1991 ( MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and (AD) designations, the 991st year of the Anno Domini 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.
It was the final year of the
Cold War that had begun in 1947. During the year, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics fell, leaving fifteen sovereign republics in its place. India also abandoned its policies of socialism and autarky and began extensive neoliberal changes to its economy in July 1991 which would increase the GDP but also economic inequality over the next two decades. A  U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded and annexed Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would be called the Gulf War and would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between Serbia and the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade.
Japanese asset price bubble burst this year, leading to the Lost Years and a permanently stagnated (though still prosperous) Japanese economy.
February 5 – A Michigan court bars Dr. Jack Kevorkian from assisting in suicides.
February 9 – Singing Revolution: Voters in Lithuania support independence.
February 11 – The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) forms in The Hague, Netherlands.
February 13 – Gulf War: Two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroy an underground bunker in Baghdad, killing hundreds of Iraqis. United States military intelligence claims it was a military facility but Iraqi officials identify it as a bomb shelter.
February 15 – The Visegrad Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.
February 17 – The Cape Verdean presidential election, Cape Verde's first multiparty presidential election since 1975, is won by António Mascarenhas Monteiro.
February 18 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs in the early morning, at both Paddington station and Victoria station in London.
February 20 – President of Albania Ramiz Alia dismisses the government headed by Prime Minister of Albania Adil Çarçani in an effort to stem pro-democracy protests. Fatos Nano is sworn in as Prime Minister on February 22.
February 22 – Gulf War: Iraq accepts a Soviet-proposed cease fire agreement. The U.S. rejects the agreement, but says that retreating Iraqi forces will not be attacked if they leave Kuwait within 24 hours.
February 25 – Gulf War: Part of an Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 29 and injuring 99 U.S. soldiers. It is the single-most devastating attack on U.S. forces during that war.
Gulf War: On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader
Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat. Impostor James Hogue is arrested at Princeton University in the United States for forgery. February 27
April 1 – Comedy Central is launched on cable television in its current format.
April 2 – Government-imposed price increases double or triple the prices of consumer goods in the Soviet Union.
April 3 – Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes the Cease Fire Agreement, Resolution 687. The Resolution calls for the destruction or removal of all of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons, all stocks of agents and components, and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 km and production facilities; and for an end to its support for international terrorism. Iraq accepts the terms of the resolution on April 6.
April 12 – Globalization – The Warsaw Stock Exchange opens in Poland.
April 14 – In the Netherlands, thieves steal 20 paintings worth $500 million from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. Less than an hour later they are found in an abandoned car near the museum.
April 16 – 18 – Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev begins the first ever visit of a Soviet leader to Japan, but fails to resolve the two countries' dispute over ownership of the Kuril Islands.
April 17 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever, at 3,004.46.
April 18 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687, and claims that it does not have a biological weapons program.
April 19 – George Carey is enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury, the spiritual leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
April 21 – French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio discovers the wreckage of the Spanish Galleon San Diego off the coast of Fortune Island (Philippines).
April 23 – Prime Minister of Iceland Steingrímur Hermannsson resigns following an inconclusive parliamentary election on April 20. On April 30, he is succeeded as prime minister by Davíð Oddsson.
April 29 – 30 – In Lesotho, a bloodless coup ousts military ruler Justin Lekhanya. On May 2, he is replaced as Chairman of the Military Council by Elias Phisoana Ramaema.
Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours.
September 2 – The United States re-recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and the US government reopens the embassies there.
September 3 – In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.
September 4 – The Russian city Yekaterinburg regains its name from the communist–era name of Sverdlovsk, Russia (former Soviet Union).
September 5 – 7 – At the 35th Annual Tailhook Symposium in Las Vegas, 83 women and 7 men are assaulted.
September 5 – The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union self-dissolves, replaced by Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and State Council of the Soviet Union
September 8 – The Republic of Macedonia becomes independent. A naming dispute with Greece immediately erupts.
September 9 – Tajikistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
Israel releases 51 Arab prisoners and the bodies of nine guerillas, raising hopes that the last Western hostages in Lebanon will soon be released. The Soviet Union announces plans to withdraw Soviet military and economic aid to Cuba.
September 15 – In the Swedish general election, the Social Democrats suffer their worst election results in 60 years, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson.
September 16 – Judge Gerhard Gesell of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia issues a ruling clearing Col. Oliver North of all charges brought against him in the Iran–Contra affair.
September 17 – North Korea, South Korea, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.
September 19 – Ötzi the Iceman is found in the Alps.
September 20 – 21 – In Sandy, Utah, several patients are held hostage and a nurse is killed in the Alta View Hospital hostage incident.
Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union. The Order of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence of German tongue (Orden der Schwestern der Perpetuellen Indulgenz deutscher Zunge, "O.S.P.I.") is founded in Heidelberg by Erzmutter (Archmother) Johanna Indulgentia Tara Maria Benedicta O.S.P.I.
September 21 – 30 – Iraq disarmament crisis: IAEA inspectors discover files on Iraq's hidden nuclear weapons program. Iraqi officials confiscate documents from U.N. weapons inspectors, refusing to allow them to leave the site without turning over other documents. A 4-day standoff ensues. Iraq permits the team to leave with the documents after the U.N. Security Council threatens enforcement actions.
September 22 – The Huntington Library makes the Dead Sea Scrolls available to the public for the first time.
September 23 – United Nations Special Commission inspectors discover secret Iraqi documents in Baghdad detailing plans to make nuclear weapons, but the Iraqi Army forcibly remove the documents from the inspectors.
September 24 – Lebanese kidnappers release Jackie Mann, 77, after more than two years of captivity.
September 25 – In the Salvadoran Civil War, representatives of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front reach an agreement with President of El Salvador Alfredo Cristiani, setting the stage for ending over 11 years of civil war.
September 27 – President Bush announces unilateral reductions in short-range nuclear weapons and calls off 24-hour alerts for long-range bombers. The Soviet Union responds with similar unilateral reductions on October 5.
September 29 – In El Salvador, an army colonel of the Atlacatl Battalion is found guilty of the 1989 murders of six Jesuits. September 30
October 1 – Croatian War of Independence: Forces of the Yugoslav People's Army invade the area surrounding Dubrovnik in Croatia, beginning the Siege of Dubrovnik, which lasts until May 31, 1992.
October 4 – Carl Bildt becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden, replacing Ingvar Carlsson.
October 6 – President Gorbachev condemns Antisemitism in the Soviet Union in a statement read on the 50th anniversary of the Babi Yar massacres, which saw the death of 35,000 Jews in Ukraine.
October 7 – The Yugoslav Air Force bombs the office of President of Croatia Franjo Tuđman, who narrowly escapes with his life.
October 8 – The Croatian Parliament cuts all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.
In Russia, the
KGB is replaced by the SVR.   Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 715, which demands that Iraq "accept unconditionally the inspectors and all other personnel designated by the Special Commission". Iraq rejects the resolution, calling it "unlawful".
October 11 – 13 – The U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee interviews both Supreme Court candidate Clarence Thomas and former aide Anita Hill, who alleges that Thomas sexually harassed her while she worked for him.
October 12 – Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by its Supreme Soviet, is confirmed president in an uncontested poll.
October 13 – In the Bulgarian parliamentary election, the Union of Democratic Forces defeats the Bulgarian Socialist Party, leaving no remaining Communist governments in Eastern Europe.
October 14 – Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese opposition politician, won the Nobel Peace prize.
October 15 – The United States Senate votes 52–48 to confirm Judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States.
October 16 – George Hennard murders 23 people in Killeen, Texas, before killing himself.
October 18 – The Soviet Union restores diplomatic relations with Israel, which had been suspended since the 1967 Six-Day War.
October 21 – Lebanese kidnappers release Jesse Turner, a mathematics professor who had been held hostage for more than four years.
October 23 – In Paris, the Vietnam-backed government of the state of Cambodia signs an agreement with the Khmer Rouge to end the civil war and bring the Khmer Rouge into government in spite of its role in the Cambodian genocide which ends the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. The deal results in the creation of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia.
The first free parliamentary elections are held in Poland.
Turkmenistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
October 28 – November 4 – The 1991 Perfect Storm strikes the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada, causing over $200 million of damage and resulting in 12 direct fatalities.
October 30 – In Madrid, the Middle East Peace Conference opens, the first direct negotiations between Israel and nearly all its Arab adversaries. October 31 – November 3 – The Halloween Blizzard hits the Upper Midwest of the United States, causing around $100 million of damage and killing 22.
: The signing of the agreement effectively ending the Soviet regime's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
January 4 – Charles Melton, American actor and model
January 5 – Rahel Kiwic, Swiss footballer
January 8 – Asuka Hinoi, Japanese singer
January 9 – Álvaro Soler, Spanish-German singer
January 12 – Pixie Lott, British singer
January 15 – Darya Klishina, Russian athlete and model
January 18 – Britt McKillip, Canadian actress and musician
January 24 – Ali Kireş, Turkish footballer
January 28 – Calum Worthy, Canadian actor and musician January 31 – Amy Jackson, English actress and model
February 1 – Jasmine Tookes, American model
February 3 – Glenn McCuen, American actor, model and gymnast
February 4 – Mathew Leckie, Australian footballer
February 5 – Alba Riquelme, Paraguayan model
February 6 – Maxi Iglesias, Spanish actor and model
February 10 – Emma Roberts, American actress and singer
February 11 – Shanina Shaik, Australian model
February 12 – Tanaya Beatty, Canadian actress
Ed Sheeran, English singer, songwriter, guitarist, record producer, and actor Bonnie Wright, English actress, film director, screenwriter, model and producer
Riyad Mahrez, French-Algerian footballer Solar, South Korean singer, songwriter, and actress
February 25 – Tony Oller, American singer, songwriter and actor
February 26 – CL, South Korean singer and dancer February 28 – Sarah Bolger, Irish actress
March 3 – Park Cho-rong, South Korean singer-songwriter and actress
March 4 – Aoi Nakamura, Japanese actor
March 7 – Ian Clark, American basketball player
March 8 – Devon Werkheiser, American actor, voice actor, singer-songwriter and musician
March 10 – Landon Liboiron, Canadian actor
March 15 – Kie Kitano, Japanese actress
March 16 – Wolfgang Van Halen, American musician
March 19 – Garrett Clayton, American actor and singer
March 21 – Antoine Griezmann, French footballer
March 25 – Seychelle Gabriel, American actress
April 3 – Hayley Kiyoko, American singer and actress
April 7 – Michelle Monkhouse, Canadian fashion model (d. 2011)
April 8 – Minami Takahashi, Japanese singer
April 10 – AJ Michalka, American actress, voice actress, singer-songwriter, and musician
April 13 – Dylan Penn, American model and actress
April 19 – Kelly Olynyk, Canadian basketball player
April 21 – Frank Dillane, English actor
April 25 – Alex Shibutani, American ice dancer April 30 – Travis Scott, American rapper
June 3 – Natasha Dupeyrón, Mexican actress and singer
June 4 – Lorenzo Insigne, Italian footballer
June 6 – Son Dong-woon, Korean pop singer
June 10 – Pol Espargaró, Spanish motorcycle racer
June 12 – Louisa Gummer, American model
June 15 – Rina Takeda, Japanese actress and black belt
June 17 – Yusei Kikuchi, Japanese baseball pitcher
June 18 – Willa Holland, American model and actress
June 20 – Kalidou Koulibaly, French-Senegalese footballer
June 27 – Germán Pezzella, Argentine footballer
June 30 – David Witts, English actor
July 2 – Kim Go-eun, South Korean actress
July 5 – Jason Dolley, American actor and musician
July 6 – Victoire Thivisol, French actress
July 8 – Virgil van Dijk, Dutch footballer
July 10 – Atsuko Maeda, Japanese singer and actress
July 11 – Kentaro Sakaguchi, Japanese model and actor
July 21 – Sara Sampaio, Portuguese model
July 22 – Tomi Juric, Australian footballer
July 25 – Amanda Kurtović, Norwegian handball player
July 28 – Rina Aizawa, Japanese actress and gravure idol
July 29 – Maestro Harrell, American singer, rapper, actor, DJ and producer July 31 – Filipa Azevedo, Portuguese singer
August 2 – Skyler Day, American actress and singer
August 3 – Ismail Juma, Tanzanian long-distance runner (d. 2017)
August 5 – Brooke Marie Bridges, American actress
August 7 – Mike Trout, American baseball player
August 11 – Estelle Nze Minko, French handball player
August 12 – Lakeith Stanfield, American actor and rapper
August 15 – Filip Mladenović, Serbian football player
August 17 – Austin Butler, American actor, singer, and model
August 20 – Cory Joseph, Canadian basketball player
August 22 – Brayden Schenn, Canadian ice hockey player
August 23 – Jennifer Abel, Canadian diver
August 25 – Gershon Koffie, Ghanaian soccer player
August 26 – Dylan O'Brien, American actor
August 30 – Gaia Weiss, French model and actress
September 4 – Carter Jenkins, American actor
September 7 – Jennifer Veal, English actress and comedian
September 8 – Joe Sugg, English Youtuber
September 12 – Thomas Meunier, Belgian footballer
September 13 – Ksenia Afanasyeva, Russian artistic gymnast
September 14 – Nana, South Korean singer, actress and model
September 15 – Alex Florea, Romanian singer
September 16 – Marlon Teixeira, Brazilian model
September 20 – Spencer Locke, American actress
September 22 – Khairul Anuar Mohamad, Malaysian archer
September 23 – Key, Korean singer
September 27 – Simona Halep, Romanian tennis player September 30 – Thomas Röhler, German track and field athlete (javelin)
October 2 – Roberto Firmino, Brazilian footballer
October 4 – Nicolai Kielstrup, Danish singer
October 6 – Roshon Fegan, American actor, rapper and dancer
Nicole Jung, Korean-American singer Lay Zhang, Chinese singer-songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor
October 13 – Diego Domínguez, Spanish actor and singer
October 14 – Shona McGarty, English actress
October 17 – Brenda Asnicar, Argentine actress and singer
October 18 – Tyler Posey, American actor and musician
October 20 – Zulfahmi Khairuddin, Malaysian motocycle racer
October 21 – Artur Aleksanyan, Armenian Greco-Roman wrestler
October 22 – Tatiana Martínez, Mexican actress
October 26 – Amala Paul, Indian film actress
October 27 – Bryan Craig, American actor October 30
December 1 – Sun Yang, Chinese Olympic swimmer
December 3 – Masahiro Usui, Japanese actor
December 4 – André Roberson, American basketball player
December 5 – Christian Yelich, American baseball player
December 10 – Kiki Bertens, Dutch tennis player
December 11 – Anna Bergendahl, Swedish singer
December 14 – Mitsuki Takahata, Japanese actress and singer
December 15 – Eunice Cho, Korean-American actress
December 26 – Eden Sher, American actress
December 27 – Chloe Bridges, American actress
December 28 – Belime, Lebanon singer-songwriter, pop musician, and music producer December 30 – Camila Giorgi, Italian tennis player
January 2 – Renato Rascel, Italian actor and singer (b. 1912)
January 5 – Vasko Popa, Yugoslavian poet (b. 1922)
January 8 – Steve Clark, English guitarist (b. 1960)
January 11 – Carl David Anderson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1905)
January 14 – Salah Khalaf (a.k.a. Abu Iyad), Palestinian officer (b. 1933)
January 17 – King Olav V of Norway (b. 1903)
January 18 – Hamilton Fish III, American soldier and politician (b. 1888)
January 19 – John Russell, American actor (b. 1921)
January 22 – Kenas Aroi, Nauruan politician (b. 1942)
January 25 – Frank Soo, English footballer and manager (b. 1914)
January 28 – Red Grange, American football player ( Chicago Bears) and member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame (b. 1903)
January 29 – Yasushi Inoue, Japanese historian (b. 1907) January 30
March 2 – Serge Gainsbourg, French singer (b. 1928)
March 3 – William Penney, Baron Penney, British nuclear physicist (b. 1909)
March 12 – Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1900)
March 18 – Vilma Bánky, Hungarian-born actress (b. 1901)
March 21 – Leo Fender, American instrument maker (b. 1909)
March 24 – Sir John Kerr, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1914)
March 25 – Marcel Lefebvre, French Roman Catholic bishop who fought for Catholic Tradition (b. 1905)
March 29 – Lee Atwater, American political consultant and strategist (b. 1951)
June 1 – David Ruffin, American singer (b. 1941)
June 2 – Hailu Yimenu, Ethiopian politician, acting Prime Minister of Ethiopia
June 3 – Eva Le Gallienne, English-born actress (b. 1899)
June 6 – Stan Getz, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1927)
June 9 – Claudio Arrau, Chilean-born pianist (b. 1903)
June 14 – Peggy Ashcroft, British actress (b. 1907)
June 18 – Joan Caulfield, American actress (b. 1922)
June 19 – Jean Arthur, American actress (b. 1900)
June 24 – Rufino Tamayo, Mexican painter (b. 1899) 
June 25 – Michael Heidelberger, American immunologist (b. 1888)
June 27 – Molly Geertsema, Dutch liberal politician, former leader of the VVD party (b. 1918)
June 29 – Henri Lefebvre, French sociologist and philosopher (b. 1901)
July 1 – Michael Landon, American actor, writer, director, and producer (b. 1936)
July 2 – Lee Remick, American actress (b. 1935)
July 4 – Victor Chang, Australian physician (b. 1936)
July 6 – Anton Yugov, Bulgarian Communist politician, 35th Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1904)
July 8 – James Franciscus, American actor (b. 1934)
July 11 – Mokhtar Dahari, Malaysian footballer (b. 1953)
July 16 – Robert Motherwell, American painter (b. 1915)
July 24 – Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-born Yiddish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1902)
July 25 – Lazar Kaganovich, Soviet politician, former member of the CPSU Politburo and Deputy Prime Minister (b. 1893)
July 29 – Christian de Castries, French general (b. 1902) July 31 – Regina Kapeller-Adler, Austrian biochemist (b. 1900) 
August 3 – Ali Sabri, Egyptian politician, 32nd Prime Minister of Egypt (b. 1920)
August 4 – Yevgeny Dragunov, Russian weapons designer (b. 1920)
August 7 – Billy T. James, New Zealand comedian (b. 1948)
August 8 – James Irwin, American astronaut (b. 1930)
August 13 – James Roosevelt, American businessman and politician (b. 1907)
August 16 – Luigi Zampa, Italian film-maker (b. 1905)
August 23 – Florence B. Seibert, American biochemist (b. 1897)
August 24 – Sergey Akhromeyev, Marshall of the Soviet Union, Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces (b. 1923)
August 28 – Alekos Sakellarios, Greek writer and director (b. 1913) August 30
September 2 – Alfonso García Robles, Mexican diplomat and politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1911)
September 3 – Frank Capra, Italian-born American film director (b. 1897)
September 7 – Edwin McMillan, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1907)
September 13 – Joe Pasternak, Hungarian-born film director (b. 1901)
September 15 – John Hoyt, American actor (b. 1905)
September 16 – Carol White, English actress (b. 1943)
September 19 – Lydia Cabrera, Cuban anthropologist and poet (b. 1899)
September 24 – Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel), American author (b. 1904)
November 2 – Irwin Allen, American film and television producer (b. 1916)
November 6 – Gene Tierney, American actress (b. 1920)
November 9 – Yves Montand, French actor and singer (b. 1921)
November 10 – Eva Bosáková, Czechoslovakian artistic gymnast (b. 1931)
November 12 – Keizō Hayashi, Japanese civil servant and military official (b. 1907)
November 14 – Tony Richardson, English film and theater director (b. 1928)
November 18 – Gustáv Husák, Czechoslovak politician, 9th President of Czechoslovakia (b. 1913)
November 19 – Reggie Nalder, Austrian actor (b. 1907)
November 21 – Daniel Mann, American film director (b. 1912)
November 23 – Klaus Kinski, German actor (b. 1926)
November 25 – Eleanor Audley, American actress (b. 1905)
November 26 – Ed Heinemann, American aircraft designer (b. 1908) November 29
December 1 – George Stigler, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1911)
December 5 – Richard Speck, American mass murderer (b. 1941)
December 6 – Sir Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
December 7 – Gordon Pirie, English athlete (b. 1931)
December 9 – Berenice Abbott, American photographer (b. 1898)
December 10 – Franco Maria Malfatti, Italian politician (b. 1927)
December 15 – Vasily Zaytsev, Russian World War II hero (b. 1915)
December 18 – George Abecassis, English race car driver (b. 1913)
December 27 – Hervé Guibert, French writer and photographer (b. 1955)
December 28 – Cassandra Harris, Australian actress (b. 1941) December 31 – Yuri Belov, Soviet actor (b. 1930)
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