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In computer architecture, 4-bit
4-bit
integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 4 bits wide. Also, 4-bit
4-bit
CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. A group of four bits is also called a nibble and has 24 = 16 possible values. Some of the first microprocessors had a 4-bit
4-bit
word length and were developed around 1970. The TMS 1000, the world's first single-chip microprocessor, was a 4-bit
4-bit
CPU; it had a Harvard architecture, with an on-chip instruction ROM, 8-bit-wide instructions and an on-chip data RAM with 4-bit
4-bit
words.[1] The first commercial microprocessor was the binary-coded decimal (BCD-based) Intel 4004,[2][3] developed for calculator applications in 1971; it had a 4-bit
4-bit
word length, but had 8-bit instructions and 12-bit addresses. The HP Saturn
HP Saturn
processors, used in many Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
calculators between 1984 and 2015 (including the HP 48 series of scientific calculators) are "4-bit" (or hybrid 64-/4-bit) machines; as the Intel 4004 did, they string multiple 4-bit
4-bit
words together, e.g. to form a 20-bit memory address, and most of its registers have 64 bits, storing 16 4-bit
4-bit
digits.[4][5][6] The 4-bit
4-bit
processors were programmed in assembly language or Forth, e.g. " MARC4 Family of 4 bit Forth CPU"[7] because of the extreme size constraint on programs and because common programming languages (for microcontrollers, 8-bit and larger), such as the C programming language, do not support 4-bit
4-bit
data types (C requires that the size of the char data type be at least 8 bits,[8] and that all data types other than bitfields have a size that is a multiple of the character size[9][10][11]). While larger than 4-bit
4-bit
values can be used by combining more than one manually, the language has to support the smaller values used in the combining. If not, assembly is the only option.[dubious – discuss] The 1970s saw the emergence of 4-bit
4-bit
software applications for mass markets like pocket calculators. In the 1970s and 1980s, a number of research and commercial computers used bit slicing, in which the CPU's arithmetic logic unit (ALU) was built from multiple 4-bit-wide sections, each section including a chip such as an Am2901 or 74181
74181
chip. The Zilog Z80, although it is an 8-bit microprocessor, has a 4-bit ALU.[12][13]

Contents

1 Modern uses 2 Details 3 List of 4-bit
4-bit
processors 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Modern uses[edit] While 32- and 6 4-bit
4-bit
processors are more prominent in modern consumer electronics, 4-bit
4-bit
CPUs continue to be used (usually as part of a microcontroller) in cost-sensitive applications that require minimal computing power. For example, one bicycle computer specifies that it uses a " 4-bit
4-bit
1-chip microcomputer".[14] Other typical uses include coffee makers, infrared remote controls,[15] and security alarms.[16] Use of 4-bit
4-bit
processors has declined relative to 8-bit or even 32-bit processors, as they are hard to find cheaper in general computer suppliers' stores. The simplest kinds are not available in any of them, and others are "non-stock" and more expensive.[17] (A few expensive ones can be found, as of 2014[update], on eBay.)[18][19][20] Electronics stores still carry, as of 2014[update], non-CPU/non-MCU 4-bit
4-bit
chips, such as counters. As of 2015[update], most PC motherboards, especially laptop motherboards, use a 4-bit
4-bit
LPC bus
LPC bus
(introduced in 1998) to connect the southbridge to the motherboard firmware flash ROM (UEFI or BIOS) and the Super I/O
Super I/O
chip.[21][22] Details[edit] Main article: Nibble With 4 bits, it is possible to create 16 different values. All single-digit hexadecimal numbers can be written with four bits. Binary-coded decimal
Binary-coded decimal
is a digital encoding method for numbers using decimal notation, with each decimal digit represented by four bits.

Binary Octal Decimal Hexadecimal

0000 0 0 0

0001 1 1 1

0010 2 2 2

0011 3 3 3

0100 4 4 4

0101 5 5 5

0110 6 6 6

0111 7 7 7

1000 10 8 8

1001 11 9 9

1010 12 10 A

1011 13 11 B

1100 14 12 C

1101 15 13 D

1110 16 14 E

1111 17 15 F

List of 4-bit
4-bit
processors[edit]

Intel C4004

an infrared remote control transmitter controlled by a NEC
NEC
D63GS 4-bit microcontroller

NEC
NEC
D63GS: a 4-bit
4-bit
microcontroller for infrared remote control transmission

Olympia CD700 Desktop Calculator using the National Semiconductor MAPS MM570X bit-serial 4-bit
4-bit
microcontroller

National Semiconductor MM5700CA/D bit-serial 4-bit
4-bit
microcontroller

TMS 1000 Intel 4004 Intel 4040 10NES Atmel
Atmel
MARC4 core[23][24] – (discontinued: "Last ship date: March 7, 2015"[25]) Samsung
Samsung
S3C7 (KS57 Series) 4-bit
4-bit
microcontrollers (RAM: 512 to 5264 nibbles, 6 MHz clock) Toshiba
Toshiba
TLCS-47 series HP Saturn NEC
NEC
μPD75X NEC
NEC
μCOM-4 NEC
NEC
(now Renesas) µPD612xA (discontinued), µPD613x, μPD6x[15][26] and μPD1724x[27] infrared remote control transmitter microcontrollers[28][29] EM Microelectronic-Marin
EM Microelectronic-Marin
EM6600 family,[30] EM6580,[31][32] EM6682,[33] etc. Epson S1C63 family National Semiconductor MAPS MM570X

See also[edit]

GMC-4 Low Pin Count

References[edit]

^ TMS 1000 Series Data Manual (PDF). Texas Instruments. December 1976. Retrieved July 20, 2013.  ^ Mack, Pamela E. (November 30, 2005). "The Microcomputer Revolution". Retrieved 2009-12-23.  ^ "History in the Computing Curriculum" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-06-22.  ^ "The Saturn Processor". Retrieved December 23, 2015.  ^ "Guide to the Saturn Processor". Retrieved January 14, 2014.  ^ "Introduction to Saturn Assembly Language". Retrieved January 14, 2014.  ^ Forth Chips. ^ ISO/IEC 9899:1999 specification. p. 20, § 5.2.4.2.1.  ^ ISO/IEC 9899:1999 specification. p. 37, § 6.2.6.1 (4).  ^ Marshall Cline. "C++ FAQ: the rules about bytes, chars, and characters". ^ " 4-bit
4-bit
integer". cplusplus.com. Retrieved November 21, 2014.  ^ Masatoshi Shima; Federico Faggin; Ralph Ungermann; Michael Slater. "Zilog Oral History Panel on the Founding of the Company and the Development of the Z80 Microprocessor". ^ Ken Shirriff. "The Z-80 has a 4-bit
4-bit
ALU". ^ "Cateye Commuter Manual" (PDF). Retrieved February 11, 2014.  ^ a b μPD67, 67A, 68, 68A, 69 4-bit
4-bit
single-chip microcontroller for infrared remote control transmission ^ Haskell, Richard. "Introduction to Digital Logic and Microprocessors (Lecture 12.2)". Retrieved February 11, 2014.  ^ http://www.digikey.com/product-search/en/integrated-circuits-ics/embedded-microcontrollers/2556109?k=4-bit ^ http://www.ebay.com/itm/Toshiba-TMP47C1637N-4bit-MCU-microcontroller-skinny-DIP42-/111294657595?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item19e9adb43b ^ http://www.ebay.com/itm/Motorola-IC-MC14500B-MC14500BCL-100-NEW-/320837692605 ^ http://www.ebay.com/itm/KL1868VE1-Soviet-CMOS-Clone-Matsushita-MN15500-4bit-MCU-/400212898610?pt=US_Vintage_Computers_Mainframes&hash=item5d2e8c3332 ^ Scott Mueller. "Upgrading and Repairing Laptops". 2004. p. 176. ^ David S. Lawyer. "Plug-and-Play-HOWTO: LPC Bus" 2007. ^ " MARC4 4-bit
4-bit
Microcontrollers
Microcontrollers
- Programmer's Guide" (PDF). Atmel. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-15. Retrieved January 14, 2014.  ^ " MARC4 4- Bit
Bit
Architecture". Atmel. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009.  ^ Product End-of-Life (EOL) Notification ^ μPD6P9 4-bit
4-bit
single-chip microcontroller for infrared remote control transmission ^ μPD17240, 17241, 17242, 17243, 17244, 17245, 17246 4-bit single-chip microcontrollers for small general-purpose infrared remote control transmitters ^ Microcontrollers
Microcontrollers
for Remote Controllers ^ "Mask ROM/ROMless Products 4/8bit Remote Control". Archived from the original on October 28, 2008.  ^ Robert Cravotta. "Embedded Processing Directory" ^ EM6580 ^ "EM6580 low power Flash 4-bit
4-bit
microcontroller" ^ "EM6682"

External links[edit]

Saturn CPU "Products: High Performance 4-bit
4-bit
Microcontrollers
Microcontrollers
[ S1C63 family ]". Epson. Archived from the original on 2013-07-29.  Considerations for 4-bit
4-bit
processing

v t e

CPU technologies

Architecture

Turing machine Post–Turing machine Universal Turing machine Quantum Turing machine Belt machine Stack machine Register machine Counter machine Pointer machine Random access machine Random access stored program machine Finite-state machine Queue automaton Von Neumann Harvard (modified) Dataflow TTA Cellular Artificial neural network

Machine learning Deep learning Neural processing unit (NPU)

Convolutional neural network Load/store architecture Register memory architecture Endianness FIFO Zero-copy NUMA HUMA HSA Mobile computing Surface computing Wearable computing Heterogeneous computing Parallel computing Concurrent computing Distributed computing Cloud computing Amorphous computing Ubiquitous computing Fabric computing Cognitive computing Unconventional computing Hypercomputation Quantum computing Adiabatic quantum computing Linear optical quantum computing Reversible computing Reverse computation Reconfigurable computing Optical computing Ternary computer Analogous computing Mechanical computing Hybrid computing Digital computing DNA computing Peptide computing Chemical computing Organic computing Wetware computing Neuromorphic computing Symmetric multiprocessing
Symmetric multiprocessing
(SMP) Asymmetric multiprocessing
Asymmetric multiprocessing
(AMP) Cache hierarchy Memory hierarchy

ISA types

ASIP CISC RISC EDGE (TRIPS) VLIW (EPIC) MISC OISC NISC ZISC Comparison

ISAs

x86 z/Architecture ARM MIPS Power Architecture
Power Architecture
(PowerPC) SPARC Mill Itanium
Itanium
(IA-64) Alpha Prism SuperH V850 Clipper VAX Unicore PA-RISC MicroBlaze RISC-V

Word size

1-bit 2-bit 4-bit 8-bit 9-bit 10-bit 12-bit 15-bit 16-bit 18-bit 22-bit 24-bit 25-bit 26-bit 27-bit 31-bit 32-bit 33-bit 34-bit 36-bit 39-bit 40-bit 48-bit 50-bit 60-bit 64-bit 128-bit 256-bit 512-bit Variable

Execution

Instruction pipelining

Bubble Operand forwarding

Out-of-order execution

Register renaming

Speculative execution

Branch predictor Memory dependence prediction

Hazards

Parallel level

Bit

Bit-serial Word

Instruction Pipelining

Scalar Superscalar

Task

Thread Process

Data

Vector

Memory

Multithreading

Temporal Simultaneous (SMT) (Hyper-threading) Speculative (SpMT) Preemptive Cooperative Clustered Multi-Thread (CMT) Hardware scout

Flynn's taxonomy

SISD SIMD
SIMD
(SWAR) SIMT MISD MIMD

SPMD

Addressing mode

CPU performance

Instructions per second (IPS) Instructions per clock (IPC) Cycles per instruction (CPI) Floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) Transactions per second (TPS) Synaptic Updates Per Second (SUPS) Performance per watt Orders of magnitude (computing) Cache performance measurement and metric

Core count

Single-core processor Multi-core processor Manycore processor

Types

Central processing unit
Central processing unit
(CPU) GPGPU AI accelerator Vision processing unit (VPU) Vector processor Barrel processor Stream processor Digital signal processor
Digital signal processor
(DSP) I/O processor/DMA controller Network processor Baseband processor Physics processing unit
Physics processing unit
(PPU) Coprocessor Secure cryptoprocessor ASIC FPGA FPOA CPLD Microcontroller Microprocessor Mobile processor Notebook processor Ultra-low-voltage processor Multi-core processor Manycore processor Tile processor Multi-chip module
Multi-chip module
(MCM) Chip stack multi-chip modules System on a chip
System on a chip
(SoC) Multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) Programmable System-on-Chip
System-on-Chip
(PSoC) Network on a chip (NoC)

Components

Execution unit (EU) Arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic logic unit
(ALU) Address generation unit
Address generation unit
(AGU) Floating-point unit
Floating-point unit
(FPU) Load-store unit (LSU) Branch predictor Unified Reservation Station Barrel shifter Uncore Sum addressed decoder (SAD) Front-side bus Back-side bus Northbridge (computing) Southbridge (computing) Adder (electronics) Binary multiplier Binary decoder Address decoder Multiplexer Demultiplexer Registers Cache Memory management unit
Memory management unit
(MMU) Input–output memory management unit
Input–output memory management unit
(IOMMU) Integrated Memory Controller (IMC) Power Management Unit (PMU) Translation lookaside buffer
Translation lookaside buffer
(TLB) Stack engine Register file Processor register Hardware register Memory buffer register (MBR) Program counter Microcode
Microcode
ROM Datapath Control unit Instruction unit Re-order buffer Data buffer Write buffer Coprocessor Electronic switch Electronic circuit Integrated circuit Three-dimensional integrated circuit Boolean circuit Digital circuit Analog circuit Mixed-signal integrated circuit Power management integrated circuit Quantum circuit Logic gate

Combinational logic Sequential logic Emitter-coupled logic
Emitter-coupled logic
(ECL) Transistor–transistor logic
Transistor–transistor logic
(TTL) Glue logic

Quantum gate Gate array Counter (digital) Bus (computing) Semiconductor device Clock rate CPU multiplier Vision chip Memristor

Power management

APM ACPI Dynamic frequency scaling Dynamic voltage scaling Clock gating

Hardware security

Non-executable memory (NX bit) Memory Protection Extensions (Intel MPX) Intel Secure Key Hardware restriction (firmware) Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) Trusted Execution Technology Trusted Platform Module
Trusted Platform Module
(TPM) Secure cryptoprocessor Hardware security module Hengzhi chip

Related

History of ge

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