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Events


January–March

*
January 21 Events Pre-1600 * 763 – Following the Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa, the Alid rebellion ends with the death of Ibrahim, brother of Isa ibn Musa. *1525 – The Switzerland, Swiss Anabaptist Movement is found ...
José Mariano Salas José Mariano de Salas (11 May 1797 – 24 December 1867) was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president o ...

José Mariano Salas
(1797-1867) becomes unconstitutional interim
President of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the United Mexican States ( es, link=no, Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and head of government of Mexico. Under ...
. *
January 24 Events Pre-1600 * AD 41 – Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor at ...
( O. S.) –
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia ( ro, Țara Românească , literally ''The Romanian Land'' or ''The Romanian Country''; Archaism, archaic: ', Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: ) is a Historical regions of Romania, historical and geographical region of Romania. It ...
and
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is a ...

Moldavia
are united under
Alexandru Ioan Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (, or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873) was the first ''domnitor'' (Ruler) of the Romanian Principalities through his double election as prince of Moldavia on 5 January 1 ...
(
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to t ...

Romania
since 1866, final unification takes place on December 1,
1918 This year is noted for the end of the World War I, First World War, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as well as for the Spanish flu pandemic that killed 50-100 million people worldwide. Events Below, t ...
; Transylvania and other regions are still missing at that time). *
January 28 Events Pre-1600 * 814 – The death of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, brings about the accession of his son Louis the Pious as ruler of the Carolingian Empire, Frankish Empire. *1069 – Robert de Comines, appointed Earl of ...
– The city of Olympia is incorporated in the
Washington Territory The Territory of Washington was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from March 2, 1853, until November 11, 1889, when the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Washington. It was created from the ...
of the United States of America. *
February 2 Events Pre-1600 * 506 – Alaric II, eighth king of the Visigoths, promulgates the Breviary of Alaric (''Breviarium Alaricianum'' or ''Lex Romana Visigothorum''), a collection of "Roman law". * 880 – Battle of Luneberg Heath, Battle ...

February 2
Miguel Miramón
Miguel Miramón
(1832-1867) becomes unconstitutional interim
President of Mexico The president of Mexico ( es, link=no, Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the United Mexican States ( es, link=no, Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and head of government of Mexico. Under ...
. *
February 4 This day marks the approximate midpoint of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and of summer in the Southern Hemisphere (starting the season at the December solstice). Events Pre–1600 *211 Year 211 ( CCXI) was a common year starting on Tu ...
– German scholar
Constantin von Tischendorf Lobegott Friedrich Constantin (von) Tischendorf (18 January 18157 December 1874) was a German biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred ...
rediscovers the ''
Codex Sinaiticus Codex Sinaiticus ( ell, Σιναϊτικός Κώδικας, ''Sinaïtikós Kṓdikas''; Shelfmarks and references: London, British Library The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and is one of the largest libra ...
'', a 4th-century
uncial Uncial is a majuscule Glaister, Geoffrey Ashall. (1996) ''Encyclopedia of the Book''. 2nd edn. New Castle, DE, and London: Oak Knoll Press & The British Library The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and is one of ...
manuscript of the
Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ...
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
, in
Saint Catherine's Monastery Saint Catherine's Monastery ( ar, دير القدّيسة كاترين; grc-gre, Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης), officially Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai ( ell, Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστ ...

Saint Catherine's Monastery
on the foot of
Mount Sinai ar, جَبَل مُوْسَى, Jabal Mūsā syc, ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ , coordinates = , photo = Mount Moses.jpg , photo_caption = The summit of Mount Sinai , photo_size = , elevation_m = 2,285 , elevation_ref = , location = South Sinai ...

Mount Sinai
, in the
Khedivate of Egypt The Khedivate of Egypt (, ; ota, خدیویت مصر ') was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or ' ...
. *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 * 748 – Abbasid Revolution: The Kaysanites Shia#History, Hashimi rebels under Abu Muslim Khorasani take Merv, capital of the Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad province Greater Khorasan, Khorasan, marking the consolidation of t ...
Oregon Oregon () is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, and the West) is the List of regions of the United States#Census Bureau-designated ...

Oregon
is admitted as the 33rd
U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a W ...
. *
February 12 Events Pre-1600 * 1404 – The Italian professor Galeazzo di Santa Sophie performed the first post-mortem autopsy An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a surgical procedure that consists of ...
– The
Mekteb-i Mülkiye The Faculty of Political Science of the University of Ankara ( tr, Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi, more simply known as "''SBF''") is the oldest faculty of social science in Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Re ...
School is founded in the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
. *
February 17 Events Pre-1600 * 1370 – Northern Crusades: Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights meet in the Battle of Rudau. *1411 – Following the successful campaigns during the Ottoman Interregnum, Musa Çelebi, one of the sons ...
– French naval forces under
Charles Rigault de Genouilly Admiral Pierre-Louis-Charles Rigault de Genouilly (12 April 1807 – 4 May 1873) was a French naval officer. He fought with distinction in the Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 ...

Charles Rigault de Genouilly
capture the city and
Citadel of Saigon The Citadel of Saigon ( vi, Thành Sài Gòn ) also known as the Citadel of Gia Định ( vi, Thành Gia Định ) was a late 18th-century fortress that stood in Saigon (also known in the 19th century as Gia Định, now Ho Chi Minh City , popu ...
in
Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
, beginning the
Siege of Saigon A siege is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its me ...
. *
February 27 Events Pre-1600 * 380 – Edict of Thessalonica The Edict of Thessalonica (also known as ''Cunctos populos''), issued on 27 February AD 380 by three reigning Roman Emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during th ...
– United States Congressman
Daniel Sickles Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1819May 3, 1914) was an American politician, soldier, and diplomat. Born to a wealthy family in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by popula ...

Daniel Sickles
shoots Philip Barton Key (U.S. District Attorney) for having an affair with his wife. *
March 3 Events * 473 – Gundobad (nephew of Ricimer) nominates Glycerius as emperor of the Western Roman Empire. * 724 – Empress Genshō abdicates the throne in favor of her nephew Emperor Shōmu, Shōmu who becomes emperor of Japan. *1575 &n ...
– Construction begins on the first railway in northern
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
as tracks are laid between the modern-day locations of
Allahabad Allahabad (), officially known as Prayagraj, also known as Ilahabad, is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or re ...

Allahabad
and
Kanpur Kanpur ( ), is a metropolis, metropolitan city in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Founded in 1803, Kanpur became one of the most important commercial and military stations of British India. Nestled on the banks of Ganges River, Kanpur stan ...

Kanpur
. *
March 9 Events * 141 BC – Liu Che, posthumously known as Emperor Wu of Han Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), formally posthumous name, enshrined as Emperor Wu the filial piety, Filial (), born Liu Che (劉徹) and courtesy name ...
– The army of the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
mobilizes against Austria, beginning the crisis which will lead to the Austro-Sardinian War. *
March 21 Events Pre-1600 * 537 – Siege of Rome: King Vitiges Vitiges or Vitigis, Witiges (died 542) was king of the Ostrogoths in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a ...
– The
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin ...
issues the charter establishing the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, the first organization of its kind in the United States, and founder of the nation's first zoo. *
March 26 Events * 590 – Emperor Maurice (emperor), Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius (son of Maurice), Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. *1027 – Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II as Holy Roman E ...
– French amateur astronomer Edmond Modeste Lescarbault claims to have noticed a planet closer to the Sun than Mercury (later named
Vulcan Vulcan may refer to: Mythology * Vulcan (mythology), the god of fire, volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in Roman mythology Arts, entertainment and media Film and television * Vulcan (Star Trek), Vulcan (''Star Trek''), name of a fictional rac ...
).


April–June

*
April 13 Events *1111 – Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. *1204 – Constantinople Sack of Constantinople, falls to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, temporarily ending the Byzantine Empire. *1612 – ...
The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art
The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art
is founded by
Peter Cooper Peter Cooper (February 12, 1791April 4, 1883) was an American industrialist A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristically refe ...

Peter Cooper
, a New York industrialist, inventor and philanthropist. *
April 25 Events *404 BC __NOTOC__ Year 404 BC was a year of the Roman calendar, pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Volusus, Cossus, Fidenas, Ambustus, Maluginensis and Rutilus (or, less frequently, y ...
– Ground is broken for the
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia. The canal is part of the Silk ...
, in Egypt. *
April 28 Events * 224 Year 224 ( CCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Iulianus and Crispinus (or, less frequently, yea ...
– The '' Pomona'' is wrecked off the English coast, with 424 dead. * April 29 – Austrian troops begin to cross the Ticino River to Piedmont. * April 30 – ''A Tale of Two Cities'' by Charles Dickens is published in England. * May 4 – The Cornwall Railway opens across the Royal Albert Bridge, linking the counties of Devon and Cornwall in England. * May 5 – Border Treaty between Brazil and Venezuela: The two countries agree their borders should be traced at the water divide, between the Amazon River, Amazon and the Orinoco basins. * May 22 – Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies is succeeded by his 23-year-old son, Francis II of the Two Sicilies. * May 26 – Austro-Sardinian War – Battle of Varese: Giuseppe Garibaldi's Hunters of the Alps confront and defeat Austrian forces, led by Karl von Urban, Field Marshal-Lieutenant Carl Baron Urban. * May 26, June 2 – Geologist Joseph Prestwich and amateur archaeologist John Evans (archaeologist), John Evans report (to the Royal Society and Society of Antiquaries of London, respectively) the results of their investigations of gravel-pits in the Somme valley and elsewhere, extending human history back to what will become known as the Paleolithic Era. * May 30 – Battle of Palestro: The Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinians defeat the Austrian army. * May 31 – Big Ben, the Big Ben, Great Clock at the Palace of Westminster, London, is started. * June 4 – Austro-Sardinian War – Battle of Magenta: The French and Sardinians defeat the Austrians. * June 6 – The British Crown colony of Queensland in Australia is created, by Separation of Queensland, devolving part of the territory of New South Wales (Queensland Day). * June 8 – The discovery of the Comstock Lode in the western Utah Territory sets off the Rush to Washoe. * June 15 – The so-called Pig War (1859), Pig War border dispute between the Americans and the British, over the San Juan Islands, begins by the death of the namesake pig. * June 17 – The only recorded simoom ever in North America hits Goleta, California, Goleta and Santa Barbara, California. * June 18 – Aletschhorn, the second summit of the Bernese Alps, is first ascended. * June 24 – Battle of Solferino: The
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
and the armies of Napoleon III of France defeat Franz Joseph I of Austria in northern Italy; the battle inspires Henri Dunant to found the Red Cross. * June 30 – Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope, for the first time.


July–September

* July ** Count Camillo Benso di Cavour resigns, as president of Piedmont-Sardinia. ** Pike's Peak Gold Rush begins in the Colorado Territory. * July 1 – The first intercollegiate baseball game is played, between Amherst College, Amherst and Williams College, Williams Colleges. * July 8 – Charles XV of Sweden, Charles XV succeeds his father Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (as Charles IV). * July 11 ** The chimes of Big Ben ring for the first time in London. ** By the preliminary treaty signed at Villafranca di Verona, Villafranca, Italy, Lombardy is ceded to the French (who immediately cede it to Sardinia), while the Austrians keep Venetia (region), Venetia, and the French promise to restore the Central Italian rulers expelled in the course of the war. This brings the Austro-Sardinian War effectively to a close. * July 30 – Grand Combin, one of the highest summits in the Alps, is first ascended. * August 16 – The Tuscan National Assembly formally deposes the House of Habsburg, House of Habsburg-Lorraine, ending an ascendancy of 109 years. * August 27 – Edwin Drake drills the first oil well in the United States, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, starting the Pennsylvania oil rush. * August 28–September 2– The solar storm of 1859, the largest geomagnetic solar storm on record, causes the Aurora, Northern lights to be visible as far south as Montería, Colombia and knocks out telegraph communication (this is also called the Richard Christopher Carrington, Carrington Event). * September – British merchant Thomas Blake Glover begins business in Nagasaki, Japan. * September 17 – In San Francisco, Emperor Norton, Joshua Norton proclaims himself to be His Imperial Majesty Emperor Norton I, ''Emperor of the United States'' and ''Protector of Mexico''. Image:Origin of Species title page.jpg, 200px


October–December

* October 16 – John Brown (abolitionist), John Brown John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, raids the Harpers Ferry Armory in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in an unsuccessful bid to spark a general slave rebellion. * October 18 – Troops under Colonel Robert E. Lee overpower John Brown (abolitionist), John Brown, at the Federal arsenal. * October 26 – The steamship ''Royal Charter (ship), Royal Charter'' is wrecked on the coast of Anglesey, Wales, with 454 dead. * November 1 – The current Cape Lookout (North Carolina), Cape Lookout, North Carolina, Cape Lookout Lighthouse, lighthouse is lighted for the first time (its first-order Fresnel lens can be seen for 19 miles). * November 10 – The Treaty of Zürich, reaffirming the terms of the Treaty of Villafranca, brings the Austro-Sardinian War to an official close. * November 15 – The first Zappas Olympics open in Greece. * November 24 ** English naturalist Charles Darwin publishes ''On the Origin of Species'', a book which argues for the gradual evolution of species through natural selection (it immediately sells out its initial print run). ** The French Navy's ''La Gloire'', the first ocean-going ironclad warship in history, is launched. * December 2 – Militant Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionist leader John Brown (abolitionist), John Brown is hanged for his October 16 raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. * December 10 – The Ateneo de Manila University is founded, as the ''Escuela Municipal de Manila''.


Date unknown

* District nurse, District nursing begins in Liverpool, England, when philanthropist William Rathbone VI, William Rathbone employs Mary Robinson to nurse the sick poor in their own homes. * The island of Timor is divided between Portugal and the Netherlands. * The Rancho Rincon de Los Esteros Land Grant is confirmed to Rafael Alvisa (part of the present Santa Clara County, California). * Bernhard Riemann formulates the Riemann hypothesis, one of the most important open problems of contemporary mathematics. * Brisbane is declared the capital of newly separated colony Queensland, Australia. * The University of Michigan Law School is founded. * Karl Marx publishes ''A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy''. * John Stuart Mill publishes ''On Liberty''. * George Eliot publishes ''Adam Bede''. * Alfred, Lord Tennyson publishes the first set of ''Idylls of the King''. * The Society for Promoting the Employment of Women is founded. * The Mary Institute and St. Louis Country Day School, Mary Institute is founded in Missouri. * ''Tidskrift för hemmet'', the first women's magazine in the Nordic countries, begins publication in Sweden. * Nillmij, as predecessor of Aegon N.V., Aegon, an Insurance, insurance service in worldwide, founded in Dutch East Indies. (now Indonesia)


Births


January–March

File:Comerre, Portrait de la femme de l'artiste, StrasbourgMAMCS (2).JPG, 110px, thumbnail, Jacqueline Comerre-Paton * January 6 – Hugh Rodman, American admiral (d. 1940) * January 8 – Fanny Bullock Workman, American geographer, writer and mountain climber (d. 1925) * January 11 – George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, British statesman, Viceroy of India (d. 1925) * January 27 – Wilhelm II of Germany, last Emperor of Germany and List of rulers of Prussia, King of Prussia (d. 1941) * January 29 – Virginie Amélie Avegno Gautreau, American-born Parisian socialite, model for the painting ''Portrait of Madame X'' (d. 1915) * February 1 ** Henry Miller (actor), Henry Miller, English-born American stage actor, producer (d. 1926) ** Victor Herbert, Irish-born composer (''Babes In Toyland'') (d. 1924) * February 3 – Hugo Junkers, German industrialist, aircraft designer (d. 1935) * February 5 – Louis Cheikho, Lebanese Jesuit Chaldean Catholics, Chaldean priest and venerable (d. 1927) * February 9 – Akiyama Yoshifuru, Japanese general (d. 1930) * February 10 – Alexandre Millerand, President of France (d. 1943) *
February 14 Events Pre-1600 * 748 – Abbasid Revolution: The Kaysanites Shia#History, Hashimi rebels under Abu Muslim Khorasani take Merv, capital of the Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad province Greater Khorasan, Khorasan, marking the consolidation of t ...
** Henry Valentine Knaggs, English physician, author (d. 1954) ** George Washington Gale Ferris Jr., American inventor of the Ferris wheel (d. 1896) * February 19 – Svante Arrhenius, Swedish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1927) * February 25 – Vasil Kutinchev, Bulgarian general (d. 1941) * February 26 – Louise DeKoven Bowen, American philanthropist, activist (d. 1953) * February 28 – Florian Cajori, Swiss historian of mathematics (d. 1930) * March 2 – Sholem Aleichem, Ukrainian Yiddish novelist (d. 1916) * March 4 – Alexander Stepanovich Popov, Russian physicist (d. 1905) * March 8 – Kenneth Grahame, English author (d. 1932) *
March 9 Events * 141 BC – Liu Che, posthumously known as Emperor Wu of Han Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), formally posthumous name, enshrined as Emperor Wu the filial piety, Filial (), born Liu Che (劉徹) and courtesy name ...
– Alexandru Averescu, Romanian general and politician, 24th Prime Minister of Romania (d. 1938) * March 12 – Abraham H. Cannon, American Mormon apostle (d. 1896) * March 13 – Alice Bellvadore Sams Turner, American physician (d. 1915) *
March 26 Events * 590 – Emperor Maurice (emperor), Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius (son of Maurice), Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. *1027 – Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II as Holy Roman E ...
– A. E. Housman, English poet (d. 1936)


April–June

* April 3 – Reginald De Koven, American composer, music critic (d. 1920) * April 7 – Jacques Loeb, German–American physiologist, biologist (d. 1924) * April 8 – Edmund Husserl, Austrian philosopher (d. 1938) * April 14 – Luigi Capello, Italian general (d. 1941) * April 17 – Willis Van Devanter, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1941) * May 1 – Jacqueline Comerre-Paton, French artist (d. 1955) * May 15 – Pierre Curie, French physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1906) * May 22 – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Scottish writer (d. 1930) * June 5 – Belle Archer, American actress (d. 1900) * June 9 – Doveton Sturdee, British admiral (d. 1925) * June 21 – Henry Ossawa Tanner, American artist (d. 1937)


July–September

* July 6 ** Alexander Hamilton-Gordon (British Army officer, born 1859), Alexander Hamilton-Gordon, British general (d. 1939) ** Verner von Heidenstam, Swedish writer, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1940) * July 13 – Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, British co-founder of the London School of Economics (d. 1947) * July 28 – Mary Anderson (actress, born 1859), Mary Anderson, American stage actress (d. 1940) * July 29 – Francisco Rodrigues da Cruz, Portuguese priest (d. 1948) * August 2 – Auguste Adib Pacha, 2-time Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 1936) * August 4 – Knut Hamsun, Norwegian author, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1952) * August 16 – Dora Knowlton Ranous, American actress, author and translator (d. 1916) * August 18 – Anna Ancher, Danish painter (d. 1935) * September 3 – Jean Jaurès, French socialist (d. 1914) * September 7 – Margaret Crosfield, British palaeontologist, geologist (d. 1952) * September 16 – Yuan Shikai, Chinese dictator (d. 1916) * September 17 ** William H. Bonney (Billy The Kid), American outlaw, gunfighter (d. 1881) ** I. L. Patterson, American politician, 18th Governor of Oregon (d. 1929) * September 18 – Lincoln Loy McCandless, Hawaiian politician, rancher (d. 1940) * September 19 – Marshall Pinckney Wilder, American actor, humorist, comedian and monologist (d. 1915) * September 21 – Francesc Macià, Catalan politician (d. 1933) * September 24 – Radko Dimitriev, Bulgarian and Russian general (d.
1918 This year is noted for the end of the World War I, First World War, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, as well as for the Spanish flu pandemic that killed 50-100 million people worldwide. Events Below, t ...
) * September 28 – Alfredo Baquerizo, 19th President of Ecuador (d. 1951)


October–December

* October 6 – Frank Seiberling, American inventor, co-founder of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company (d. 1955) * October 9 – Alfred Dreyfus, French military officer, subject of the Dreyfus affair (d. 1935) * October 12 – Diana Abgar, Armenian diplomat (d. 1937) * October 18 – Henri Bergson, French philosopher, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (d. 1941) * October 20 – John Dewey, American philosopher, psychologist and educator (d. 1952) * November 10 – Gustav Globočnik Edler von Vojka, Austro-Hungarian nobleman and field marshal (d. 1946) * November 14 – Alexander Samsonov, Russian general (d. 1914) * November 15 ** Jean César Graziani, French general (d. 1932) ** Christopher Hornsrud, 11th Prime Minister of Norway (d. 1960) * November 19 – Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, Russian composer (d. 1935) * November 22 – Fusajiro Yamauchi, Japanese founder of Nintendo (d. 1940) * November 24 – Cass Gilbert, American architect (Woolworth Building, United States Supreme Court building) (d. 1934) * November 27 – William Bliss Baker, American painter (d. 1886) * November 29 – Jesse Pomeroy, youngest convicted murderer in Massachusetts (d. 1932) * December 2 – Georges Seurat, French painter (d. 1891) * December 5 – John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, British admiral (d. 1935) * December 15 – L. L. Zamenhof, Polish creator of Esperanto (d. 1917) * December 17 – Paul César Helleu, French artist (d. 1927) * December 24 – Olive E. Dana, American author (unknown year of death) * December 29 – Venustiano Carranza, 37th President of Mexico (d. 1920)


Date unknown

* Vittorio Alinari, Italian photographer (d. 1932) * Margaret Manton Merrill, English-American journalist and writer (d. 1893)


Deaths


January–June

*
January 21 Events Pre-1600 * 763 – Following the Battle of Bakhamra between Alids and Abbasids near Kufa, the Alid rebellion ends with the death of Ibrahim, brother of Isa ibn Musa. *1525 – The Switzerland, Swiss Anabaptist Movement is found ...
– Henry Hallam, English historian (b. 1777) *
January 28 Events Pre-1600 * 814 – The death of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, brings about the accession of his son Louis the Pious as ruler of the Carolingian Empire, Frankish Empire. *1069 – Robert de Comines, appointed Earl of ...
– F. J. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1782) * February 13 – Eliza Acton, English poet, cookery writer (b. 1799) *
February 27 Events Pre-1600 * 380 – Edict of Thessalonica The Edict of Thessalonica (also known as ''Cunctos populos''), issued on 27 February AD 380 by three reigning Roman Emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during th ...
– Philip Barton Key II, Philip Barton Key, U.S. District Attorney (b. 1818) * April 8 – Joseph Thackwell, Sir Joseph Thackwell, British army general (b. 1781) * April 16 – Alexis de Tocqueville, French historian (b. 1805) * May 6 – Alexander von Humboldt, German naturalist and geographer (b. 1769) * May 13 – Bakht Khan, commander-in-chief of
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...

India
n rebel forces in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (b. 1797) * June 11 – Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Austrian diplomat (b. 1773) * June 13 – Angélique Brûlon, French soldier, first female Knight of the French Legion of Honour (b. 1772) * June 15 – Mark Newman (educator), Mark Newman, 3rd List of Phillips Academy Heads of School, Principal of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. (b. 1772) * June 23 – Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1786–1859), Maria Pavlovna, Dowager Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (b. 1786)


July–December

* July 8 ** King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway (b. 1799) ** Charlotte von Siebold, German gynecologist (b. 1788) * July 16 – Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart, British army general and colonial administrator (b. 1783) * July 17 – Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Queen Stephanie, consort of Pedro V of Portugal (b. 1837) * July 30 – Richard Rush, United States Attorney General under James Madison, United States Secretary of the Treasury under President John Quincy Adams (b. 1780) * August 2 – Horace Mann, American educator, abolitionist (b. 1796) * August 4 – John Vianney, French saint known as the ''Curé de Ars'' (b. 1786) * August 15 – Nathaniel Claiborne, U.S. politician (b. 1777) * August 28 ** Leigh Hunt, British critic, essayist (b. 1784) ** Sultan Abd al-Rahman of Morocco (b. 1788) * September 15 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer (b. 1806) * September 19 – George Bush (biblical scholar), American professor of Asian languages (b. 1796) * September 28 – Carl Ritter, German geographer (b. 1779) * October 4 – Karl Baedeker, German author, publisher (b. 1801) * October 12 – Robert Stephenson, English civil engineer (b. 1803) * October 22 – Louis Spohr, German violinist, composer (b. 1784) * November 28 – Washington Irving, American author (b. 1783) * December 2 – John Brown (abolitionist), John Brown, American abolitionist (hanged) (b. 1800) * December 8 – Thomas de Quincey, English writer (b. 1785) * December 16 – Wilhelm Grimm, German philologist, folklorist (b. 1786)


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:1859 1859, 5. ^ Meynell, P-J. (1976). Methane: Planning a Digester. New York: Schocken Books. pp. 3.