imprisonment. Before it many Muslims migrated to Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). Abu Bakr, feeling distressed, set out for Yemen
Yemen
and then to Abyssinia from there. He met a friend of his named Ad-Dughna (chief of the Qarah tribe) outside Mecca, who invited Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
to seek his protection against the Quraysh. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
went back to Mecca, it was a relief for him, but soon due to the pressure of Quraysh, Ad-Dughna was forced to renounce his protection. Once again the Quraysh
Quraysh
were free to persecute Abu Bakr. In 620 Muhammad's wife and uncle died. Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha
Aisha
was engaged to Muhammad, however it was decided that the actual marriage ceremony would be held later. In 620 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was the first person to testify to Muhammad's Isra and Mi'raj
Isra and Mi'raj
(Night Journey).[42] Migration to Medina[edit] Main article: Hijra (Islam)

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In 622, on the invitation of the Muslims of Medina, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered Muslims to migrate to Medina. The migration began in batches. Ali
Ali
was the last to remain in Mecca, entrusted with responsibility for settling any loans the Muslims had taken, and famously slept in the bed of Muhammad
Muhammad
when the Quraysh
Quraysh
led by Ikrima attempted to murder Muhammad
Muhammad
as he slept. Meanwhile, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
accompanied Muhammad
Muhammad
in his migration for Medina. Due to the danger of the Quraysh, they did not take the road to Medina. They moved in the opposite direction, and took refuge in a cave in Jabal Thawr
Jabal Thawr
some five miles south of Mecca. `Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, the son of Abu Bakr, would listen to the plans and talks of the Quraysh, and at night he would carry the news to the fugitives in the cave. Asma bint Abi Bakr, the daughter of Abu Bakr, brought them meals every day.[43] Aamir, a servant of Abu Bakr, would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night where they were milked. The Quraysh
Quraysh
sent search parties in all directions. One party came close to the entrance to the cave, but was unable to sight them. Due to this, Qur'an
Qur'an
verse 9:40 was revealed. Aisha, Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri and Abdullah ibn Abbas
Abdullah ibn Abbas
in interpreting this verse said that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was the companion who stayed with Muhammad
Muhammad
in the cave. After staying at the cave for three days and three nights, Abu Bakr and Muhammad
Muhammad
proceed to Medina, staying for some time at Quba, a suburb of Medina. While Sunni sources portray Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
in an exalted light in the cave, Shia
Shia
sources however generally tend to portray the incident in the cave as a Quranic condemnation of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
for cowardice and fear.[44] Life in Medina[edit] In Medina, Muhammad
Muhammad
decided to construct a mosque. A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was paid for by Abu Bakr. Muslims constructed a mosque named Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
at the site and Abu Bakr also took part in construction. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari (who was from Medina) as a brother in faith. Abu Bakr's relationship with Khaarjah was most cordial, which was further strengthened when Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah. Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari used to live at Sunh, a suburb of Medina, and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
also settled there. After Abu Bakr's family arrived in Medina
Medina
he bought another house near Muhammad's.[45] The climate of Mecca
Mecca
was dry, but the climate of Medina
Medina
was damp and this adversely affected the health of the immigrants, so that on arrival most of them fell sick. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
also suffered from fever for several days and during this time he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family. At Mecca, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was a trader in cloth and he started the same business in Medina. He was a wholesaler, and had his store at Sunh, and from there cloth was supplied to the market at Medina. Soon his business flourished at Medina. Early in 623, Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha, who was already engaged to Muhammad, was handed over to Muhammad
Muhammad
in a simple marriage ceremony, and this further strengthened the relation between Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Muhammad.[5] Military campaigns under Muhammad[edit]

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
and Uhud[edit] Main articles: Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
and Battle of Uhud In 624 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was involved in the first battle between the Muslims and the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Mecca, known as the Battle of Badr, but did not fight, instead acting as one of the guards of Muhammad's tent. In 625 he participated in the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
that ended resultless but the Muslims suffered heavy loss of lives. Before the battle begun, Abu Bakr's son Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr, who was still non- Muslim
Muslim
and was fighting from the side of the Quraysh, came forward and threw down a challenge for a duel. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
accepted the challenge but was stopped by Muhammad. His son later converted to Islam
Islam
and gained fame during the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Syria
Syria
as a fierce warrior. In the second phase of the battle, Khalid ibn al-Walid’s cavalry attacked the Muslims from behind, causing dozens of casualties to the Muslim
Muslim
that changed the course of the war. Many Muslim
Muslim
warriors fled from the battlefield due to fear or to plunder the spoils of war. So did Abu Bakr, however, he was among the first to return according to few Sunni Hadith. Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, Talhah
Talhah
and a few other Muslims remained guarding Muhammad
Muhammad
from the attacks of the Quraysh
Quraysh
soldiers, majority of Shia
Shia
and many Sunni Hadith
Hadith
agree to this. Criticisms of his lacklustre military achievements in comparison with the extremely accomplished Ali
Ali
should be put into context: Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was a middle aged man during these battles, was not a soldier but a merchant by trade, and had never seen battle before – it may thus be unfair to directly compare him with Ali
Ali
in this regard. In Sunni accounts during one such attack, two discs from Abu Bakr's shield penetrated into Muhammad's cheeks. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
went forward with the intention of extracting these discs but Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah requested he leave the matter to him, losing his two incisors during the process. In these stories subsequently Abu Bakr, along with other companions, led Muhammad
Muhammad
to a place of safety.[5] Conflict with Jewish tribes[edit] Main articles: Invasion of Banu Nadir, Invasion of Banu Qurayza, and Battle of Khaybar Later in the year Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was a part of campaign against the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. Battle of the Trench[edit] In 627 he participated in the Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
and also in the Invasion of Banu Qurayza.[5] In this battle, Muhammad
Muhammad
divided the ditch into a number of sectors and a contingent was posted to guard each sector. One of such contingents was under the command of Abu Bakr. The enemy made frequent assaults in the attempt to cross the ditch. All such assaults were repulsed. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
showed great courage in guarding the belt of the trench in his sector. To commemorate this event a mosque was later constructed at the site where Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had heroically repulsed the charges of the enemy. The mosque was later known as 'Masjid-i-Siddiq'.[46] In 628 he participated in Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
and was made one of the witnesses over the pact.[5] In 628 he was a part of the Muslim
Muslim
campaign to Khaybar. Military campaigns during final years of Muhammad[edit] Main articles: Expedition of Amr ibn al-As, Conquest of Mecca, Battle of Hunayn, Siege of Ta'if, and Battle of Tabouk In 629 Muhammad
Muhammad
sent 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
to Zaat-ul-Sallasal from where he called for reinforcements and Muhammad
Muhammad
sent Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah. Commanding an army under him were Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
and they attacked and defeated the enemy.[47] In 630 when Muslim
Muslim
armies rushed for the Conquest of Mecca, Abu Bakr was a part of the army. Before the conquest of Mecca
Mecca
his father Uthman Abu Quhafa converted to Islam. Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
and Ta'if[edit] In 630 he was part of Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
and Siege of Ta'if. In the Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
as the Muslim
Muslim
army passed through the valley of Hunayn some eleven miles north east of Mecca
Mecca
a rain of arrows fell on it let loose by a group of archers of the hostile tribes that lay hid in the mountain pass. Taken unaware the advance guard of the Muslim army fled in panic. There was considerable confusion, and the camels, horses and men ran into one another in the attempt to seek cover. Muhammad
Muhammad
stood firm. There were only nine companions around him including Abu Bakr. All the rest had fled. Under the instructions of Muhammad, Abbas shouted at the top of his voice "O Muslims come to the Prophet of Allah". The call was heard by the Muslim
Muslim
soldiers and they gathered beside Muhammad. When the Muslim
Muslim
had gathered in sufficient number, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered a charge against the enemy. In the hand-to-hand fight that followed the tribes were routed and they fled to Autas. Muhammad
Muhammad
posted a contingent to guard the Hunayn pass and led the main army to Autas. In the confrontation at Autas
Autas
the tribes could not withstand the Muslim
Muslim
onslaught. Finding the resistance useless the tribes broke the camp and retired to Ta'if. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was commissioned by Muhammad
Muhammad
to lead the attack against Ta'if. From Autas
Autas
the Muslim
Muslim
forces set out for Ta'if. The tribes shut themselves in the fort and refused to come out in the open. The Muslim employed catapults to throw stones in the town, but this did not lead to any tangible results. The Muslim
Muslim
tried the testudo device whereunder a group of soldiers shielded by a cover of cowhide advanced to set fire to the gate. The enemy threw red hot scraps of iron on the testudo which made it ineffective. The siege dragged on for two weeks, and still there was no sign of the fall of the fort. Muhammad
Muhammad
held a council of war. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
advised that the siege might be raised and that God would Himself make arrangements for the fall of the fort. The advice was accepted, and in February 630, the siege of Ta'if was raised and the Muslim
Muslim
army returned to Mecca. A few days later Malik bin Auf the commander, came to Mecca
Mecca
and became a Muslim. Thus the forecast of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
came to be fulfilled, and the God Himself arranged for the surrender of Ta'if.[48] Expedition of Tabuk[edit] In 630 AD Muhammad
Muhammad
decided to lead an expedition to Tabuk on the Syrian
Syrian
border. In order to finance the expedition Muhammad
Muhammad
invited contributions and donations from his followers. Uthman
Uthman
provided ten thousand camels. Umar
Umar
made a liberal contribution. When Muhammad
Muhammad
asked him how much he had left for himself and his family he said that he has given one half of his wealth for the cause of God and had left one half for himself and his dependents. Then Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
came loaded with his contribution and Muhammad
Muhammad
put him the same question as to how much wealth he had for himself and his family. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
said "I have brought all that I had. I have left Allah
Allah
and His Prophet for myself and my family". This episode has formed the theme of one of the poems of Allama Iqbal. The last verse of this poem reads:

For the moth the lamp, and for the nightingale the flower For Siddiq God and His Prophet Suffice.

The call to arms was given at a very critical period. The weather was burning hot. Crops were ripe and ready for harvesting. The journey was long and arduous. Many persons preferred to stay back. In spite of these obstacles and difficulties, an army of thirty thousand persons was raised. The army assembled at Al Jorf outside Medina. Muhammad remained at Medina
Medina
for some time to attend to other affairs, and at Al Jorf Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
deputised for Muhammad
Muhammad
and led the prayers. The Muslim
Muslim
army reached Tabuk after a weary march. At Tabuk the standard of the army was entrusted to Abu Bakr. There were no Byzantine
Byzantine
forces to meet the Muslims. On coming to know of the advance of the Muslim
Muslim
army the Byzantines had withdrawn their army well within Syria. The Muslim
Muslim
achieved their object without fighting a shot. The Byzantines who had at one time threatened to invade Arabia
Arabia
were no longer in the mood to measure swords with the Muslims.[49] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as Amir-ul-Hajj[edit] In 631 AD, Muhammad
Muhammad
sent from Medina
Medina
a delegation of three hundred Muslims to perform the Hajj
Hajj
according to the new Islamic way. Abu Bakr was appointed as the leader of the delegates. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had thus the honour of being the first Amir-ul- Hajj
Hajj
in the history of Islam. Some time after Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and his party had left for Hajj, Muhammad received a revelation about the regulation of the Hajj, and the ordering of relationships with the infidels. It is related that when this revelation came, someone suggested to Muhammad
Muhammad
that he should send news of it to Abu Bakr. Muhammad
Muhammad
said that only a man of his house could proclaim the revelation. Muhammad
Muhammad
summoned Ali, and asked him to proclaim the revealed verses to the people on the day of sacrifice when they assembled at Mina. Ali went forth on Muhammad's slit-eared camel, and overtook Abu Bakr. When Ali
Ali
joined the party, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
wanted to know whether he had come to give orders or to convey them. Ali
Ali
said that he had not come to replace Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as Amir-ul-Hajj, and that his only mission was to convey a special message to the people on behalf of Muhammad. At Mecca, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
presided at the Hajj
Hajj
ceremony, and Ali
Ali
read the proclamation on behalf of Muhammad. The main points of the proclamation were:

Henceforward the non-Muslims were not to be allowed to visit the Kaaba or perform the pilgrimage. No one should circumambulate the Kaaba
Kaaba
naked. Polytheism
Polytheism
was not to be tolerated. Where the Muslims had any agreement with the polytheists such agreements would be honoured for the stipulated periods. Where there were no agreements a grace period of four months was provided and thereafter no quarter was to be given to the polytheists.

From the day this proclamation was made a new era dawned in Arabia. Henceforward Islam
Islam
alone was to be supreme in Arabia. In some quarters an argument is advanced that as on this occasion the proclamation was read by Ali
Ali
on behalf of Muhammad, this establishes the precedence of Ali
Ali
over Abu Bakr, and that therefore when after the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
became the Caliph
Caliph
in disregard of the claims of Ali, he was a usurper. On this occasion Ali
Ali
did not replace Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as Amir-ul-Hajj. Ali
Ali
was merely assigned a special mission to read the proclamation as according to Muhammad
Muhammad
only a man from his own house could communate the revelation. We can thus say that on this occasion Abu Bakr represented the temporal side, while Ali
Ali
represented the spiritual side. After the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
there was no longer the question of any spiritual representation; the issue was only temporal representation, and for this Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was the best choice as he had thus represented Muhammad
Muhammad
even in his lifetime.[50] Military campaigns as commander[edit] Main article: Expedition of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
As-Siddiq Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
also led one military campaign as commander, known as Expedition of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
As-Siddiq,[51] which took place in Nejd, in July 628 AD (3rd Month 7AH in the Islamic calendar).[51] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
led a large platoon in Nejd on the order of Muhammad. Many were killed and taken as prisoner.[52] The Sunni Hadith
Hadith
collection Sunan Abu Dawud mentions the event[53] Death of Muhammad[edit] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
attended the event of Ghadir Khumm, which took place a few months before Muhammad
Muhammad
passed away. According to both Shia
Shia
and Sunni sources, he was among the many who pledged allegiance to Ali
Ali
at the event.[54][55][56][57][58] In Medina, after the Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
and the event of Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered an army under the command of Usama bin Zayd. He commanded all the companions, except for his family, to go with Usama to Syria
Syria
to avenge the Muslims’ defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah.[59] Muhammad
Muhammad
gave Usama the banner of Islam
Islam
on the 18th day of the Islamic month of Safar in the year 11 A.H. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
were among those that Muhammad
Muhammad
commanded to join Usama’s army.[60][61] However, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
resisted going under the command of Usama because they thought that he, who was 18 or 20 at the time, was too young to lead an army,[62] despite Muhammad’s teachings that age and standing in society did not necessarily correspond to being a good general.[63][64] In response to these worries, the Prophet said: "O Arabs! You are miserable because I have appointed Usama as your general, and you are raising questions if he is qualified to lead you in war. I know you are the same people who had raised the same question about his father. By God, Usama is qualified to be your general just as his father was qualified to be a general. Now obey his orders and go."[65] Whenever Muhammad
Muhammad
felt any relief from his fatal sickness, he would inquire as to whether Usama’s army had left for Syria
Syria
yet, and would continue urging his companions to leave for Syria.[66] Muhammad
Muhammad
even said, "Usama's army must leave at once. May Allah
Allah
curse those men who do not go with him."[67][68][69] However, while a few companions were ready to join Usama’s army, many other companions, including Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar, disobeyed Muhammad’s orders. It is also noted that this was the only battle expedition where Muhammad
Muhammad
urged his companions to go the battle no matter what; for other battles, if someone was unable to go to the fight, Muhammad
Muhammad
would let them stay at home. Election of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as Caliph[edit]

Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr's empire at its peak in August 634.

Main articles: Succession to Muhammad, Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm, and List of Sahaba
Sahaba
not giving bay'ah to Abu Bakr After Muhammad's death, previously dormant tensions between the Meccan immigrants, the Muhajirun, and the Medinan converts, the Ansar, threatened to break out and split the Ummah. Other Arabic
Arabic
tribes also wished to revert to local leadership and split from Medina's control. In some places, people claiming prophethood started to establish leaderships to oppose Medina, e.g. Al-Aswad Al-Ansi and Musaylimah. All of which are events that led to splitting the Muslim community.[70] The Ansar, the leaders of the tribes of Medina, met in a hall or house called saqifah, to discuss whom they would support as their new leader. When Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was informed of the meeting, he, Umar, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
and a few others rushed to prevent the Ansar from making a premature decision. Accounts of this meeting vary greatly. All agree that during the meeting Umar
Umar
declared that Abu Bakr should be the new leader, and declared his allegiance to Abu Bakr, followed by Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, and thus Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
became the first Muslim
Muslim
caliph, and the first Muslim
Muslim
given the title Khalifa-tul-Rasul (Successor of messenger of Allah), a title accepted by Sunni Muslims. Sunnis believe that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
is the rightful Caliph. The Twelver
Twelver
Shia and the Ismaili Shia
Shia
believe that Ali
Ali
should have been the first Caliph. Their main argument is based on their interpretation of Hadith of the pond of Khumm.[citation needed] However, later a minority, took this concept one step further and also started thinking, what if history took a different course and these ideas were later adopted by some Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
and institutionalised by the Safavids
Safavids
in the 1500s. For the first time in the history of Islam, the Safavids
Safavids
also established a hierarchical organization of the Shiite clergy and funded this hierarchy through the collection of waqf and Khums.[71][72] Because of the relative insecurity of property ownership in Persia, many private landowners secured their lands by donating them to the clergy as so called vaqf. They would thus retain the official ownership and secure their land from being confiscated by royal commissioners or local governors, as long as a percentage of the revenues from the land went to the ulama the quasi-religious organizations run by dervishes (futuvva). Increasingly, members of the religious class, particularly the mujtahids and the seyyeds, gained full ownership of these lands, and, according to contemporary historian Iskandar Munshi, Persia started to witness the emergence of a new and significant group of landowners.[73] From then on many seyyeds also further propagated the idea that Ali
Ali
should have been the first caliph and that by becoming the first caliph, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had broken the link that proved that they should have more rights. Before that point Jafar al-Sadiq
Jafar al-Sadiq
disapproved of people who disapproved of his great grand father Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
the first caliph.[citation needed] Reign as a Caliph[edit] After assuming the office of Caliphate
Caliphate
Abu Bakr's first address was as follows:

I have been given the authority over you, and I am not the best of you. If I do well, help me; and if I do wrong, set me right. Sincere regard for truth is loyalty and disregard for truth is treachery. The weak amongst you shall be strong with me until I have secured his rights, if God wills; and the strong amongst you shall be weak with me until I have wrested from him the rights of others, if God wills. Obey me so long as I obey God and His Messenger. But if I disobey God and His Messenger, you owe me no obedience. Arise for your prayer, God have mercy upon you. (Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah 6:305,306)

. Abu Bakr's Caliphate
Caliphate
lasted for 27 months, during which he crushed the rebellion of the Arab
Arab
tribes throughout the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
in the successful Ridda Wars. In the last months of his rule, he sent general Khalid ibn al-Walid
Khalid ibn al-Walid
on conquests against the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and against the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire in Syria. This would set in motion a historical trajectory[70] (continued later on by Umar
Umar
and Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan) that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. He had little time to pay attention to the administration of state, though state affairs remained stable during his Caliphate. On the advice of Umar
Umar
and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah he agreed to have a salary from state treasury and abolish his cloth trade. Preservation of the Qur'an[edit] Main article: Origin and development of the Qur'an

Calligraphic
Calligraphic
representation of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey.

According to Sunni Islam, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was instrumental in preserving the Qur'an
Qur'an
in written form.[74][75] It is said that after the hard-won victory over Musaylimah in the Battle of Yamama fought in 632, Umar (the later Caliph
Caliph
Umar), saw that many of the Muslims who had memorized the Qur'an
Qur'an
(about 300 to 700) had died in battle. Fearing that the Qur'an
Qur'an
may be lost or corrupted, Umar
Umar
requested the Caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
to authorize the compilation and preservation of the scriptures in written format. After initial hesitation, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
made a committee headed by Zayd ibn Thabit which included the memorizers of the Qur'an
Qur'an
and Umar
Umar
and to collect all verses of the book. After collecting all Qur'anic verses from texts in the possession of various sahaba, Zayd ibn Thabit and members of his committee verified the reading by comparing with those who had memorized the Qur'an. After they were satisfied that they had not missed out any verse or made any mistakes in reading or writing it down, the text was written down as one single manuscript and presented in codex form to the Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr. It is believed that this process happened within one year of the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
when most of his sahaba (Companions) were still alive. Prior to his death, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
gave this authorized copy of the Qur'an to Umar
Umar
– his successor as caliph.[better source needed] It remained with him throughout his tenure as caliph (10 years).[better source needed] Prior to his death, Umar
Umar
gave this book to his daughter Hafsa bint Umar, who was one of the wives of Muhammad.[better source needed] Umar
Umar
did not nominate his successor on his deathbed, and thus preferred to leave this copy with Hafsa so as not to indicate his personal preference of who would be the next caliph.[better source needed] Later on, it became the basis of Uthman
Uthman
Ibn Affan's definitive text of the Qur'an
Qur'an
which was published far and wide merely 18 years after the death of Muhammad.[better source needed] Later historians give Uthman Ibn Affan the principal credit for re-verification and publishing the Qur'an.[better source needed] Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ites reject the idea that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
or Umar
Umar
were instrumental in the collection or preservation of the Qur'an.[76] Death[edit] On 23 August 634, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
fell sick and did not recover. He developed high fever and was confined to bed. His illness was prolonged, and when his condition worsened, he felt that his end was near. Realizing his death was near, he sent for Ali
Ali
and requested him to perform his ghusl since Ali
Ali
had also done it for Muhammad. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
felt that he should nominate his successor so that the issue should not be a cause of dissension among the Muslims after his death, though there was already controversy over Ali
Ali
not having been appointed.[77] He appointed Umar
Umar
as his successor after discussing with some companions. Some of them favored the nomination and others disliked it, due to the tough nature of Umar. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
thus dictated his last testament to Uthman Ibn Affan
Uthman Ibn Affan
as follows:

In the name of Most Merciful God. This is the last will and testament of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
bin Abu Quhafa, when he is in the last hour of the world, and the first of the next; an hour in which the infidel must believe, the wicked be convinced of their evil ways, I nominate Umar
Umar
bin al Khattab as my successor. Therefore, hear to him and obey him. If he acts right, confirm his actions. My intentions are good, but I cannot see the future results. However, those who do ill shall render themselves liable to severe account hereafter. Fare you well. May you be ever attended by the Divine favor of blessing.[78]

Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
next asked Aisha
Aisha
as to how many pieces of cloth were used for Muhammad's shroud.[citation needed] Aisha
Aisha
said that three pieces had been used.[citation needed] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
thereupon desired the same number for his own shroud.[citation needed] On Monday, 23 August 634 (hijri: 7th of Jamadi-ui- Akhir of the 13th AH), Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
died. The funeral prayer was led by Umar.[citation needed] He was buried the same night by the side of Muhammad's grave in Aisha's house near Al-Masjid al-Nabawi[citation needed] Descendants[edit]

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Main article: Family tree of Abu Bakr Today there are many families which are the descendants of Abu Bakr. Most of them are known by the name Siddiqui and al-Bakri Or al-Sideeqi (Al-Bakri) ((In Arabic)). But they are also known by some other names in different localities. For example, in East Ethiopia, Siddiqis are usually called Qallu, which means people of the religion, as they were the first to bring Islam
Islam
to this area. In Somalia, they are commonly known as Sheekhaal and they are well respected by other Somali clans. In Bangladesh, they are known by the name of Qureshi. There are also Al-Sedeki or Sedeki families in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Yemen, Iraq
Iraq
and other places in the Arabia
Arabia
Peninsula. All the descendants of Abu Bakr, their ancestors are: Abdurahman Ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr. The Al-Bakri Family in Egypt
Egypt
are the descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
while the sheekhaal or Fiqi Umar
Umar
Family found in Somalia, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Kenya and the Aala bakeri Families found in the Arabia
Arabia
Peninsula are the descendants of Abdurahman Ibn Abu Bakr. Legacy[edit] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
became the Caliph
Caliph
on 8 June 632[79][citation needed] and he died on 23 August 634. He is considered by sunnis as the greatest of all the companions of Muhammad. Jubayr ibn Mut'im reported that a woman came and spoke to Muhammad
Muhammad
about a matter. He asked her to come back sometime later. She said, "Tell me if I come later and do not find you?" Jubayr ibn Mut'im said that it seemed that she meant he may not be alive when she came back. He said, "If you do not find me then go to Abu Bakr."[80] This particular hadith is used by Sunnis and scholars of hadith to demonstrate the superiority of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
over all other companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his rightful succession to Muhammad. Though the period of his caliphate covers only two years, two months and fifteen days, it included successful invasions of the two most powerful empires of the time: the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and Byzantine Empire. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had the distinction of being the first Caliph
Caliph
in the history of Islam
Islam
and also the first Caliph
Caliph
to nominate a successor. He was the only Caliph
Caliph
in the history of Islam
Islam
who refunded to the state treasury at the time of his death the entire amount of the allowance that he had drawn during the period of his caliphate.[32] He is revered for being the first Muslim
Muslim
ruler to establish:

Bayt al-mal The Crown Pasture

He has the distinction of purchasing the land for Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had given up drinking wine even in the time before Islam. He was the foremost genealogist of the Quraysh
Quraysh
and was well accomplished at interpreting dreams according to Ibn Sirin. Sunni view[edit] Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
is the best man of all the human beings after the prophets. They also consider Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as one of The Ten Promised Paradise (al-‘Ashara al-Mubashshara) whom Muhammad
Muhammad
had testified were destined for Paradise. He is regarded as the "Successor of Allah's Messenger" (Khalifa Rasulullah), and first of the Rightly Guided Caliphs – i.e. Rashidun
Rashidun
and being the rightful successor to Muhammad. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
had always been the closest friend and confidant of Muhammad
Muhammad
throughout his life. He was always there beside Muhammad
Muhammad
at every major event. It was Abu Bakr's wisdom that Muhammad
Muhammad
always honored. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
is regarded to be among best persons from the followers of Muhammad, as Umar
Umar
ibn Khattab stated that "If the faith of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
was weighed against the faith of the people of the earth, the faith of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
would outweigh the others."[81] Shia
Shia
view[edit] Main article: Shi'a view of Abu Bakr See also: Umar
Umar
at Fatimah's house and Succession to Muhammad The Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
(as the main branch of Shia
Shia
Islam, with 85% of all Shias)[82] believe that Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib was supposed to assume the Caliphate, and that he had been publicly and unambiguously appointed by Muhammad
Muhammad
as his successor at Ghadir Khumm. It is also believed that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
conspired to take over power in the Muslim
Muslim
nation after Muhammad's death, in a coup d'état against Ali. The Twelver Shi'a do not view Abu Bakr's being with Muhammad
Muhammad
in the cave when the two fled Mecca
Mecca
as a meritorious act and indeed find significant criticism of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
in the Qur'anic verse of the cave. Most of Twelver
Twelver
Shia[83][84][85] criticize Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
because, after Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
refused to grant Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah, the lands of the village of Fadak
Fadak
which she claimed her father had given to her as a gift before his death. He refused to accept the testimony of her witnesses, so she claimed the land would still belong to her as inheritance from her deceased father. However, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
replied by saying that Muhammad
Muhammad
had told him that the prophets of God do not leave as inheritance any worldly possessions and on this basis he refused to give her the lands of Fadak.[86] However, as Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher Razwy notes in his book A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims, Muhammad
Muhammad
inherited a maid servant, five camels, and ten sheep. This proves that prophets can receive inheritance, and can pass on inheritance to others as well.[87] The Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
accuse him of participating in the burning of the house of Ali
Ali
and Fatima.[88] The Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
believe that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
sent Khalid ibn Walid
Khalid ibn Walid
to crush those who were in favour of Ali's caliphate (see Ridda Wars). The Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
strongly refute the idea that Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
or Umar
Umar
were instrumental in the collection or preservation of the Qur'an, claiming that they should have accepted the copy of the book in the possession of Ali.[89] After the death of Abu Bakr, Ali
Ali
raised Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr. The Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
view Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr as one of the companions of Ali.[90] When Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abi Bakr was killed by the Ummayads,[90] Aisha, the wife of Muhammad
Muhammad
and also a renowned scholar of her time, raised and taught her nephew Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr. Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr's mother was from Ali's family and Qasim's daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim
was married to Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir and was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Therefore, Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr was the grand son of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
the first caliph and the grand father of Jafar al-Sadiq.Zaydis, the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
and currently the second largest group (although its population is only about 5% of all Shia Muslims),[91][92][93] believe that on the last hour of Zayd ibn Ali (the uncle of Jafar al-Sadiq), he was betrayed by the people in Kufa who said to him: "May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab?" Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the Sunnah".[94][95][96] See also[edit]

Book: Sahabah

Islam
Islam
portal

Bodla List of Sahaba Sunni view of the Sahaba Muadh ibn Jabal Sermon of Fadak

References[edit]

^ "Abu Bakr". Encyclopedia of Islam
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Allah
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Muhammad
Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy. ISBN 978-1872531656. ^ a b c d e Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 ^ " Abu Bakr
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Islam
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Islam
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Muhammad
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Naqshbandi
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Ali
Shah, Tractus Books, 2000, p104 ^ The Naqshbandiyya: orthodoxy and activism in a worldwide Sufi tradition by Itzchak Weismann, Routledge, 2007, p24 ^ Kashf al-Ghumma Abu al-Hasan al-Irbili, vol 2 ^ Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). The History of Islam
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Yaqub Khan Published 1951 Ahmadiyyah Anjuman Ishaat Islam. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 23 October 2006 ^ Al-zarkali, "al-a'alam", dar al'ilm lil'malayeen, 15th edition, May 2002 ^ SIDIQ-I-AKBAR HAZRAT ABU BAKR by PROF. MASUD-UL-HASAN PAGE 2. Printed and published by A. SALAM, FEROZSONS Ltd, 60, Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, Lahore ^ Tabaqat ibn Sa'd 3/ 188 ^ Tarikh ar-Rusul wa al-Muluk 3/ 524 ^ "Sixth Session, Tuesday night, 28th Rajab 1345 A.H."  ^ Tarikh al-tabari vol.2-page 60 ^ M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., E.J. Brill's first Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Leiden: E. J. Brill, 8 vols. with Supplement (vol. 9), 1991. ISBN 90-04-09796-1 ^ a b The Biography Of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
As Siddeeq by Dr. Ali
Ali
Muhammad As-Sallaabee (Published 2007) ^ al-Bidayah wa'an-Nihayah 3/26 ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions by Wendy Doniger ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0 ^ Tabaqat ibn Sa'd 3/ 169, 174 ^ Tarikh ar-Rusul wa al-Muluk 3/ 426 ^ The Mohammedan Dynasties: Chronological and Genealogical Tables with Historical Introductions (1894) by Stanley Lane-Poole, published by Adamant Media Corporation ISBN 978-1-4021-6666-2 ^ "Tanzil - Quran
Quran
Navigator - القرآن الكريم". tanzil.net.  ^ <The khalifa and the routinization of charismatic authority, Searcy K., International Journal of African Historical Studies 2010, Vol.43 Issue 3, pg.429-442.14p.> ^ Muslim
Muslim
persecution of heretics during the marwanid period(64-132/684-750), Judd Steven, Al-Masq: Islam
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& the medieval Mediterranean.Apr.2011, Vol.23 Issue 1 pg1-14.14p. ^ Abu Bakr
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by Atta Mohy-ud-Din, published 1968 S. Chand Original from the University of Michigan, digitized 6 January 2006, ASIN B0006FFA0O. ^ Islam
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(Exploring Religions) by Anne Geldart, published by Heinemann Library, 28 September 2000. ISBN 978-0-431-09301-7 ^ Islamic Culture by the Islamic Cultural Board Published 1927 s.n. Original from the University of Michigan, digitized 27 March 2006. ^ Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Al-Mundhir amputation, and the art of ijtihad, Scott C. Lucas, pg.351-368, J. middle east stud.39(2007).351-368.printed in U.S[need quotation to verify] ^ Hazrat Abu Bakr, the First Caliph
Caliph
of Islam
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by Muhammad
Muhammad
Habibur Rahman Khan Sherwani, published 1963 Sh. Muhammad
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Ashraf. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 14 November 2006. ^ SIDIQ-I-AKBAR HAZRAT ABU BAKR by PROF. MASUD-UL-HASAN page 36 Published and Printed by A. SALAM, FEROZSONS Ltd 60 Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, Lahore ^ Sahih-al-Bhukari book of Maghazi, Ghazwa Saif-al-Jara ^ SIDIQ-I-AKBAR HAZRAT ABU BAKR by PROF. MASUD-UL-HASAN page 46 Printed and Published by A. SALAM, FEROZSONS Ltd 60, Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam, Lahore ^ SIDIQ-I-AKBAR HAZRAT ABU BAKR by PROF. MASUD-UL-HASAN PAGE 47, 48 ^ SIDIQ-I-AKBAR HAZRAT ABU BAKR by PROF. MASUD-UL-HASAN PAGE 49, 50 ^ a b "Atlas Al-sīrah Al-Nabawīyah". Darussalam. 1 January 2004 – via Google Books.  ^ The life of Mahomet and history of Islam, Volume 4, By Sir William Muir, Pg 83 See bottom of page, notes section ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2632 ^ "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia". Al-Islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project.  ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4. p. 281.  ^ al-Razi, Fakhr. Tafsir
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Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
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Islam
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Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
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compiled by Imam Ali
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(AS)". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 12 January 2007.  ^ Sidiq-i-Akbar Hazrat Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
by Masudul Hasan. Lahore: Ferozsons, 1976. OCLC 3478821 ^ "Khalifa Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
- Death of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
- Alim.org".  ^ Clot, André (2014-02-01). Harun al-Rashid: and the World of the Thousand and One Nights. Saqi. ISBN 9780863565588.  ^ " Hadith
Hadith
- Book
Book
of Companions of the Prophet - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
(صلى الله عليه و سلم)".  ^ Narrated by al-Bayhaqi in ‘al-Jamia’ lashu’ab al-Eemaan’ (1:18) and its narrators are trustworthy. ^ " Shia
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Islam's Holiest Sites".  ^ "Usurping the Land of Fadak". Al-Islam.org.  ^ "Chapter 44: The Story of Fadak". Al-Islam.org.  ^ twelvershia.net (8 May 2014). " Fadak
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Muhammad
Ordoni, 1987. Section entitled Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Versus Fatima az-Zahra (sa). See also Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 5, Book
Book
57, Number 60, which says: "Fatima sent somebody to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet from what Allah
Allah
had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqa (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet at Medina, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e., one-fifth) of the Khaibar booty. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
said, "Allah's Apostle said, 'We (Prophets), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqa, but Muhammad's Family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah's property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need.' By Allah! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqa of the Prophet (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet's) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah's Apostle used to do," Then ' Ali
Ali
said, "I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is His Apostle," and added, "O Abu Bakr! We acknowledge your superiority." Then he (i.e. 'Ali) mentioned their own relationship to Allah's Apostle and their right. Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
then spoke saying, "By Allah
Allah
in Whose Hands my life is. I love to do good to the relatives of Allah's Apostle rather than to my own relatives" Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
added: Look at Muhammad
Muhammad
through his family." See also Sahih Al Bukhari Volume 8, Book
Book
80, Number 722, which says: " Aisha
Aisha
said, 'When Allah's Apostle died, his wives intended to send ' Uthman
Uthman
to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
asking him for their share of the inheritance.' Then " Aisha
Aisha
said to them, 'Didn't Allah's Apostle say, Our (Apostles') property is not to be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity?'" ^ Razwy, Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 34–35.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Ibn Qutayba al Dinawari. Al Imama Wa'l Siyasa. ^ al-islam.org, The Quran
Quran
Compiled by Imam Ali
Ali
(AS) ^ a b Nahj al-Balagha Sermon 71, Letter 27, Letter 34, Letter 35 ^ www.state.gov ^ Stephen W. Day (2012). Regionalism and Rebellion in Yemen: A Troubled National Union. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9781107022157. Jump up ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g ^ Akbar Shah Najeebabadi, The history of Islam. B0006RTNB4. ^ The waning of the Umayyad caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37, p38 ^ The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd"

Bibliography[edit]

Walker, Adam, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Siddiq, in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. Barnaby Rogerson (4 November 2010), The Heirs Of The Prophet Muhammad: And the Roots of the Sunni- Shia
Shia
Schism, Little, Brown Book
Book
Group, ISBN 978-0-74-812470-1  Barnaby Rogerson (2008), The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni- Shia
Shia
Split, Overlook, ISBN 978-1-59-020022-3  Wilferd Madelung (15 October 1998), The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-52-164696-3 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Abu Bakr

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Abu Bakr

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abu-Bekr.

Muslim:

QuilliamPress.com: Abu Bakr AbuBakr.com Virtues of Hazrat Abu Bakr Detailed Life of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as-Siddiq Abu Bakr's life Naqshbandi-Haqqani Sufi Order biography of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as-Siddiq Greatness of Abu Bakr Biography of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as-Siddiq by Adam Walker [1]

Urdu Audio

Virtues of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Urdu Audio Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
appearing in Narrations/ Hadith
Hadith
recorded by Imam Bukhari – www.SearchTruth.com Abu bakr's appointment as Khalifah Searchable Family tree of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq by Happy Books

Non-Muslim:

Abu Bakr

Unclassified:

Abu Bakr Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
from Islamonline Sirah of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(Radia'Allahuanhu) Part 1 by Shaykh Sayyed Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Husayni Al-Ninowy.

Shia:

Incident of the cave Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr Banu Taim Cadet branch of the Quraysh Born: October 573 Died: 22 August 634

Sunni Islam
Islam
titles

New creation First Caliph
Caliph
of Islam Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph 8 June 632 – 22 August 634 Succeeded by Umar
Umar
ibn Al-Khattab

v t e

Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs

Abu Bakr Umar Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan Ali

v t e

Ten companions of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad

Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awam Abdur Rahman bin Awf Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Saeed bin Zaid

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 97606468 LCCN: n50036870 ISNI: 0000 0000 7861 7829 GND: 118859323 SUDOC: 07814664X BNF: cb15598577g (data) N

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