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Aaron[note 1] (/ˈærən/ or /ˈɛərən/; Hebrew: אַהֲרֹן‬)[3] is a prophet, high priest, and the brother of Moses
Moses
in the Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions
(elder brother in the case of Judaism).[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes exclusively from religious texts, such as the Bible and Qur’an. The Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court, Aaron
Aaron
and his elder sister Miriam
Miriam
remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt
Egypt
(Goshen). When Moses
Moses
first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron
Aaron
served as his brother's spokesman ("prophet") to the Pharaoh.[11] Part of the Law (Torah) that Moses
Moses
received from God
God
at Sinai granted Aaron
Aaron
the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, and he became the first High Priest of the Israelites.[12] Aaron
Aaron
died before the Israelites
Israelites
crossed the North Jordan
Jordan
river and he was buried on Mount Hor
Mount Hor
(Numbers 33:39;[13][14][15] Deuteronomy 10:6 says he died and was buried at Moserah).[13][16] Aaron
Aaron
is also mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible.[17][18][19][20][21]

Contents

1 Account in the Hebrew Bible

1.1 High Priest 1.2 Leadership conflicts 1.3 Death

1.3.1 Family tree

2 Historicity 3 Descendants 4 Aaron
Aaron
in religious traditions

4.1 Jewish rabbinic literature 4.2 Christianity 4.3 Latter Day Saints (LDS) 4.4 Islam

4.4.1 Aaron
Aaron
in the Qur’an 4.4.2 Aaron
Aaron
in Muhammad's time 4.4.3 Tomb of Aaron

4.5 Baha'i

5 Art history 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Footnotes 9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 References in the Qur'an

11 External links

Account in the Hebrew Bible[edit] According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron
Aaron
first functioned as Moses' assistant. Because Moses
Moses
complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron
Aaron
as Moses' "prophet" (Exodus 4:10-17; 7:1).[note 2] At the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake.[22] Then he stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues.[23][24][25] After that, Moses
Moses
tended to act and speak for himself.[26][27][28] During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron
Aaron
was not always prominent or active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses
Moses
that held the "rod of God".[29] When the revelation was given to Moses
Moses
at Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses
Moses
on the way to the summit. While Joshua went with Moses
Moses
to the top, however, Aaron
Aaron
and Hur remained below to look after the people.[30] From here on in Exodus, Leviticus
Leviticus
and Numbers, Joshua
Joshua
appears in the role of Moses' assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest. High Priest[edit] The books of Exodus, Leviticus
Leviticus
and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God
God
a monopoly over the priesthood for himself and his male descendants (Exodus 28:1). The family of Aaron
Aaron
had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to the God
God
of Israel. The rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary (Numbers 3). Moses
Moses
anointed and consecrated Aaron
Aaron
and his sons to the priesthood, and arrayed them in the robes of office ( Leviticus
Leviticus
8; cf. Exodus 28-29). He also related to them God's detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites
Israelites
listened ( Leviticus
Leviticus
1-7, 11-27). Aaron
Aaron
and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God
God
could be determined (Exodus 28:30).[1] God
God
commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, and to teach the divine laws (the Torah) to the Israelites
Israelites
( Leviticus
Leviticus
10:10-11). The priests were also commissioned to bless the people (Numbers 6:22-27).[31][32] When Aaron
Aaron
completed the altar offerings for the first time and, with Moses, "blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat [which] when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces" ( Leviticus
Leviticus
9:23-24).[33] In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established.[34] In later books of the Old Testament, Aaron
Aaron
and his kin are not mentioned very often except in literature dating to the Babylonian Exile and later. The books of Judges, Samuel
Samuel
and Kings mention priests and Levites, but do not mention the Aaronides in particular. The book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites
Zadokites
after one of King David's priests.[1] It does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position. A two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra, Nehemiah and Chronicles. As a result, many historians think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic Israel. What is clear is that high priests claiming Aaronide descent dominated the Second Temple period.[35] Most scholars think the Pentateuch reached its final form early in this period, which may account for Aaron's prominence in Exodus, Leviticus
Leviticus
and Numbers. Leadership conflicts[edit] Aaron
Aaron
plays a leading role in several stories of conflicts over leadership during Israel's wilderness wanderings. During the prolonged absence of Moses
Moses
on Mount Sinai, the people provoked Aaron
Aaron
to make a Golden Calf
Golden Calf
as a visible image of the divinity who had delivered them from Egypt
Egypt
(Exodus 32:1-6).[36] This incident nearly caused God
God
to destroy the Israelites
Israelites
for their unfaithfulness to the covenant (Exodus 32:10). Moses
Moses
successfully intervened, but then led the loyal Levites in executing many of the culprits; a plague afflicted those who were left (Exodus 32:25-35).[37] Aaron, however, escaped punishment for his role in the affair, because of the intercession of Moses
Moses
according to Deuteronomy 9:20.[38] Later retellings of this story almost always excuse Aaron
Aaron
for his role.[39] For example, in rabbinic sources[40][41] and in the Qur'an, Aaron
Aaron
was not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon because he felt mortally threatened by the Israelites
Israelites
( Quran
Quran
7:142-152).[42] On the day of Aaron's consecration, his oldest sons, Nadab and Abihu, were burned up by divine fire because they offered "strange" incense ( Leviticus
Leviticus
10:1-3).[43] Most interpreters think this story reflects a conflict between priestly families some time in Israel's past. Others argue that the story simply shows what can happen if the priests do not follow God's instructions given through Moses.[39] The Pentateuch generally depicts the siblings, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus, a view also reflected in the biblical book of Micah.[44] Numbers 12, however, reports that on one occasion, Aaron
Aaron
and Miriam
Miriam
complained about Moses' exclusive claim to be the LORD's prophet.[45] Their presumption was rebuffed by God
God
who affirmed Moses' uniqueness as the one with whom the LORD spoke face to face. Miriam
Miriam
was punished with skin disease (leprous), that turned her skin white. Aaron
Aaron
pleaded with Moses
Moses
to intercede for her, and Miriam, after seven days' quarantine, was healed. Aaron
Aaron
once again escaped any retribution. According to Numbers 16-17, a Levite named Korah
Korah
led many in challenging Aaron's exclusive claim to the priesthood. When the rebels were punished by being swallowed up by the earth, (Numbers 16:25-35),[46] Eleazar, the son of Aaron, was commissioned to take charge of the censers of the dead priests. And when a plague broke out among the people who had sympathized with the rebels, Aaron, at the command of Moses, took his censer and stood between the living and the dead till the plague abated (Numbers 17:1-15, 16:36-50).[47][48]

The Blossoming of Aaron's Rod, etching by Augustin Hirschvogel

To emphasize the validity of the Levites' claim to the offerings and tithes of the Israelites, Moses
Moses
collected a rod from the leaders of each tribe in Israel and laid the twelve rods over night in the tent of meeting. The next morning, Aaron's rod
Aaron's rod
was found to have budded and blossomed and produced ripe almonds (Numbers 17:8).[49][50] The following chapter then details the distinction between Aaron's family and the rest of the Levites: while all the Levites (and only Levites) were devoted to the care of the sanctuary, charge of its interior and the altar was committed to the Aaronites alone (Numbers 18:1-7).[51] Death[edit] Aaron, like Moses, was not permitted to enter Canaan
Canaan
with the Israelites[13] because the two brothers showed impatience at Meribah (Kadesh) in the last year of the desert pilgrimage (Numbers 20:12-13),[52] when Moses
Moses
brought water out of a rock to quench the people's thirst. Though they had been commanded to speak to the rock, Moses
Moses
struck it with the staff twice, which was construed as displaying a lack of deference to the LORD (Numbers 20:7-11).[13][53] There are two accounts of the death of Aaron
Aaron
in the Pentateuch.[13] Numbers says that soon after the incident at Meribah, Aaron
Aaron
with his son Eleazar
Eleazar
and Moses
Moses
ascended Mount Hor. There Moses
Moses
stripped Aaron of his priestly garments and transferred them to Eleazar. Aaron
Aaron
died on the summit of the mountain, and the people mourned for him thirty days (Numbers 20:22-29; compare 33:38-39).[13][14][15] The other account is found in Deuteronomy 10:6, where Aaron
Aaron
died at Moserah and was buried.[13][54] There is a significant amount of travel between these two points, as the itinerary in Numbers 33:31–37 records seven stages between Moseroth (Mosera) and Mount Hor.[13][55] Aaron
Aaron
was 123 at the time of his death.[56] Family tree[edit]

Jacob

Leah

Levi

Gershon

Kohath

Merari

Libni

Shimei

Izhar

Hebron

Uzziel

Mahli

Mushi

Jochebed

Amram

Mishael

Elzaphan

Zithri

Miriam

Aaron

Moses

Zipporah

Gershom

Eliezer

Historicity[edit] Main articles: Moses
Moses
§ Historicity, and The Exodus § Historicity Descendants[edit] Aaron
Aaron
married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab
Amminadab
and sister of Nahshon (Exodus 6:23) of the tribe of Judah. The sons of Aaron
Aaron
were Eleazar, Ithamar, and Nadab and Abihu.[note 3] A descendant of Aaron
Aaron
is an Aaronite, or Kohen, meaning Priest.[58][59] Any non-Aaronic Levite—i.e., descended from Levi
Levi
but not from Aaron[60]—assisted the Levitical priests of the family of Aaron
Aaron
in the care of the tabernacle; later of the temple.[note 4] The Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
records that both Zechariah and Elizabeth and therefore their son John the Baptist
John the Baptist
were descendants of Aaron.[61] Aaron
Aaron
in religious traditions[edit] Jewish rabbinic literature[edit] The older prophets and prophetical writers beheld in their priests the representatives of a religious form inferior to the prophetic truth; men without the spirit of God
God
and lacking the will-power requisite to resist the multitude in its idolatrous proclivities.[62] Thus Aaron, the first priest, ranks below Moses: he is his mouthpiece, and the executor of the will of God
God
revealed through Moses, although it is pointed out[63] that it is said fifteen times in the Pentateuch that "the Lord spoke to Moses
Moses
and Aaron." Under the influence of the priesthood that shaped the destinies of the nation under Persian rule, a different ideal of the priest was formed, according to Malachi 2:4–7, and the prevailing tendency was to place Aaron
Aaron
on a footing equal with Moses.[62] "At times Aaron, and at other times Moses, is mentioned first in Scripture—this is to show that they were of equal rank," says the Mekhilta,(12) which strongly implies this when introducing in its record of renowned men the glowing description of Aaron's ministration.[62] In fulfilment of the promise of peaceful life, symbolized by the pouring of oil upon his head ( Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
x., Midrash Teh. cxxxiii. 1), Aaron's death, as described in the Haggadah, was of a wonderful tranquility.[64] Accompanied by Moses, his brother, and by Eleazar, his son, Aaron
Aaron
went to the summit of Mount Hor, where the rock suddenly opened before him and a beautiful cave lit by a lamp presented itself to his view. "Take off thy priestly raiment and place it upon thy son Eleazar!" said Moses; "and then follow me."[64] Aaron did as commanded; and they entered the cave, where was prepared a bed around which angels stood. "Go lie down upon thy bed, my brother," Moses
Moses
continued; and Aaron
Aaron
obeyed without a murmur.[64] Then his soul departed as if by a kiss from God. The cave closed behind Moses
Moses
as he left; and he went down the hill with Eleazar, with garments rent, and crying: "Alas, Aaron, my brother! thou, the pillar of supplication of Israel!"[64] When the Israelites
Israelites
cried in bewilderment, "Where is Aaron?" angels were seen carrying Aaron's bier through the air.[64] A voice was then heard saying: "The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found on his lips: he walked with me in righteousness, and brought many back from sin" ( Malachi
Malachi
2:6).[64] He died, according to Seder Olam Rabbah
Seder Olam Rabbah
ix., R. H. 2, 3a, on the first of Ab."[64] The pillar of cloud which proceeded in front of Israel's camp disappeared at Aaron's death (see Seder 'Olam, ix. and R. H. 2b-3a).[64] The seeming contradiction between Numbers 20:22 et seq. and Deuteronomy 10:6 is solved by the rabbis in the following manner: Aaron's death on Mount Hor
Mount Hor
was marked by the defeat of the people in a war with the king of Arad, in consequence of which the Israelites fled, marching seven stations backward to Mosera, where they performed the rites of mourning for Aaron; wherefore it is said: "There [at Mosera] died Aaron."[64][note 5] The rabbis also dwell with special laudation on the brotherly sentiment which united Aaron
Aaron
and Moses. When the latter was appointed ruler and Aaron
Aaron
high priest, neither betrayed any jealousy; instead they rejoiced in one another's greatness. When Moses
Moses
at first declined to go to Pharaoh, saying: "O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send" (Exodus 4:13), he was unwilling to deprive Aaron, his brother, of the high position the latter had held for so many years; but the Lord reassured him, saying: "Behold, when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart" (Exodus 4:14).[64] Indeed, Aaron was to find his reward, says Shimon bar Yochai; for that heart which had leaped with joy over his younger brother's rise to glory greater than his was decorated with the Urim and Thummim, which were to "be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord" (Canticles Rabbah i. 10).[64] Moses
Moses
and Aaron
Aaron
met in gladness of heart, kissing each other as true brothers (Exodus 4:27; compare Song of Songs 8:1), and of them it is written: "Behold how good and how pleasant [it is] for brethren to dwell together in unity!" ( Psalms
Psalms
133:1).[64] Of them it is said: "Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed [each other]" ( Psalms
Psalms
85:10); for Moses
Moses
stood for righteousness, according to Deuteronomy 33:21, and Aaron
Aaron
for peace, according to Malachi
Malachi
2:6. Again, mercy was personified in Aaron, according to Deuteronomy 33:8, and truth in Moses, according to Numbers 12:7 .[64][65] When Moses
Moses
poured the oil of anointment upon the head of Aaron, Aaron modestly shrank back and said: "Who knows whether I have not cast some blemish upon this sacred oil so as to forfeit this high office." Then the Shekhinah spoke the words: "Behold the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard of Aaron, that even went down to the skirts of his garment, is as pure as the dew of Hermon" (Psalm 133:2-3) .[64][66] According to Tanhuma,[67] Aaron's activity as a prophet began earlier than that of Moses.[62] Hillel held Aaron
Aaron
up as an example, saying: "Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace; love your fellow creatures and draw them nigh unto the Law!"[68] This is further illustrated by the tradition preserved in Abot de- Rabbi
Rabbi
Natan 12, Sanhedrin 6b, and elsewhere, according to which Aaron
Aaron
was an ideal priest of the people, far more beloved for his kindly ways than was Moses.[13] While Moses
Moses
was stern and uncompromising, brooking no wrong, Aaron
Aaron
went about as peacemaker, reconciling man and wife when he saw them estranged, or a man with his neighbor when they quarreled, and winning evil-doers back into the right way by his friendly intercourse.[69] The mourning of the people at Aaron's death was greater, therefore, than at that of Moses; for whereas, when Aaron died the whole house of Israel wept, including the women, (Numbers 20:29)[64][70] Moses
Moses
was bewailed by "the sons of Israel" only (Deuteronomy 34:8).[64][71] Even in the making of the Golden Calf
Golden Calf
the rabbis find extenuating circumstances for Aaron.[64][72] His fortitude and silent submission to the will of God
God
on the loss of his two sons are referred to as an excellent example to men how to glorify God
God
in the midst of great affliction.[64][73] Especially significant are the words represented as being spoken by God
God
after the princes of the Twelve Tribes had brought their dedication offerings into the newly reared Tabernacle: "Say to thy brother Aaron: Greater than the gifts of the princes is thy gift; for thou art called upon to kindle the light, and, while the sacrifices shall last only as long as the Temple lasts, thy light shall last forever."[64][74] Christianity[edit]

Russian icon
Russian icon
of Aaron
Aaron
(18th century, Iconostasis
Iconostasis
of Kizhi
Kizhi
monastery, Karelia, Russia).

In the Eastern Orthodox and Maronite churches, Aaron
Aaron
is venerated as a saint whose feast day is shared with his brother Moses
Moses
and celebrated on September 4. (Those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar celebrate this day on September 17 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Aaron
Aaron
is also commemorated with other Old Testament saints on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers, the Sunday before Christmas. Aaron
Aaron
is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 30. He is commemorated on July 1 in the modern Latin calendar and in the Syriac Calendar. Latter Day Saints (LDS)[edit] In The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints, the Aaronic order is the lesser order of priesthood, comprising the grades (from lowest to highest) of deacon, teacher, and priest. The chief office of the Aaronic priesthood is the presiding bishopric;[75] the head of the priesthood is the bishop. Each ward includes a quorum of one or more of each office of the Aaronic priesthood.[76]

In the Community of Christ, the Aaronic order of priesthood is regarded as an appendage to the Melchisedec order, and consists of the priesthood offices of deacon, teacher, and priest. While differing in responsibilities, these offices, along with those of the Melchisidec order, are regarded as equal before God. Islam[edit] See also: Moses
Moses
in Islam Aaron
Aaron
(Arabic: هارون, Hārūn) is also mentioned in the Qur’an as a prophet of God.[77] The Qur’an
Qur’an
praises Aaron
Aaron
repeatedly, calling him a "believing servant"[78] as well as one who was "guided"[79] and one of the "victors".[80] Aaron
Aaron
is important in Islam for his role in the events of the Exodus, in which, according to the Qur’an
Qur’an
and Muslim
Muslim
tradition, he preached with his elder brother, Moses,[7] to the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of the Exodus.[81] Aaron's significance in Islam, however, is not limited to his role as the helper of Moses. Islamic tradition also accords Aaron
Aaron
the role of a patriarch, as tradition records that the priestly descent came through Aaron's lineage, which included the entire House of Amran.[note 6][note 7] Aaron
Aaron
in the Qur’an[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Islamic prophets

Prophets in the Quran Listed by Islamic name and Biblical name.

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Dhul-Kifl
(Ezekiel) Shuʿayb (Jethro) Mūsā (Moses) Hārūn (Aaron) Dāūd (David) Sulaymān (Solomon) Yūnus (Jonah) ʾIlyās (Elijah) Alyasaʿ (Elisha) Zakarīya (Zechariah) Yaḥyā (John) ʿĪsā (Jesus) Muḥammad (Muhammad)

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The Qur’an
Qur’an
contains numerous references to Aaron, both by name and without name. It says that he was a descendant of Abraham
Abraham
(Qur'an 4: 163) and makes it clear that both he and Moses
Moses
were sent together to warn the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
about God's punishment (Qur'an 10: 75). It further adds that Moses
Moses
had earlier prayed to God
God
to strengthen his own ministry with Aaron
Aaron
(Qur'an 20: 29-30) and that Aaron
Aaron
helped Moses
Moses
as he too was a prophet (Qur'an 19: 53), and very eloquent in matters of speech and discourse (Qur'an 28: 34). The Qur'an adds that both Moses and Aaron
Aaron
were entrusted to establish places of dwelling for the Israelites
Israelites
in Egypt, and to convert those houses into places of worship for God
God
(Qur'an 10: 87). The incident of the Golden Calf
Golden Calf
as it is narrated in the Qur'an paints Aaron
Aaron
in a positive light. The Qur'an says that Aaron
Aaron
was entrusted the leadership of Israel while Moses
Moses
was up on Tur Sina’ (Arabic: طُـور سِـيـنـاء‎, Mount Sinai) for a period of forty days (Qur'an 7: 142).[6] It adds that Aaron
Aaron
tried his best to stop the worship of the Golden Calf, which was built not by Aaron
Aaron
but by a wicked man by the name of 'As-Samiri' (Qur'an 19: 50). When Moses returned from Mount Sinai, he rebuked Aaron
Aaron
for allowing the worship of the idol, to which Aaron
Aaron
pleaded with Moses
Moses
to not blame him when he had no role in its construction (Qur'an 7: 150).[6] The Qur'an then adds that Moses
Moses
here lamented the sins of Israel, and said that he only had power over himself and Aaron
Aaron
(Qur'an 5: 25). Aaron
Aaron
is later commemorated in the Qur'an as one who had a "clear authority" (Qur'an 23: 45) and one who was "guided to the Right Path" (Qur'an 37: 118). It further adds that Aaron's memory was left for people who came after him (Qur'an 37: 119) and he is blessed by God along with his brother (Qur'an 37: 120). The Qur'an also says that people called ‘Isa's mother Maryam (Arabic: مَـرْيَـم‎, Mary) a "sister of Harun" (Qur'an 19: 28). Muslim
Muslim
scholars debated as to who exactly this "Harun" was in terms of his historical persona, with some saying that it was a reference to Aaron
Aaron
of the Exodus, and the term "sister" designating only a metaphorical or spiritual link between the two figures, all the more evident when Mary was a descendant of the priestly lineage of Aaron, while others held it to be another righteous man living at the time of Christ
Christ
by the name of "Aaron". Most scholars have agreed to the former perspective, and have linked Mary spiritually with the actual sister of Aaron, her namesake Miryam (Arabic: مِـرْيَـم‎, Hebrew: מִרְיָם‎),[84] whom she resembled in many ways. The Qur'an also narrates that, centuries later, when the Tabut (Arabic: تَـابـوت‎, Ark of the Covenant) returned to Israel, it contained "relics from the family of Moses
Moses
and relics from the family of Aaron" (Qur'an 2: 248). Aaron
Aaron
in Muhammad's time[edit] Muhammad, in many of his sayings, speaks of Aaron. In the event of the Mi'raj, his miraculous ascension through the Heavens, Muhammad
Muhammad
is said to have encountered Aaron
Aaron
in the fifth heaven.[85][86] According to old scholars, including Ibn Hisham, Muhammad, in particular, mentioned the beauty of Aaron
Aaron
when he encountered him in Heaven. Martin Lings, in his biographical Muhammad, speaks of Muhammad's wonderment at seeing fellow prophets in their heavenly glory:

Of Joseph
Joseph
he said that his face had the splendour of the moon at its full, and that he had been endowed with no less than the half of all existing beauty. Yet this did not diminish Muhammad's wonderment at his brethren, and he mentioned in particular the great beauty of Aaron.[87][88]

Aaron
Aaron
was also mentioned by Muhammad
Muhammad
in likeness to ‘Ali. Muhammad had left ‘ Ali
Ali
to look after his family, but the hypocrites of the time begun to spread the rumor that the prophet found ‘ Ali
Ali
a burden and was relieved to be rid of his presence. ‘Ali, grieved at hearing this wicked taunt, told Muhammad
Muhammad
what the local people were saying. In reply, the Prophet
Prophet
said: "They lie, I bade thee remain for the sake of what I had left behind me. So return and represent me in my family and in thine. Art thou not content, O ‘Ali, that thou should be unto me as Aaron
Aaron
was unto Moses, save that after me there is no prophet."[10] Tomb of Aaron[edit] Main article: Tomb of Aaron

A 14th-century shrine built on top of the supposed grave of Aaron
Aaron
on Jabal Hārūn in Petra, Jordan.

According to Islamic tradition, the tomb of Aaron
Aaron
is located on Jabal Harun (Arabic: جَـبـل هَـارون‎, Mountain of Aaron), near Petra
Petra
in Jordan.[89][90] At 1,350.0 m (4,429.1 feet) above sea-level, it is the highest peak in the area; and it is a place of great sanctity to the local people for here. A 14th-century Mamluk mosque stands here with its white dome visible from most areas in and around Petra. Baha'i[edit] Although his father is described as both an apostle and a prophet, Aaron
Aaron
is merely described as a prophet. The Kitab-I-Iqan describes Imran as being his father.[91][92] Art history[edit] Aaron
Aaron
appears paired with Moses
Moses
frequently in Jewish and Christian art, especially in the illustrations of manuscript and printed Bibles.[93] He can usually be distinguished by his priestly vestments, especially his turban or miter and jeweled breastplate. He frequently holds a censor or, sometimes, his flowering rod. (See the "Aaron" category at Wikimedia Commons.) Aaron
Aaron
also appears in scenes depicting the wilderness Tabernacle
Tabernacle
and its altar, as already in the third-century frescos in the synagogue at Dura-Europos
Dura-Europos
in Syria. An eleventh-century portable silver altar from Fulda, Germany depicts Aaron
Aaron
with his censor, and is located in the Musée National de l’Age Médiévale in Paris. This is also how he appears in the frontispieces of early printed Passover Haggadot and occasionally in church sculptures. Aaron
Aaron
has rarely been the subject of portraits, such as those by Anton Kern [1710–1747] and by Pier Francesco Mola [c. 1650].[94] Christian
Christian
artists sometimes portray Aaron
Aaron
as a prophet (Exod. 7:1) holding a scroll, as in a twelfth-century sculpture from the Cathedral of Noyon in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and often in Eastern Orthodox icons. Illustrations of the Golden Calf story usually include him as well—most notably in Nicolas Poussin's "The Adoration of the Golden Calf" (ca. 1633–34, National Gallery London).[95] Finally, some artists interested in validating later priesthoods have painted the ordination of Aaron
Aaron
and his sons ( Leviticus
Leviticus
8). Harry Anderson's realistic portrayal is often reproduced in the literature of the Latter Day Saints.[note 8][93] See also[edit]

Harun Kohen Moses
Moses
in rabbinic literature Y-chromosomal Aaron

Notes[edit]

^ Hebrew: אַהֲרֹן‬ ′ahărōn,[1] Arabic: هارون‎, translit. Hārūn, Greek (Septuagint): Ἀαρών; often called Aaron
Aaron
the priest (אֵהֲרֹן הֵכֹּהֵן‬) and once Aaron the Levite (אַהֲרֹן הַלֵּוִי‬) (Exodus 4:14).[2] ^ He spoke and acted on behalf of Moses
Moses
with the Egyptian royal court, including performing miraculous "signs" to validate Moses' mission. ^ Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron; Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.[57] ^ According to Samaritan
Samaritan
sources, a civil war once broke out between the sons of Itamar Eli (Bible)
Eli (Bible)
and the sons of Phineas that resulted in a division of those who followed Eli and those who followed High Priest
Priest
Uzzi ben Bukki at Mount Gerizim Bethel. (A third group followed neither.) Ironically, and likewise according to Samaritan
Samaritan
sources, the high priests' line of the sons of Phineas died out in 1624 CE with the death of the 112th High Priest, Shlomyah ben Pinhas, at which time the priesthood was transferred to the sons of Itamar. See article Samaritan
Samaritan
for list of High Priests from 1613 to 2004—the 131st high priest of the Samaritans is Elazar ben Tsedaka ben Yitzhaq. Also see article, Samaritan ^ See Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', i.; Tan., Huḳḳat, 18; Yer. Soṭah, i. 17c, and Targum Yer. Num. and Deut. on the abovementioned passages. ^ All commentators, classical and modern, hold that the Qur'anic House of Amran refers to Imrān's lineage, through his son Aaron. (cf. Muhammad
Muhammad
Asad, Yusuf ‘ Ali
Ali
and Ibn Kathir's commentary on Q. 19:28)[82] ^ "In the second group, we have the great founders of families, apart from Abraham, viz., Noah
Noah
of the time of the Flood; David
David
and Solomon, the real establishers of the Jewish monarchy; Job, who lived 140 years, saw four generations of descendants, and was blessed at the end of his life with large pastoral wealth ( Job
Job
42:16,12); Joseph, who as Minister of State did great things in Egypt
Egypt
and was the progenitor of two Tribes; and Moses
Moses
and Aaron, the leaders of the Exodus from Egypt. They led active lives and called 'doers of good.'"[83] ^ Harry Anderson's Aaron
Aaron
Is Called to the Ministry'’ is in the Conference Center of the LDS Church in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b c Olson 2000, pp. 1–2 ^ Exodus 4:14 ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180  ^ Exodus 6:16-20 ^ Exodus 7:7 ^ a b c Quran 7:103–156 ^ a b Quran 19:41–53 ^ Quran 20:9–98 ^ Quran 28:34 ^ a b Ibn Hisham 1967, p. 604; §=897 ^ Exodus 7:1 ^ Rockwood 2007, p. 1 ^ a b c d e f g h i McCurdy 1906, p. 3 ^ a b KJV ^ a b KJV ^ KJV ^ Luke 1:5 ^ Acts 7:40 ^ Hebrews 5:4 ^ Hebrews 7:11 ^ Hebrews 9:4 ^ Exodus 7:9, New Revised Standard Version ^ HE, Exodus 8:1,12. ^ HE ^ HE ^ HE ^ HE ^ HE ^ Exodus 17:9 ^ KJV ^ Mariottini 2006 ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ Souvay 1913, p. 7 ^ VanderKam 2004[page needed] ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ a b Watts 2011 ^ Talmud Shabbat 99a ^ Exodus Rabbah 41 ^ Quran 7:142–152 ^ Leviticus
Leviticus
10:1 ^ Micah 6:4 ^ Numbers 12 ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ Numbers 17:8 ^ Mays 2000, p. 177 ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ KJV ^ Deuteronomy 10:6 ^ KJV ^ Gutstein 1997, p. 3 ^ 1 Chronicles 24:1 ^ Steinmetz 2005, p. 95 ^ Freedman, Beck & Myers 2000, p. 1 ^ Harbour, Reed & Tinsley 2005, pp. 47–48 ^ Luke 1:5 ^ a b c d Kohler 1906, p. 3 ^ Sifra, Wa-yiḳra, 1 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Kohler 1906, p. 4 ^ (Tan., Shemot, ed. Buber, 24-26) ^ (Sifra, Shemini, Milluim; Tan., Korah, ed. Buber, 14) ^ ed. Buber, 2:12 ^ Anon 1993 ^ Kohler 1906, pp. 3–4 ^ Numbers 20:29 ^ Deuteronomy 34:8 ^ Sanhedrin 7a ^ Zebahim 115b ^ Tanhuma, ed. Buber, בהעלותך, 6 ^ Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter Day Saints 2001, p. 79 ^ Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter Day Saints 2001, p. 25 ^ Quran 19:53 ^ Quran 37:122 ^ Quran 6:84 ^ Quran 37:114 ^ Glasse 1989, pp. 9–10 ^ Ali
Ali
1998, p. 773 §=2481 ^ Ali
Ali
1998, p. 312 §=904 ^ Unless otherwise stated, the Jewish primary sources herein were provided courtesy of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yirmiyahu Ullman in honor of M.A.M. from his 3-part series on Miriam
Miriam
the Prophetess, posted on RabbiUllman.com. Part 1: "Miriam's Name".  Part 2: " Miriam
Miriam
in Egypt".  Part 3: " Miriam
Miriam
in the Wilderness".  ^ Sahih Muslim, 1:309 ^ Sahih Muslim, 1:314 ^ Ibn Hisham 1967, p. 186; §=270 ^ Lings 1983, p. 102 ^ Anon 2013 ^ Wheeler 2013 ^ Bahá'u'lláh & 'Abdu'l-Bahá 1976, p. 270 ^ Llah 2003, p. 243 ^ a b Watts 2013[page needed] ^ Kline 2010 ^ National Gallery
National Gallery
2013

References[edit]

Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1998). The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary (in English and Arabic). Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. ISBN 978-0-940368-31-6.  Anon (1993). "Ethics of the Fathers: Chapter One". Chabad.org. Retrieved August 1, 2014. 1:12 Hillel and Shammai received from them. Hillel would say: Be of the disciples of Aaron--a lover of peace, a pursuer of peace, one who loves the creatures and draws them close to Torah.  Anon (2013). "Aaron's Tomb, Petra". Atlas Travel and Tourist Agency. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved 29 Apr 2014.  Bahá'u'lláh; 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976). Selected Writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.  Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter Day Saints (2001) [1979]. Duties and Blessings of the Priesthood: Basic Manual for Priesthood Holders, Part A. Salt Lake City, UT: The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
of Latter-day Saints.  Freedman, David
David
Noel; Beck, Astrid P.; Myers, Allen C., eds. (2000). "Aaron". Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9780802824004.  Glasse, Cyril (1989). "Aaron". Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-063123-9.  Gutstein, Morris A. (1997). "Aaron". In Johnston, Bernard. Collier's Encyclopedia. I: A to Ameland (1st ed.). New York, NY: P.F. Collier.  Harbour, Brian; Reed, Wilma; Tinsley, William (2005). The Gospel
Gospel
of Luke: Journeying to the Cross (Adult Study Guide). BaptistWay Press. ISBN 978-1-931060-69-1.  Ibn Hisham, 'Abd al-Malik (1967) [1955]. The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by A. Guillaume. Lahore, Pakistan: Pakistan Branch Oxford University Press.  Kline, Fred R. (2010). "Aaron, Holy to the Lord". Kline Gallery.  Kohler, Kaufmann (1906). " Aaron
Aaron
- In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature ( Moses
Moses
and Aaron
Aaron
Compared) & (Death of Aaron)". In Singer, Isidore. The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from Earliest Times: Complete in Twelve Volumes. Ktav Publishing House. ASIN B000B68W5S.  Lings, Martin (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-04-297050-9.  Llah, Baha u (2003) [1861]. The Kitab-i-Iqan: The Book of Certitude. Translated by Shoghi Effendi. Baha'i Pub. ISBN 978-1-931847-08-7.  Mariottini, Dr. Claude (17 March 2006). "The Priestly Benediction: Numbers 6:24-26". Dr. Claude Mariottini – Professor of Old Testament. Retrieved 1 May 2014.  Mays, James L., ed. (2000) [1988]. The HarperCollins Bible Commentary (Revised ed.). San Francisco, CA: HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-065548-8.  McCurdy, J. Frederic (1906). Singer, Isidore, ed. Aaron
Aaron
- Biblical Data (Death). The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from Earliest Times: Complete in Twelve Volumes. Ktav Publishing House. ASIN B000B68W5S.  National Gallery
National Gallery
(2013). "The Adoration of the Golden Calf". National Gallery.  Olson, Dennis T. (2000). "Aaron". In Freedman, David
David
Noel; Myers, Allen C.; Beck, Astrid B. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (1st ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4.  Rockwood, Camilla, ed. (2007). "Aaron". Chambers Biographical Dictionary (8th ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltc. ISBN 978-0550-10200-3.  Souvay, Charles Léon (1913). "Aaron". In Herbermann, Charles G.; Pace, Edward A.; Fallen, Conde B.; Shahan, Thomas J.; Wynne, John J. The Catholic Encyclopedia. I: A — Assize. New York, NY: Robert Appleton Co. pp. 5–7. ASIN B006UETSQM.  Steinmetz, Sol (2005). "kohen". Dictionary of Jewish Usage: A Guide to the Use of Jewish Terms. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-7425-4387-4.  VanderKam, James C. (2004). From Joshua
Joshua
to Caiaphas: High Priests after the Exile. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Fortress Publishers. ISBN 0-8006-2617-6.  Watts, James W. (2013). "Illustrating Leviticus: Art, Ritual, Politics". Biblical Reception. 2: 3–15.  Wells, John C. (1990). "Aaron". Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Harlow, UK: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-05383-0.  Wheeler, Brannon (2013). "Tomb of Aaron". usna.edu. United States Naval Academy. Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved 29 Apr 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Aberbach, Moses; Smolar, Leivy (June 1967). "Aaron, Jeroboam and the Golden Calves". Journal of Biblical Literature. 86 (2): 129–140. doi:10.2307/3263268.  Ginzberg, Louis, ed. (1909–1938). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
(7 vols.). Translated by Henrietta Szold & Paul Radin. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society of America. LCCN 0901-4182.  Kaufmann, Yehezkel (1960). The Religion of Israel: From its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile. Translated and abridged by Moshe Greenberg. New York, NY: Schocken Books. LCCN 6000-5466.  Kennet, R. H. (January 1905). "The Origin of the Aaronite Priesthood". The Journal of Theological Studies (22): 161–186. doi:10.1093/jts/os-VI.22.161.  McCurdy, J. Frederic; Kohler, Kaufmann (1901). "Aaron". The Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls.  which cites

Numbers Rabbah 9 Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
10 Midrash Peṭirat Aharon in Jellinek's Bet ha-Midrash, 1:91–95 Yalḳuṭ Numbers 764 Baring-Gould, Sabine (2009) [1871]. Legends of Old Testament Characters. II: From the Talmud and Other Sources. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 1-1037-2117-8.  Elʻazar ben Asher, ha-Leṿi (1899). The Chronicles of Jerahmeel. translated by M. Gaster. London, UK: The Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 130–133. LCCN 4403-4408.  Holweck, Frederick G. (1924). A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 

Meek, Theophile James (April 1929). "Aaronites and Zadokites". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. 45 (3): 149–166. doi:10.1086/370226.  Meek, Theophile James (1950) [1936]. Hebrew Origins (Revised ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. LCCN 5001-1526.  Watts, James W. (Fall 2011). " Aaron
Aaron
and the Golden Calf
Golden Calf
in the Rhetoric of the Pentateuch". Journal of Biblical Literature. Society of Biblical Literature. 130 (3): 417–430. ISSN 0021-9231. 

References in the Qur'an[edit]

Aaron's prophecy: 4:163, 6:84, Aaron
Aaron
is made helper of Moses: 19:53, 25:35, 26:13, 28:34, 28:35 Aaron
Aaron
and Moses
Moses
sent to Pharaoh: 23:45, 10:75, 10:87, 21:48 Praise for Aaron: 37:114, 37:114, 37:118, 37:119, 37 %3Averse%3D 120 37 : 120, 37 %3Averse%3D 122 37 : 122 The Golden Calf: 7 %3Averse%3D 150 7 : 150, 20 %3Averse%3D 94 20 : 94

External links[edit]

Media related to Aaron
Aaron
at Wikimedia Commons  Cook, Stanley Arthur (1911). "Aaron". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). p. 4.  Works related to Aaron
Aaron
at Wikisource The dictionary definition of aaron at Wiktionary English-Ingles.com - Etymology of Aaron MFnames.com - Origin and Meaning of Aaron "Aaron" at the Christian
Christian
Iconography website

Israelite religious titles

New title High Priest
Priest
of Israel Years unknown Succeeded by Eleazar

v t e

High Priests of Israel (List)

Tabernacle

Aaron Eleazar Phinehas Abishua Bukki Uzzi Eli Ahitub Ahijah Ahimelech Abiathar

First Temple

Zadok Ahimaaz Azariah I Johanan Jehoiarib Jehoshaphat Jehoiada Pediah Zedekiah Azariah II Hilkiah

Post-exilic

Joshua Joiakim Eliashib Joiada Johanan Jaddua Onias I Simon I Simeon the Just Eleazar Manasseh Onias II Simon II Onias III Jason Menelaus Onias IV Alcimus

Hasmonean dynasty

Jonathan Apphus Simon Thassi Hyrcanus I Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus

Herodians to the Jewish Revolt

Ananelus Aristobulus III Joshua
Joshua
ben Fabus Simon ben Boethus Joazar ben Boethus Eleazar
Eleazar
ben Boethus Annas Caiaphas Theophilus ben Ananus Simon Cantatheras ben Boethus Elioneus ben Simon Cantatheras Ananias ben Nebedeus Joseph
Joseph
Cabi ben Simon Ananus ben Ananus Joshua
Joshua
ben Damneus Joshua
Joshua
ben Gamaliel Mattathias ben Theophilus Phannias ben Samuel

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Prophets in the Quran

آدم إدريس نوح هود صالح إبراهيم لوط إسماعيل

Adam Adam

Idris Enoch (?)

Nuh Noah

Hud Eber
Eber
(?)

Saleh Salah (?)

Ibrahim Abraham

Lut Lot

Ismail Ishmael

إسحاق يعقوب يوسف أيوب شُعيب موسى هارون ذو الكفل داود

Is'haq Isaac

Yaqub Jacob

Yusuf Joseph

Ayyub Job

Shuayb Jethro (?)

Musa Moses

Harun Aaron

Dhul-Kifl Ezekiel
Ezekiel
(?)

Daud David

سليمان إلياس إليسع يونس زكريا يحيى عيسى مُحمد

Sulaiman Solomon

Ilyas Elijah

Al-Yasa Elisha

Yunus Jonah

Zakaria Zechariah

Yahya John

Isa Jesus

Muhammad Muhammad

Note: Muslims believe that there were many prophets sent by God
God
to mankind. The Islamic prophets above are only the ones mentioned by name in the Quran.

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron
Aaron
and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 86951058 GN

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