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The 14th Dalai Lama[a] (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, born Lhamo Thondup,[b] 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama. Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug
Gelug
school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism[1] which was formally headed by the Ganden Tripas. From the time of the 5th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to 1959, the central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the position of Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
with temporal duties.[2][3] The 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was born in Taktser
Taktser
village, Amdo, Tibet[4] and was selected as the tulku of the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in 1937 and formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
at a public declaration near the town of Bumchen in 1939.[5] His enthronement ceremony as the Dalai Lama
Lama
was held in Lhasa
Lhasa
on 22 February 1940, and he eventually assumed full temporal (political) duties on 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, after the People's Republic of China's incorporation of Tibet.[5] The Gelug
Gelug
school's government administered an area roughly corresponding to the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region just as the nascent PRC wished to assert control over it. During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
fled to India, where he currently lives as a refugee. The 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1989. He has traveled the world and has spoken about the welfare of Tibetans, environment, economics, women's rights, non-violence, interfaith dialogue, physics, astronomy, Buddhism
Buddhism
and science, cognitive neuroscience, reproductive health, and sexuality, along with various topics of Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist teachings.

Contents

1 Early life and background 2 Life as the Dalai Lama

2.1 Cooperation and conflicts with the People's Republic of China 2.2 Exile to India 2.3 International advocacy 2.4 Teaching activities, public talks 2.5 Interfaith
Interfaith
dialogue 2.6 Interest in science, and Mind and Life Institute

3 Social stances

3.1 Abortion 3.2 Democracy, nonviolence, religious harmony, and Tibet's relationship with India 3.3 Diet and animal welfare 3.4 Economics 3.5 Environment 3.6 Sexuality 3.7 Women's rights 3.8 Health

4 Retirement and succession plans 5 Controversies

5.1 CIA Tibetan program 5.2 Ties to India 5.3 Shugden controversy

6 Public image

6.1 In the media 6.2 Awards and honors

7 Publications 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

Early life and background[edit]

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Lhamo Thondup[6] was born on 6 July 1935 to a farming and horse trading family in the small hamlet of Taktser,[c] or Chija Tagtser,[11] (Hongya (红崖村) in Chinese) at the edges of the traditional Tibetan region of Amdo.[7] His family was of Monguor extraction.[12] He was one of seven siblings to survive childhood. The eldest was his sister Tsering Dolma, eighteen years his senior. His eldest brother, Thupten Jigme Norbu, had been recognised at the age of eight as the reincarnation of the high Lama
Lama
Taktser
Taktser
Rinpoche. His sister, Jetsun Pema, spent most of her adult life on the Tibetan Children's Villages project. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has said that his first language was "a broken Xining
Xining
language which was (a dialect of) the Chinese language", a form of Central Plains Mandarin, and his family did not speak the Tibetan language.[13][14][15]

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as a boy

Following reported signs and visions, three search teams were sent out, to the north-east, the east and the south-east, to locate the new incarnation when the boy who was to become the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was about two years old.[16] Sir Basil Gould, British delegate to Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1936, related his account of the north-eastern team to Sir Charles Bell, former British resident in Lhasa
Lhasa
and friend of the 13th Dalai Lama. Amongst other omens, the head of the embalmed body of the thirteenth Dalai Lama, at first facing south-east, had turned to face the north-east, indicating, it was interpreted, the direction in which his successor would be found. The Regent, Reting Rinpoche, shortly afterwards had a vision at the sacred lake of Lhamo La-tso
Lhamo La-tso
which he interpreted as Amdo
Amdo
being the region to search. This vision was also interpreted to refer to a large monastery with a gilded roof and turquoise tiles, and a twisting path from it to a hill to the east, opposite which stood a small house with distinctive eaves. The team, led by Kewtsang Rinpoche, went first to meet the Panchen Lama, who had been stuck in Jyekundo, in northern Kham.[16] The Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
had been investigating births of unusual children in the area ever since the death of the 13th Dalai Lama.[17] He gave Kewtsang the names of three boys whom he had discovered and identified as candidates. Within a year the Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
had died. Two of his three candidates were crossed off the list but the third, a "fearless" child, the most promising, was from Taktser
Taktser
village, which, as in the vision, was on a hill, at the end of a trail leading to Taktser
Taktser
from the great Kumbum Monastery with its gilded, turquoise roof. There they found a house, as interpreted from the vision—the house where Lhamo Dhondup lived.[16][17] According to the 14th Dalai Lama, at the time the village of Taktser stood right on the "real border" between the region of Amdo
Amdo
and China.[18] When the team visited, posing as pilgrims, its leader, a Sera Lama, pretended to be the servant and sat separately in the kitchen. He held an old rosary that had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama
Lama
and the boy Lhamo Dhondup, aged two, approached and asked for it. The monk said "if you know who I am, you can have it." The child said "Sera Lama, Sera Lama" and spoke with him in a Lhasa
Lhasa
accent, in a language the boy's mother could not understand. The next time the party returned to the house, they revealed their real purpose and asked permission to subject the boy to certain tests. One test consisted of showing him various pairs of objects, one of which had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and one which had not. In every case, he chose the Dalai Lama's own objects and rejected the others.[19] Thus, it was the Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
who first discovered and identified the 14th Dalai Lama.

House where the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was born in Taktser, Amdo

From 1936 the Hui 'Ma Clique' Muslim
Muslim
warlord Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
ruled Qinghai as its governor under the nominal authority of the Republic of China central government.[20] According to an interview with the 14th Dalai Lama, in the 1930s, Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
had seized this north-east corner of Amdo
Amdo
in the name of Chiang Kai-shek's weak government and incorporated it into the Chinese province of Qinghai.[21] Before going to Taktser, Kewtsang had gone to Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
to pay his respects.[17] When Ma Bufang heard a candidate had been found in Taktser, he had the family brought to him in Xining.[22] He first demanded proof that the boy was the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
but the Lhasa
Lhasa
government, though informed by Kewtsang that this was the one, told Kewtsang to say he had to go to Lhasa
Lhasa
for further tests with other candidates. They knew that if he was declared to be the Dalai Lama, the Chinese government would insist on sending a large army escort with him, which would then stay in Lhasa
Lhasa
and refuse to budge.[23] Ma Bufang, together with Kumbum Monastery, then refused to allow him to depart unless he was declared to be the Dalai Lama, but withdrew this demand in return for 100,000 Chinese dollars ransom in silver to be shared amongst them, to let them go to Lhasa.[23][24] Kewtsang managed to raise this, but the family was only allowed to move from Xining
Xining
to Kumbum, then a further demand was made for another 330,000 dollars ransom; a hundred thousand each for government officials, the commander-in-chief and Kumbum Monastery, twenty thousand for the escort and only ten thousand for Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
himself, he said.[25] Two years of diplomatic wrangling followed before it was accepted by Lhasa
Lhasa
that the ransom had to be paid to avoid the Chinese getting involved and escorting him to Lhasa
Lhasa
with a large army.[26] Meanwhile, the boy was kept at Kumbum where two of his brothers were already studying as monks and recognised incarnate lamas.[27] Payment of 300,000 silver dollars was then advanced by Muslim
Muslim
traders en route to Mecca in a large caravan via Lhasa. They paid Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
on behalf of the Tibetan government against promissory notes to be redeemed, with interest, in Lhasa.[27][28] The 20,000 dollar fee for an escort was dropped, since the Muslim
Muslim
merchants invited them to join their caravan for protection; Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
sent 20 of his soldiers with them and was paid from both sides since the Chinese government granted him another 50,000 dollars for the expenses of the journey. Furthermore, the Indian government helped the Tibetans raise the ransom funds by affording them import concessions.[28] Released from Kumbum, on 21 July 1939 the party travelled across Tibet in an epic journey to Lhasa
Lhasa
in the large Muslim
Muslim
caravan with Lhamo Thondup, now 4 years old, riding with his brother Lobsang in a special palanquin carried by two mules, two years after being discovered. As soon as they were out of Ma Bufang’s area, he was officially declared to be the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
by the Central Government of Tibet and after ten weeks of travel he arrived in Lhasa
Lhasa
on 8 October 1939.[29] The ordination (pabbajja) and giving of the monastic name of Tenzin Gyatso were handled by Reting Rinpoche. As put it by Economist reporter Banyan, Chinese involvement at this time was very limited.[30] Tibetan Buddhists normally refer to him as Yishin Norbu (Wish-Fulfilling Gem), Kyabgon (Saviour), or just Kundun (Presence). His devotees, as well as much of the Western world, often call him His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the style employed on the Dalai Lama's website. According to the Dalai Lama, he had a succession of tutors in Tibet
Tibet
including Reting Rinpoche, Tathag Rinpoche, Ling Rinpoche
Rinpoche
and lastly Trijang Rinpoche, who became junior tutor when he was nineteen.[31] At the age of 11 he met the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer, who became his videographer and tutor about the world outside Lhasa. The two remained friends until Harrer's death in 2006.[32] In 1959, at the age of 23, he took his final examination at Lhasa's Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple during the annual Monlam
Monlam
or Prayer Festival. He passed with honours and was awarded the Lharampa degree, the highest-level geshe degree, roughly equivalent to a doctorate in Buddhist philosophy.[33][34] Life as the Dalai Lama[edit] See also: Dalai Lama

Lhasa's Potala
Potala
Palace, today a UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage site, pictured in 2006

Historically the Dalai Lamas or their regents held political and religious leadership over Tibet
Tibet
from Lhasa
Lhasa
with varying degrees of influence depending on the regions of Tibet
Tibet
and periods of history. This began with the 5th Dalai Lama’s rule in 1642 and lasted until the 1950s (except for 1705–1750), during which period the Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang. Until 1912 however, when the 13th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
declared the complete independence of Tibet, their rule was generally subject to patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings (1642–1720) and then the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1720–1912).[35] In 1939, at the age of four, the present Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was taken in a procession of lamas to Lhasa. The Dalai Lama's childhood was then spent between the Potala
Potala
Palace and Norbulingka, his summer residence, both of which are now UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. China
China
claims that the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
government ratified the 14th Dalai Lama
Lama
and that a Kuomintang
Kuomintang
representative, General Wu Zhongxin, presided over the ceremony. The British Representative Sir Basil Gould was also at the ceremony and bore witness to the falsity of the Chinese claim to have presided over it. He criticised the Chinese account as follows:

The report was issued in the Chinese Press that Mr Wu had escorted the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to his throne and announced his installation, that the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
had returned thanks, and prostrated himself in token of his gratitude. Every one of these Chinese claims was false. Mr Wu was merely a passive spectator. He did no more than present a ceremonial scarf, as was done by the others, including the British Representative. But the Chinese have the ear of the world, and can later refer to their press records and present an account of historical events that is wholly untrue. Tibet
Tibet
has no newspapers, either in English or Tibetan, and has therefore no means of exposing these falsehoods.[36]

Tibetan scholor Nyima Gyaincain wrote that based on Tibetan tradition, there was no such thing as presiding over an event, but two things are clear, first, the word "主持 (preside or organize)" was used in many places in communication documents. The meaning of the word was different than what we understand today. Second, Wu Zhongxin
Wu Zhongxin
spent a lot of time and energy on the event, his effect of presiding over or organizing the event was very obvious.[37] However, according to Goldstein:

everything the Tibetans did during the selection process was designed to prevent China
China
from playing any role.[38]

Chiang Kai Shek ordered Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
to put his Muslim
Muslim
soldiers on alert for an invasion of Tibet
Tibet
in 1942.[39] Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
complied, and moved several thousand troops to the border with Tibet.[40] Chiang also threatened the Tibetans with aerial bombardment if they worked with the Japanese. Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
attacked the Tibetan Buddhist Tsang monastery in 1941.[41] He also constantly attacked the Labrang monastery.[42] In October 1950 the army of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
marched to the edge of the Dalai Lama's territory and sent a delegation after defeating a legion of the Tibetan army in warlord-controlled Kham. On 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was enthroned formally as the temporal ruler of Tibet. Cooperation and conflicts with the People's Republic of China[edit]

14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
arrives Beijing Railway Station
Beijing Railway Station
with 10th Panchen Lama, 1954

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
meeting with Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
to celebrate Tibetan New Year, 1955

Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
and Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
had many conflicts in Tibetan history. Dalai Lama's formal rule was brief. He sent a delegation to Beijing, which, without his authorization,[34] ratified the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.[43][44] He worked with the Chinese government: in September 1954, together with the 10th Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
he went to the Chinese capital to meet Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and attend the first session of the National People's Congress
National People's Congress
as a delegate, primarily discussing China's constitution.[45][46] On 27 September 1954, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was selected as a Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress,[47][48] a post he officially held until 1964.[49] In 1956, on a trip to India
India
to celebrate the Buddha's Birthday, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
asked the Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, if he would allow him political asylum should he choose to stay. Nehru discouraged this as a provocation against peace, and reminded him of the Indian Government's non-interventionist stance agreed upon with its 1954 treaty with China.[34] Exile to India[edit]

Abandoned former quarters of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
at the Potala. The empty vestment placed on the throne symbolises his absence

At the outset of the 1959 Tibetan uprising, fearing for his life, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and his retinue fled Tibet
Tibet
with the help of the CIA's Special
Special
Activities Division,[50] crossing into India
India
on 30 March 1959, reaching Tezpur
Tezpur
in Assam
Assam
on 18 April.[51] Some time later he set up the Government of Tibet
Tibet
in Exile in Dharamshala, India,[52] which is often referred to as "Little Lhasa". After the founding of the government in exile he re-established the approximately 80,000 Tibetan refugees who followed him into exile in agricultural settlements.[33] He created a Tibetan educational system in order to teach the Tibetan children the language, history, religion, and culture. The Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts was established[33] in 1959 and the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies[33] became the primary university for Tibetans in India
India
in 1967. He supported the refounding of 200 monasteries and nunneries in an attempt to preserve Tibetan Buddhist teachings and the Tibetan way of life. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
appealed to the United Nations
United Nations
on the rights of Tibetans. This appeal resulted in three resolutions adopted by the General Assembly in 1959, 1961, and 1965,[33] all before the People's Republic was allowed representation at the United Nations.[53] The resolutions called on China
China
to respect the human rights of Tibetans.[33] In 1963, he promulgated a democratic constitution which is based upon the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, creating an elected parliament and an administration to champion his cause. In 1970, he opened the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives
Library of Tibetan Works and Archives
in Dharamshala
Dharamshala
which houses over 80,000 manuscripts and important knowledge resources related to Tibetan history, politics and culture. It is considered one of the most important institutions for Tibetology in the world.[54] In 2016, there were demands from Indian politicians of different political parties and citizens to confer His Holiness The Dalai Lama the prestigious Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour of India which has only been awarded to a Non-Indian citizen twice in its history.[55] International advocacy[edit]

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Desmond Tutu

At the Congressional Human Rights Caucus
Congressional Human Rights Caucus
in 1987 in Washington, D.C., the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
gave a speech outlining his ideas for the future status of Tibet. The plan called for Tibet
Tibet
to become a democratic "zone of peace" without nuclear weapons, and with support for human rights, that barred the entry of Han Chinese.[citation needed] The plan would come to be known as the " Strasbourg
Strasbourg
proposal", because the Dalai Lama expanded on the plan at Strasbourg
Strasbourg
on 15 June 1988. There, he proposed the creation of a self-governing Tibet
Tibet
"in association with the People's Republic of China." This would have been pursued by negotiations with the PRC government, but the plan was rejected by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile in 1991.[citation needed] The Dalai Lama has indicated that he wishes to return to Tibet
Tibet
only if the People's Republic of China
China
agrees not to make any precondition for his return.[56] In the 1970s, the then- Paramount leader
Paramount leader
Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
set China's sole return requirement to the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
as that he "must [come back] as a Chinese citizen... that is, patriotism".[57] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
celebrated his seventieth birthday on 6 July 2005. About 10,000 Tibetan refugees, monks and foreign tourists gathered outside his home. Patriarch Alexius II
Patriarch Alexius II
of the Russian Orthodox Church alleged positive relations with Buddhists. However, later that year, the Russian state prevented the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
from fulfilling an invitation to the traditionally Buddhist republic of Kalmykia.[58] Then President of the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan), Chen Shui-bian, attended an evening celebrating the Dalai Lama's birthday at the Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Memorial Hall in Taipei.[59] In October 2008 in Japan, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
addressed the 2008 Tibetan violence that had erupted and that the Chinese government accused him of fomenting. He responded that he had "lost faith" in efforts to negotiate with the Chinese government, and that it was "up to the Tibetan people" to decide what to do.[60] 30 Taiwanese aborigines
Taiwanese aborigines
protested against the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
during his visit to Taiwan
Taiwan
after Typhoon Morakot
Typhoon Morakot
and denounced it as politically motivated.[61][62][63][64] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
is an advocate for a world free of nuclear weapons, and currently serves on the Advisory Council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has voiced his support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations
United Nations
Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.[65]  Teaching activities, public talks[edit]

The Dalai Lama's main teaching room at Dharamshala

Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
conferring Kalachakra
Kalachakra
initiation at Bodh Gaya, India, December 1985

Overview of teaching venue at Bodh Gaya Kalachakra, Dec. 1985

Giving public talks for non-Buddhist audiences and interviews and teaching Buddhism
Buddhism
to large public audiences all over the world, as well as to private groups at his residence in India, appears to be the Dalai Lama's main activity.[66] Despite becoming 80 years old in 2015 he maintains a busy international lectures and teaching schedule.[66] His public talks and teachings are usually webcast live in multiple languages, via an inviting organisation's website, or on the Dalai Lama's own website. Scores of his past teaching videos can be viewed there, as well as public talks, conferences, interviews, dialogues and panel discussions.[67] The Dalai Lama's best known teaching subject is the Kalachakra
Kalachakra
tantra which, as of 2014, he had conferred a total of 33 times,[68] most often in India's upper Himalayan regions but also in western venues like Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
in New York, Los Angeles, Washington DC, Barcelona, Graz, Sydney
Sydney
and Toronto.[69] The Kalachakra
Kalachakra
(Wheel of Time) is one of the most complex teachings of Buddhism, sometimes taking two weeks to confer, and he often confers it on very large audiences, up to 200,000 students and disciples at a time.[69][70] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
is the author of numerous books on Buddhism,[71] many of them on general Buddhist subjects but also including books on particular topics like Dzogchen,[72] a Nyingma
Nyingma
practice. In Dalai Lama’s essay, "The Ethic of Compassion" (1999), he expresses his belief that if we only reserve compassion for those that we love, we are ignoring the responsibility of sharing these characteristics of respect and empathy with those we do not have relationships with, which cannot allow us to "cultivate love." He elaborates upon this idea by writing that although it takes time to develop a higher level of compassion, eventually we will recognize that the quality of empathy will become a part of life and promote our quality as humans and inner strength.[73] He frequently accepts requests from students to visit various countries worldwide in order to give teachings to large Buddhist audiences, teachings that are usually based on classical Buddhist texts and commentaries,[74] and most often those written by the 17 pandits or great masters of the Nalanda
Nalanda
tradition, such as Nagarjuna,[75][76] Kamalashila,[77][78] Shantideva,[79] Atisha,[80] Ayradeva[81] and so on. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
refers to himself as a follower of these Nalanda masters,[82] in fact he often asserts that 'Tibetan Buddhism' is based on the Buddhist tradition of Nalanda
Nalanda
monastery in ancient India,[83] since the texts written by those 17 Nalanda
Nalanda
pandits or masters, to whom he has composed a poem of invocation,[84] were brought to Tibet and translated into Tibetan when Buddhism
Buddhism
was first established there and have remained central to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
ever since.[85] As examples of other teachings, in London in 1984 he was invited to give teachings on the Twelve Links of Dependent Arising, and on Dzogchen, which he gave at Camden Town Hall; in 1988 he was in London once more to give a series of lectures on Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
in general, called 'A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism'.[86] Again in London in 1996 he taught the Four Noble Truths, the basis and foundation of Buddhism
Buddhism
accepted by all Buddhists, at the combined invitation of 27 different Buddhist organisations of all schools and traditions belonging to the Network of Buddhist Organisations UK.[87] In India, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
gives religious teachings and talks in Dharamsala[80] and numerous other locations including the monasteries in the Tibetan refugee settlements,[74] in response to specific requests from Tibetan monastic institutions, Indian academic, religious and business associations, groups of students and individual/private/lay devotees.[88] In India, no fees are charged to attend these teachings since costs are covered by requesting sponsors.[74] When he travels abroad to give teachings there is usually a ticket fee calculated by the inviting organization to cover the costs involved[74] and any surplus is normally to be donated to recognised charities.[89] On his frequent tours of India, Asia and the west he is also often invited to give, alongside his Buddhist teachings, public talks for non-Buddhist audiences.[90] His talks and teaching activities in the U.S., for example, have included the following: on his April 2008 U.S. tour, he gave lectures at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, at Rutgers University
Rutgers University
(New Jersey) and Colgate University
Colgate University
(New York)[91] Later in July, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
gave a public lecture and conducted a series of teachings at Lehigh University
Lehigh University
(Pennsylvania).[92] On 8 May 2011, the University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
bestowed upon him their highest award, an Honorary Doctor of Letters.[93] and during a return trip to Minnesota on 2 March 2014, he spoke at Macalester College
Macalester College
which awarded him an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree.[94] Dozens of videos of recorded webcasts of the Dalai Lama's public talks on general subjects for non-Buddhists like peace, happiness and compassion, modern ethics, the environment, economic and social issues, gender, the empowerment of women and so forth can be viewed in his office's archive.[95] Interfaith
Interfaith
dialogue[edit] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
met Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
at the Vatican in 1973. He met Pope John Paul II in 1980, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 2003. In 1990, he met a delegation of Jewish
Jewish
teachers in Dharamshala
Dharamshala
for an extensive interfaith dialogue.[96] He has since visited Israel three times, and in 2006 met the Chief Rabbi of Israel. In 2006, he met Pope Benedict XVI privately. He has met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Robert Runcie, and other leaders of the Anglican Church in London, Gordon B. Hinckley, who at the time was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), as well as senior Eastern Orthodox Church, Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, and Sikh
Sikh
officials. The Dalai Lama
Lama
is also currently a member of the Board of World Religious Leaders as part of The Elijah Interfaith
Interfaith
Institute[97] and participated in the Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders in Amritsar, India, on 26 November 2007 to discuss the topic of Love and Forgiveness.[98] On 6 January 2009, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
inaugurated an interfaith "World Religions-Dialogue and Symphony" conference at Gujarat's Mahuva which was convened by the Hindu
Hindu
preacher Morari Bapu. This conference explored "ways and means to deal with the discord among major religions", according to Morari Bapu.[99][100] On 12 May 2010 the Dalai Lama, joined by a panel of select scholars, officially launched the Common Ground Project,[101] in Bloomington, Indiana (USA),[102] which was planned by himself and Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad of Jordan
Jordan
during several years of personal conversations. The project is based on the book Common Ground between Islam and Buddhism.[103] Interest in science, and Mind and Life Institute[edit] The Dalai Lama’s lifelong interest in science[104][105] and technology[106] dates from his childhood in Lhasa, Tibet, when he was fascinated by mechanical objects like clocks, watches, telescopes, film projectors, clockwork soldiers[106] and motor cars,[107] and loved to repair, disassemble and reassemble them.[104] Once, observing the moon through a telescope as a child, he realised it was a crater-pocked lump of rock and not a heavenly body emitting its own light as Tibetan cosmologists had taught him.[104] He has also said that had he not been brought up as a monk he would probably have been an engineer.[108] On his first trip to the west in 1973 he asked to visit Cambridge University’s astrophysics department in the UK and he sought out renowned scientists such as Sir Karl Popper, David Bohm and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker,[107] who taught him the basics of science. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
sees important common ground between science and Buddhism
Buddhism
in having the same approach to challenge dogma on the basis of empirical evidence that comes from observation and analysis of phenomena.[109] His growing wish to develop meaningful scientific dialogue to explore the Buddhism and science
Buddhism and science
interface led to invitations for him to attend relevant conferences on his visits to the west, including the Alpbach
Alpbach
Symposia on Consciousness
Consciousness
in 1983 where he met and had discussions with the late Chilean neuroscientist Francisco J. Varela.[107] Also in 1983, the American social entrepreneur and innovator R. Adam Engle,[110] who had become aware of the Dalai Lama's deep interest in science, was already considering the idea of facilitating for him a serious dialogue with a selection of appropriate scientists.[111] In 1984 Engle formally offered to the Dalai Lama's office to organise a week-long, formal dialogue for him with a suitable team of scientists, provided that the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
would wish to fully participate in such a dialogue.[112] Within 48 hours the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
confirmed to Engle that he was "truly interested in participating in something substantial about science" so Engle proceeded with launching the project.[112] Francisco Varela, having heard about Engle's proposal, then called him to tell him of his earlier discussions with the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and to offer his scientific collaboration to the project.[112] Engle accepted, and Varela assisted him to assemble his team of six specialist scientists for the first 'Mind and Life' dialogue on the cognitive sciences,[113] which was eventually held with the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
at his residence in Dharamsala in 1987.[107][112] This five-day event was so successful that at the end the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
told Engle he would very much like to repeat it again in the future.[114] Engle then started work on arranging a second dialogue, this time with neuroscientists in California, and the discussions from the first event were edited and published as Mind and Life's first book, "Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the Sciences of Mind".[115] As Mind and Life Institute's remit expanded, Engle formalised the organisation as a non-profit foundation after the third dialogue, held in 1990, which initiated the undertaking of neurobiological research programmes in the U.S.A. under scientific conditions.[114] Over the ensuing decades, as of 2014 at least 28 dialogues between the Dalai Lama
Lama
and panels of various world-renowned scientists have followed, held in various countries and covering diverse themes, from the nature of consciousness to cosmology and from quantum mechanics to the neuroplasticity of the brain.[116] Sponsors and partners in these dialogues have included the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,[117] Johns Hopkins University,[118] the Mayo Clinic[119] and Zurich University.[120] Apart from time spent teaching Buddhism
Buddhism
and fulfilling responsibilities to his Tibetan followers, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has probably spent, and continues to spend, more of his time and resources investigating the interface between Buddhism and science
Buddhism and science
through the ongoing series of Mind and Life dialogues and its spin-offs than on any other single activity.[106] As the Institute's Cofounder and the Honorary Chairman he has personally presided over and participated in all its dialogues, which continue to expand worldwide.[121] These activities have given rise to dozens of DVD sets of the dialogues and books he has authored on them such as ‘Ethics for the New Millennium’ and ‘The Universe in a Single Atom’, as well as scientific papers and university research programmes.[122] On the Tibetan and Buddhist side, science subjects have been added to the curriculum for Tibetan monastic educational institutions and scholarship.[123] On the Western side, university and research programmes initiated by these dialogues and funded with millions of dollars in grants from the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Trust include the Emory-Tibet Partnership,[124] Stanford School of Medicine’s Centre for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARES)[125] and the Centre for Investigating Healthy Minds,[126] amongst others. In particular, the Mind and Life Education Humanities & Social Sciences initiatives have been instrumental in developing the emerging field of Contemplative Science, by researching, for example, the effects of contemplative practice on the human brain, behaviour and biology.[122] In his 2005 book The Universe in a Single Atom and elsewhere, and to mark his commitment to scientific truth and its ultimate ascendancy over religious belief, unusually for a major religious leader the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
advises his Buddhist followers: "If scientific analysis were conclusively to demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism
Buddhism
to be false, then we must accept the findings of science and abandon those claims."[127] He has also cited examples of archaic Buddhist ideas he has abandoned himself on this basis.[104][128] These activities have even had an impact in the Chinese capital. In 2013 an 'academic dialogue' with a Chinese scientist, a Tibetan 'living Buddha' and a Professor of Religion took place in Beijing. Entitled "High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism
Buddhism
and modern science" it addressed the same considerations that interest the Dalai Lama, described as 'discussing about the similarities between Buddhism
Buddhism
and modern science'.[129] Social stances[edit] Abortion[edit] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has shown a nuanced position on abortion. He explained that, from the perspective of the Buddhist precepts, abortion is an act of killing.[130] He has also clarified that in certain cases abortion could be considered ethically acceptable "if the unborn child will be retarded or if the birth will create serious problems for the parent", which could only be determined on a case-by-case basis.[131] Democracy, nonviolence, religious harmony, and Tibet's relationship with India[edit]

Tenzin Gyatso in Vienna, Austria, in 2012

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
says that he is active in spreading India's message of nonviolence and religious harmony throughout the world. "I am the messenger of India's ancient thoughts the world over." He has said that democracy has deep roots in India. He says he considers India
India
the master and Tibet
Tibet
its disciple, as great scholars went from India
India
to Tibet
Tibet
to teach Buddhism. He has noted that millions of people lost their lives in violence and the economies of many countries were ruined due to conflicts in the 20th century. "Let the 21st century be a century of tolerance and dialogue."[132] In 1993, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
attended the World Conference on Human Rights and made a speech titled "Human Rights and Universal Responsibility".[133] In 2001, he answered the question of a girl in a Seattle
Seattle
school by saying that it is permissible to shoot someone with a gun in self-defense if that person was "trying to kill you," and he emphasized that the shot should not be fatal.[134] In April 2013, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
openly criticised Buddhist monks' attacks on Muslims in Myanmar
Myanmar
"Buddha always teaches us about forgiveness, tolerance, compassion. If from one corner of your mind, some emotion makes you want to hit, or want to kill, then please remember Buddha's faith. We are followers of Buddha." He said that "All problems must be solved through dialogue, through talk. The use of violence is outdated, and never solves problems."[135] In May 2013, He said "Really, killing people in the name of religion is unthinkable, very sad."[136] In May 2015, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
publicly called on Myanmar's Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
winner Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi
to do more to help the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, claiming that he had previously urged her to address the plight of the Rohingya in private during two separate meetings and that she had resisted his urging.[137] Diet and animal welfare[edit]

People think of animals as if they were vegetables, and that is not right. We have to change the way people think about animals. I encourage the Tibetan people
Tibetan people
and all people to move toward a vegetarian diet that doesn’t cause suffering. — Dalai Lama[138]

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
advocates compassion for animals and frequently urges people to try vegetarianism or at least reduce their consumption of meat. In Tibet, where historically meat was the most common food, most monks historically have been omnivores, including the Dalai Lamas. The Fourteenth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was raised in a meat-eating family but converted to vegetarianism after arriving in India, where vegetables are much more easily available. He spent many years as a vegetarian, but after contracting hepatitis in India
India
and suffering from weakness, his doctors ordered him to eat meat on alternating days, which he did for several years. He tried switching back to a vegetarian diet, but once again returned to limited consumption of meat. This attracted public attention when, during a visit to the White House, he was offered a vegetarian menu but declined by replying, as he is known to do on occasion when dining in the company of non-vegetarians, "I'm a Tibetan monk, not a vegetarian".[139] His own home kitchen, however, is completely vegetarian.[140] Economics[edit] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has referred to himself as a Marxist and has articulated criticisms of capitalism.[141][142][143]

I am not only a socialist but also a bit leftist, a communist. In terms of social economy theory, I am a Marxist. I think I am farther to the left than the Chinese leaders. [Bursts out laughing.] They are capitalists.[141]

He reports hearing of communism when he was very young, but only in the context of the destruction of Communist
Communist
Mongolia. It was only when he went on his trip to Beijing
Beijing
that he learned about Marxist theory from his interpreter Baba Phuntsog Wangyal.[144] At that time, he reports, "I was so attracted to Marxism, I even expressed my wish to become a Communist
Communist
Party member", citing his favorite concepts of self-sufficiency and equal distribution of wealth. He does not believe that China
China
implemented "true Marxist policy",[145] and thinks the historical communist states such as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
"were far more concerned with their narrow national interests than with the Workers' International".[146] Moreover, he believes one flaw of historically "Marxist regimes" is that they place too much emphasis on destroying the ruling class, and not enough on compassion.[146] Despite this, he finds Marxism
Marxism
superior to capitalism, believing the latter is only concerned with "how to make profits", whereas the former has "moral ethics".[147] Stating in 1993:

Of all the modern economic theories, the economic system of Marxism
Marxism
is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability. Marxism
Marxism
is concerned with the distribution of wealth on an equal basis and the equitable utilisation of the means of production. It is also concerned with the fate of the working classes—that is, the majority—as well as with the fate of those who are underprivileged and in need, and Marxism
Marxism
cares about the victims of minority-imposed exploitation. For those reasons the system appeals to me, and it seems fair. I just recently read an article in a paper where His Holiness the Pope also pointed out some positive aspects of Marxism.[142][146]

Environment[edit] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
is outspoken in his concerns about environmental problems, frequently giving public talks on themes related to the environment. He has pointed out that many rivers in Asia originate in Tibet, and that the melting of Himalayan glaciers could affect the countries in which the rivers flow.[148] He acknowledged official Chinese laws against deforestation in Tibet, but lamented they can be ignored due to possible corruption.[149] He was quoted as saying "ecology should be part of our daily life";[150] personally, he takes showers instead of baths, and turns lights off when he leaves a room.[148] Around 2005, he started campaigning for wildlife conservation, including by issuing a religious ruling against wearing tiger and leopard skins as garments.[151][152] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
supports the anti-whaling position in the whaling controversy, but has criticized the activities of groups such as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (which carries out acts of what it calls aggressive nonviolence against property).[153] Before the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, he urged national leaders to put aside domestic concerns and take collective action against climate change.[154] Sexuality[edit] A monk since childhood, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has said that sex offers fleeting satisfaction and leads to trouble later, while chastity offers a better life and "more independence, more freedom".[155] He has observed that problems arising from conjugal life sometimes even lead to suicide or murder.[156] He has asserted that all religions have the same view about adultery.[157] In his discussions of the traditional Buddhist view on appropriate sexual behavior, he explains the concept of "right organ in the right object at the right time," which historically has been interpreted as indicating that oral, manual and anal sex (both homosexual and heterosexual) are not appropriate in Buddhism
Buddhism
or for Buddhists. However, he also says that in modern times all common, consensual sexual practices that do not cause harm to others are ethically acceptable and that society should accept and respect people who are gay or transgender from a secular point of view.[158] In a 1994 interview with OUT Magazine, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
clarified his personal opinion on the matter by saying, "If someone comes to me and asks whether homosexuality is okay or not, I will ask 'What is your companion's opinion?' If you both agree, then I think I would say, 'If two males or two females voluntarily agree to have mutual satisfaction without further implication of harming others, then it is okay.'"[159] However, when interviewed by Canadian TV news anchor Evan Solomon
Evan Solomon
on CBC News: Sunday about whether homosexuality is acceptable in Buddhism, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
responded that "it is sexual misconduct".[160] This was an echo of an earlier response in a 2004 The Vancouver Sun
The Vancouver Sun
interview when asked about homosexuality in Buddhism, where the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
replied "for a Buddhist, the same sex, that is sexual misconduct".[161] In his 1996 book Beyond Dogma, he described a traditional Buddhist definition of an appropriate sexual act as follows: "A sexual act is deemed proper when the couples use the organs intended for sexual intercourse and nothing else [...] Homosexuality, whether it is between men or between women, is not improper in itself. What is improper is the use of organs already defined as inappropriate for sexual contact."[162] He elaborated in 1997, explaining that the basis of that teaching was unknown to him. He also conveyed his own "willingness to consider the possibility that some of the teachings may be specific to a particular cultural and historic context".[163] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has expressed concern at "reports of violence and discrimination against gay, bisexual, and transgender people" and "urges respect, tolerance and the full recognition of human rights for all".[164] Women's rights[edit] See also: Women in Buddhism
Women in Buddhism
and Criticism of Buddhism
Buddhism
§ Women in Buddhism On gender equality and sexism, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
proclaimed at the National Civil Rights Museum
National Civil Rights Museum
in Memphis, Tennessee, in 2009: "I call myself a feminist. Isn't that what you call someone who fights for women's rights?" He also said that by nature, women are more compassionate "based on their biology and ability to nurture and birth children". He called on women to "lead and create a more compassionate world", citing the good works of nurses and mothers.[165] In 2007, he said that the next Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
could possibly be a woman, remarking "If a woman reveals herself as more useful the lama could very well be reincarnated in this form".[166] In 2015, he said in a BBC interview that if a female succeeded him, "that female must be attractive, otherwise it is not much use," and when asked if he was joking, replied, "No. True!" He followed with a joke about his current success being due to his own appearance.[167] Health[edit] In April 2013, at the Culture of Compassion event in Ebrington Square in Derry, Northern Ireland, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
asserted, stressing the importance of peace of mind: "Warm-heartedness is a key factor for healthy individuals, healthy families and healthy communities [...] Scientists say that a healthy mind is a major factor for a healthy body. If you're serious about your health, think and take most concern for your peace of mind. That's very, very important."[168] Retirement and succession plans[edit] On 29 May 2011, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
retired from the Central Tibetan Administration.[169] On 24 September 2011, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
issued the following statement concerning his reincarnation:

When I am about ninety I will consult the high Lamas of the Tibetan Buddhist traditions, the Tibetan public, and other concerned people who follow Tibetan Buddhism, and re-evaluate whether the institution of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
should continue or not. On that basis we will take a decision. If it is decided that the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama should continue and there is a need for the Fifteenth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to be recognized, responsibility for doing so will primarily rest on the concerned officers of the Dalai Lama’s Gaden Phodrang Trust. They should consult the various heads of the Tibetan Buddhist traditions and the reliable oath-bound Dharma Protectors who are linked inseparably to the lineage of the Dalai Lamas. They should seek advice and direction from these concerned beings and carry out the procedures of search and recognition in accordance with past tradition. I shall leave clear written instructions about this. Bear in mind that, apart from the reincarnation recognized through such legitimate methods, no recognition or acceptance should be given to a candidate chosen for political ends by anyone, including those in the People’s Republic of China.[170]

On 3 October 2011, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
repeated his statement in an interview with Canadian CTV News. He added that Chinese laws banning the selection of successors based on reincarnation will not impact his decisions. "Naturally my next life is entirely up to me. No one else. And also this is not a political matter," he said in the interview. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
also added that he was not decided on whether he would reincarnate or be the last Dalai Lama.[171] In an interview with the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag published on 7 September 2014 the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
stated "the institution of the Dalai Lama
Lama
has served its purpose", and that "We had a Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
for almost five centuries. The 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
now is very popular. Let us then finish with a popular Dalai Lama."[172] Gyatso has also expressed fear that the Chinese government would manipulate any reincarnation selection in order to choose a successor that would go along with their political goals.[173] In response the Chinese government implied that it would select another Dalai Lama regardless of his decision.[174] Controversies[edit] CIA Tibetan program[edit] Main article: CIA Tibetan program In October 1998, the Dalai Lama's administration acknowledged that it received $1.7 million a year in the 1960s from the U.S. government through the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA).[175] When asked by CIA officer John Kenneth Knaus in 1995 to comment on the CIA Tibetan program, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
replied that though it helped the morale of those resisting the Chinese, "thousands of lives were lost in the resistance" and further, that "the U.S. Government had involved itself in his country's affairs not to help Tibet
Tibet
but only as a Cold War tactic to challenge the Chinese."[176] In his autobiography Freedom in Exile, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
criticized the CIA again for supporting the Tibetan independence movement
Tibetan independence movement
"not because they (the CIA) cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments".[177] In 1999, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
said that the CIA Tibetan program had been harmful for Tibet
Tibet
because it was primarily aimed at serving American interests, and "once the American policy toward China
China
changed, they stopped their help."[178] Ties to India[edit]

Stone Plaque at a plantation by Tenzin in Amaravathi

The Chinese press has criticized the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
for his close ties with India. His 2010 remarks at the International Buddhist Conference in Gujarat
Gujarat
saying that he was "Tibetan in appearance, but an Indian in spirituality" and referral to himself as a "son of India" in particular led the People's Daily
People's Daily
to opine, "Since the Dalai Lama deems himself an Indian rather than Chinese, then why is he entitled to represent the voice of the Tibetan people?"[179] Dhundup Gyalpo of the Tibet
Tibet
Sun shot back that Tibetan religion could be traced back to Nalanda
Nalanda
in India, and that Tibetans have no connection to Chinese "apart... from a handful of culinary dishes".[180] The People's Daily stressed the links between Chinese Buddhism
Chinese Buddhism
and Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
and accused the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
of "betraying southern Tibet
Tibet
to India".[179] In 2008, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
said for the first time that the territory India claims as part of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
is part of India, citing the disputed 1914 Simla Accord.[181] Shugden controversy[edit] Main article: Dorje Shugden controversy The Dorje Shugden Controversy reappeared in the Gelug
Gelug
school by the publication of the Yellow Book in 1976, containing stories about wrathful acts of Dorje Shugden against Gelugpas who also practiced Nyingma
Nyingma
teachings. In response, the 14th Dalai Lama, a Gelugpa himself and advocate of an "inclusive" approach to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism,[182][183] started to speak out against the practice of Dorje Shugden in 1978.[184] The controversy has attracted attention in the West because of demonstrations held in 2008 and 2014 by Dorje Shugden practitioners. A 2015 Reuters
Reuters
investigation determined "that the religious sect behind the protests has the backing of the Communist
Communist
Party" and that the "group has emerged as an instrument in Beijing’s long campaign to undermine support for the Dalai Lama".[185] After the Reuters investigation revealed that China
China
backs it, the Shugden group halted operations and disbanded.[186] Public image[edit]

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in 2014

In a May 2013 Harris Poll of 7,245 adults across the five largest European countries and the United States, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was tied with President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
with the highest levels of popularity, 78%, of all world leaders.[187] Pope Francis
Pope Francis
was the only leader that came close to the two of them, and in the USA alone the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
topped the poll over Obama by 13 percentage points. The Dalai Lama's appeal is variously ascribed to his charismatic personality, international fascination with Buddhism, his universalist values, international sympathy for the Tibetans, and western sinophobia.[188] In the 1990s, many films were released by the American film industry about Tibet, including biopics of the Dalai Lama. This is attributed to both the Dalai Lama's 1989 Nobel Peace Prize as well as to the euphoria following the Fall of Communism. The most notable films, Kundun
Kundun
and Seven Years in Tibet
Tibet
(both released in 1997), portrayed "an idyllic pre-1950 Tibet, with a smiling, soft-spoken Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
at the helm – a Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
sworn to non-violence": portrayals the Chinese government decried as ahistorical.[189] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has his own pages on Twitter,[190] Facebook,[191] Instagram,[192] and Google Plus.[193]

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
meeting with Congressional leaders Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
and John Boehner
John Boehner
in 2011

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has tried to mobilize international support for Tibetan activities.[194] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has been successful in gaining Western support for himself and the cause of greater Tibetan autonomy or independence, including vocal support from numerous Hollywood celebrities, most notably the actors Richard Gere
Richard Gere
and Steven Seagal, as well as lawmakers from several major countries.[195] Photos of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
were banned after March 1959 Lhasa
Lhasa
protests until after the end of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
in 1976. In 1996 the Chinese Communist Party once again reinstated the total prohibition of any photo of the 14th Dalai Lama. According to the Tibet
Tibet
Information Network, "authorities in Tibet
Tibet
have begun banning photographs of the exiled Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in monasteries and public places, according to reports from a monitoring group and a Tibetan newspaper. Plainclothes police went to hotels and restaurants in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, on April 22 and 23 and ordered Tibetans to remove pictures of the Dalai Lama..."[196] The ban continues in many locations throughout Tibet today. In the media[edit] The 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has appeared in several non-fiction films including:

10 Questions for the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(2006, documentary) Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Renaissance (2007, documentary) The Sun Behind the Clouds
The Sun Behind the Clouds
(2010) Bringing Tibet
Tibet
Home (2013) Monk
Monk
with a Camera (2014, documentary) Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Awakening (2014) Compassion in Action (2014)

He has been depicted as a character in various other movies and television programs including:

Kundun, 1997 film directed by Martin Scorsese Seven Years in Tibet, 1997 film starring Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
and David Thewlis Klovn "Dalai Lama" Season 1, Episode 4 (2005) Red Dwarf
Red Dwarf
episode "Meltdown" (1991)[197] The Great Escape "14th Dalai Lama" (2018) on Epic (TV channel)

Two characters in the animation series' Avatar: The Last Airbender and The Legend of Korra
The Legend of Korra
were named after him. Avatar
Avatar
Aang's mentor Monk Gyatso (The Last Airbender) and Aang's youngest son Tenzin (The Legend of Korra). The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was featured on the March 5, 2017, episode of the HBO late-night talk show Last Week Tonight, in which host John Oliver conducted a comedic interview with the Dalai Lama, focusing on the topics of Tibetan sovereignty, Tibetan self-immolations, and his succession plans.[198][relevant? – discuss] Awards and honors[edit] Main article: Awards and honors presented to the 14th Dalai Lama

The Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
was awarded to Tenzin Gyatso in 2007

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
receiving a Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
in 2007. From left: Speaker of the United States
United States
House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, Senate President pro tempore Robert Byrd
Robert Byrd
and U.S. President George W. Bush

The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has received numerous awards over his spiritual and political career.[199] In 1959, he received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership.[200] On 16 June 1988 the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was awarded the Dr. Leopold Lucas Prize on behalf of the Protestant faculty of the University of Tübingen
University of Tübingen
by Professor Hans-Jürgen Hermisson who stated that the prize was awarded because of the Dalai Lama's important contribution to the promotion of dialogue between different religions and peoples as well as to his commitment to Tolerance and non-violence. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
donated the 50,000 DM prizefund to a German Charity active in Tibet.[201] After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize.[202] The Committee officially gave the prize to the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
for "the struggle of the liberation of Tibet
Tibet
and the efforts for a peaceful resolution"[203] and "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi"[204] although the President of the Committee also said that the prize was intended to put pressure on China,[205] which was reportedly infuriated that the award was given to a separatist.[202] In 1994, he received the Freedom Medal from the Roosevelt Institute.[206] On 28 May 2005, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
received the Christmas Humphreys
Christmas Humphreys
Award from the Buddhist Society
Buddhist Society
in the United Kingdom. On 22 June 2006, he became one of only six people ever to be recognised with Honorary Citizenship by the Governor General of Canada. In February 2007, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was named Presidential Distinguished Professor
Distinguished Professor
at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia; it was the first time that he accepted a university appointment.[207] The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was a 2007 recipient of the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by American lawmakers.[208] In 2012, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
was awarded the Templeton Prize.[209] He later donated the entire prize money to an Indian charity, Save the Children.[210] Publications[edit]

Deity Yoga: In Action and Performance Tantras. Ed. Trans. Jeffrey Hopkins. Snow Lion, 1987. ISBN 978-0-93793-850-8 Tantra in Tibet. Co-authored with Tsong-kha-pa, Jeffrey Hopkins. Snow Lion, 1987. ISBN 978-0-93793-849-2 The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
at Harvard. Ed. Trans. Jeffrey Hopkins. Snow Lion, 1988. ISBN 978-0-93793-871-3 Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama, London: Little, Brown and Co., 1990, ISBN 978-0-349-10462-1 My Tibet, co-authored with photographer Galen Rowell, 1990, ISBN 978-0-520-08948-8 The Path to Enlightenment. Ed. Trans. Glenn H. Mullin. Snow Lion, 1994. ISBN 978-1-55939-032-3 Essential Teachings, North Atlantic Books, 1995, ISBN 1556431929 The World of Tibetan Buddhism, translated by Geshe
Geshe
Thupten Jinpa, foreword by Richard Gere, Wisdom Publications, 1995, ISBN 0-86171-100-9 Tibetan Portrait: The Power of Compassion, photographs by Phil Borges with sayings by Tenzin Gyatso, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8478-1957-7 Healing Anger: The Power of Patience from a Buddhist Perspective. Trans. Thupten Jinpa. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion, 1997, ISBN 978-1-55939-073-6 The Gelug/Kagyü Tradition of Mahamudra, co-authored with Alexander Berzin. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, 1997, ISBN 978-1-55939-072-9 The Art of Happiness, co-authored with Howard C. Cutler, M.D., Riverhead Books, 1998, ISBN 978-0-9656682-9-3 The Good Heart: A Buddhist Perspective on the Teachings of Jesus, translated by Geshe
Geshe
Thupten Jinpa, Wisdom Publications, 1998, ISBN 978-0-86171-138-3 Kalachakra
Kalachakra
Tantra: Rite of Initiation, edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Wisdom Publications, 1999, ISBN 978-0-86171-151-2 MindScience: An East–West Dialogue, with contributions by Herbert Benson, Daniel Goleman, Robert Thurman, and Howard Gardner, Wisdom Publications, 1999, ISBN 978-0-86171-066-9 The Power of Buddhism, co-authored with Jean-Claude Carriere, 1999, ISBN 978-0-7171-2803-7 Opening the Eye of New Awareness, Translated by Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Wisdom Publications, 1999, ISBN 978-0-86171-155-0 Ethics for the New Millennium, Riverhead Books, 1999, ISBN 978-1-57322-883-1 Consciousness
Consciousness
at the Crossroads. Ed. Zara Houshmand, Robert B. Livingston, B. Alan Wallace. Trans. Thupten Jinpa, B. Alan Wallace. Snow Lion, 1999. ISBN 978-1-55939-127-6 Ancient Wisdom, Modern World: Ethics for the New Millennium, LIttle, Brown/Abacus Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-349-11443-9 Dzogchen: Heart Essence of the Great Perfection, translated by Geshe Thupten Jinpa
Thupten Jinpa
and Richard Barron, Snow Lion Publications, 2000, ISBN 978-1-55939-219-8 The Meaning of Life: Buddhist Perspectives on Cause and Effect, Translated by Jeffrey Hopkins, Wisdom Publications, 2000, ISBN 978-0-86171-173-4 Answers: Discussions with Western Buddhists. Ed. Trans. Jose Cabezon. Snow Lion, 2001. ISBN 978-1-55939-162-7 The Compassionate Life, Wisdom Publications, 2001, ISBN 978-0-86171-378-3 Violence and Compassion: Dialogues
Dialogues
on Life Today, with Jean-Claude Carriere, Doubleday, 2001, ISBN 978-0-385-50144-6 Imagine All the People: A Conversation with the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
on Money, Politics, and Life as it Could Be, Coauthored with Fabien Ouaki, Wisdom Publications, 2001, ISBN 978-0-86171-150-5 An Open Heart, edited by Nicholas Vreeland; Little, Brown; 2001, ISBN 978-0-316-98979-4 The Heart of Compassion: A Practical Approach to a Meaningful Life, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-940985-36-0 Sleeping, Dreaming, and Dying, edited by Francisco Varela, Wisdom Publications, 2002, ISBN 978-0-86171-123-9 Essence of the Heart Sutra: The Dalai Lama's Heart of Wisdom Teachings, edited by Geshe
Geshe
Thupten Jinpa, Wisdom Publications, 2002, ISBN 978-0-86171-284-7 The Pocket Dalai Lama. Ed. Mary Craig. Shambhala Pocket Classics, 2002. ISBN 978-1-59030-001-5 The Buddhism
Buddhism
of Tibet. Ed. Trans. Jeffrey Hopkins, Anne C. Klein. Snow Lion, 2002. ISBN 978-1-55939-185-6 The Art of Happiness
The Art of Happiness
at Work, co-authored with Howard C. Cutler, M.D., Riverhead, 2003, ISBN 978-1-59448-054-6 Stages of Meditation (commentary on the Bhāvanākrama). Trans. Ven. Geshe
Geshe
Lobsang Jordhen Losang Choephel Ganchenpa, Jeremy Russell. Snow Lion, 2003. ISBN 978-1-55939-197-9 Der Weg des Herzens. Gewaltlosigkeit und Dialog zwischen den Religionen (The Path of the Heart: Non-violence
Non-violence
and the Dialogue among Religions), co-authored with Eugen Drewermann, PhD, Patmos Verlag, 2003, ISBN 978-3-491-69078-3 The Path to Bliss. Ed. Trans. Thupten Jinpa, Christine Cox. Snow Lion, 2003. ISBN 978-1-55939-190-0 How to Practice: The Way to a Meaningful Life, translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7434-5336-3 The Wisdom of Forgiveness: Intimate Conversations and Journeys, coauthored with Victor Chan, Riverbed Books, 2004, ISBN 978-1-57322-277-8 The New Physics
Physics
and Cosmology: Dialogues
Dialogues
with the Dalai Lama, edited by Arthur Zajonc, with contributions by David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Tu Wei-ming, Anton Zeilinger, B. Alan Wallace and Thupten Jinpa, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-515994-3 Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great Perfection. Ed. Patrick Gaffney. Trans. Thupten Jinpa, Richard Barron (Chokyi Nyima). Snow Lion, 2004. ISBN 978-1-55939-219-8 Practicing Wisdom: The Perfection of Shantideva's Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Way, translated by Geshe
Geshe
Thupten Jinpa, Wisdom Publications, 2004, ISBN 978-0-86171-182-6 Lighting the Way. Snow Lion, 2005. ISBN 978-1-55939-228-0 The Universe in a Single Atom: The Convergence of Science and Spirituality, Morgan Road Books, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7679-2066-7 How to Expand Love: Widening the Circle of Loving Relationships, translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, Atria Books, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7432-6968-1 Living Wisdom with His Holiness the Dalai Lama, with Don Farber, Sounds True, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59179-457-8 Mind in Comfort and Ease: The Vision of Enlightenment in the Great Perfection. Ed. Patrick Gaffney. Trans. Matthieu Ricard, Richard Barron and Adam Pearcey. Wisdom Publications, 2007, ISBN 978-0-86171-493-3 How to See Yourself As You Really Are, translated and edited by Jeffrey Hopkins, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7432-9045-6 The Leader's Way, co-authored with Laurens van den Muyzenberg, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-1-85788-511-8 My Spiritual Autobiography compiled by Sofia Stril-Rever (Fr) from speeches and interviews of the 14th Dalai Lama, 2009, ISBN 9781846042423 Beyond Religion: Ethics for a Whole World, Mariner Books, 2012, ISBN 054784428X The Wisdom of Compassion: Stories of Remarkable Encounters and Timeless Insights, coauthored with Victor Chan, Riverhead Books, 2012, ISBN 978-0-55216923-3 My Appeal to the World, Presented by Sofia Stril-Rever, translated from the French by Sebastian Houssiaux, Tibet
Tibet
House US, 2015, ISBN 978-0-9670115-6-1 "The Book of Joy: Lasting Happiness in a Changing World", coauthored by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, 2016, ISBN 978-0-67007-016-9

See also[edit]

Tibet
Tibet
portal Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
portal People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
portal Biography portal

Tibetan Buddhism

Gelug

Dalai Lama Panchen Lama

History of Tibet
Tibet
(1950–present)

Protests and uprisings in Tibet
Tibet
since 1950 Central Tibetan Administration Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama

List of rulers of Tibet List of peace activists Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Center for Peace and Education Foundation for Universal Responsibility of His Holiness the Dalai Lama List of overseas visits by Tenzin Gyatso the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
outside India

Notes[edit]

^ /ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ (US) /ˌdælaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ (UK) ^ Tibetan: ལྷ་མོ་དོན་འགྲུབ།, Wylie: Lha-mo Don-'grub, ZYPY: Lhamo Tönzhub, Lhasa
Lhasa
dialect IPA: 9 l̥ámo tʰø̃ ̀ɖup; simplified Chinese: 拉莫顿珠; traditional Chinese: 拉莫頓珠; pinyin: Lāmò Dùnzhū ^ At the time of Tenzin Gyatso's birth, Taktser
Taktser
was a town located in the Chinese province of Tsinghai
Tsinghai
(Qinghai) and was controlled by Ma Lin, a warlord allied with Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and appointed as governor of Qinghai
Qinghai
Province by the Kuomintang.[7][8][9][10]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

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typhoon victims". The Sydney
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Visits Taiwan". 2 September 2009 – via www.wsj.com.  ^ "Overview". Campaign for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 2017-09-21.  ^ a b "Schedule". Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ "Browse webcasts – Teachings". Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ Kshipra Simon (21 July 2014). "His Holiness Dalai Lama
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World Peace Prayer in Ladakh". New Delhi, India: Demotix. Archived from the original (Photojournalism) on 3 July 2015.  ^ a b " Kalachakra
Kalachakra
Initiations by His Holiness the Dalai Lama". Office of Dalai Lama. Retrieved 19 May 2015. List of  ^ Antonia Blumberg (7 July 2014). " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Delivers Kalachakra Buddhist Teaching To Thousands Of Devotees". Huffington Post. Roughly 150,000 devotees reportedly converged for the event  ^ The Dalai Lama. "Books (on Buddhism) by the Dalai Lama". Various. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great Perfection". Shambala Publications. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ Dalai Lama
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XIV (1999). "The Ethic of Compassion.". Riverhead Books. pp. 123–31.  ^ a b c d "Schedule". World-wide: Office of Dalai Lama. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ "His Holiness the Dalai Lama
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in Brisbane". 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. The Dalai Lama’s Brisbane teaching will be based on the classic text, Nagarjuna’s 'Precious Garland'  ^ Donald S Lopez Jr. (24 April 2014). "Nagarjuna". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Jamyang Dorjee Chakrishar. "When Indian Pandit Kamalashila defeated China's Hashang in Tibet". Sherpa World. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
teaching Kamalashila text in Australia, 2008". Dalai Lama
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in Australia. 11 June 2008. by reference to Kamalashila's text, His Holiness the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
will demonstrate how the nature of awareness, developed through meditative practices can be transformed into the direct perceptual wisdom necessary to achieve enlightenment itself  ^ "Compassion in Emptiness: Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Teaches Shantideva" (DVD set). Oscilloscope. 7 May 2011. In 2010, His Holiness traveled to New York City to teach A Commentary on Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
by Nagarjuna and A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life by Shantideva.  ^ a b Phuntsok Yangchen (1 October 2012). "Disciples from over 60 countries attend the Dalai Lama's teachings". Phayul.com. The Dalai Lama
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today began his four-day teachings on Atisha’s [text] 'Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment'  ^ "The Dalai Lama's Boston teachings". Shambala Publications. 17 October 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Texts mentioned by His Holiness in his talk ... Aryadeva's 400 Stanzas of the Middle Way  ^ James Blumenthal, Ph.D (July 2012). "The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda
Nalanda
Monastery" (Online Magazine). FPMT. Retrieved 19 May 2015. he Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
frequently refers to himself as a follower of the lineage of the seventeen Nalanda
Nalanda
masters today  ^ "About the Seventeen Paṇḍitas of Nālandā". Bodhimarga. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2015. they came to shape the very meaning of Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and religious practice, both in India
India
and Tibet  ^ Dalai Lama
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(15 December 2001). "An invocation of the seventeen great sagely adepts of glorious Nalanda" (Poetry). Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron.  ^ HT Correspondent (7 March 2015). "Tibetan language must to keep Nalanda
Nalanda
tradition alive: Dalai Lama". Dharamsala: Hindustan Times. The unique quality of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
is that it is based on ancient India's Nalanda
Nalanda
Buddhist tradition  ^ "A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism". Lama
Lama
Yeshe Wisdom Archive. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Tseten Samdup (7 July 1996). "His Holiness the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
will visit the UK from July 15-22 1996". World Tibet
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Network News. For the first time in the West, His Holiness the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
will give two exclusive days of teaching on 17 and 18 July 1996 on the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
– the heart of the Buddha's teachings. This has been requested by The Network of Buddhist Organisations – a forum for dialogue and co-operation between Buddhist organisations in the UK.  ^ "Teachings". Office of Dalai Lama. Retrieved 3 May 2015. His Holiness has also been giving teachings in India
India
at the request of various Buddhist devotees from Taiwan
Taiwan
and Korea  ^ "ONLINE DONATION FACILITY IS AVAILABLE". Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in Australia. Retrieved 3 May 2015. Should there be any surplus funds from His Holiness' events, that surplus will be disbursed to charitable organizations under the advisement of His Holiness the Dalai Lama  ^ Michael Caddell (9 September 2014). "His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama
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to give public talk at Princeton University". Princeton University. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
will give a public talk, "Develop the Heart," at 9:30 a.m. at Jadwin Gymnasium. As a scholar and a monk, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
will highlight the importance of developing compassion and kindness, alongside the intellect, in an academic environment  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Visits Colgate". The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2008.  ^ "Lehigh University: His Holiness the Dalai Lama". .lehigh.edu. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "The Dalai Lama". umn.edu. Retrieved 9 May 2012.  ^ "His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama
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visits Macalester, speaks to over 3,500". The Mac Weekly. Retrieved 9 March 2014.  ^ "Public talks" (Video). Office of the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 19 May 2015.  ^ Kamenetz, Rodger (1994)The Jew in the Lotus Harper Collins: 1994. ^ " The Elijah Interfaith Institute – Buddhist Members of the Board of World Religious Leaders". Elijah-interfaith.org. 2006-12-24. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders". Elijah-interfaith.org. 7 April 2013. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
inaugurates 6-day world religions meet at Mahua". Indianexpress.com. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Canada Tibet
Tibet
Committee. " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to inaugurate inter-faith conference". Tibet.ca. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Islam and Buddhism". Islambuddhism.com. 2010-05-12. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "Dalai Lama, Muslim
Muslim
Leaders Seek Peace in Bloomington". Islambuddhism.com. 2010-05-31. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ Common Ground Between Islam and Buddhism. Louisville, KY.: Fons Vitae. 2010. ISBN 978-1-891785-62-7.  ^ a b c d Tenzin Gyatso (12 November 2005). "Our Faith in Science". New York Times. Science has always fascinated me  ^ Melissa Rice (3 October 2007). "Carl Sagan and the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
found deep connections in 1991–92 meetings, says Sagan's widow". Cormell University, Cornell Chronicle. The Dalai Lama, who has had a lifelong interest in science  ^ a b c James Kingsland (3 November 2014). " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
enlightens and enraptures contemplative scientists in Boston". Boston, USA: The Guardian. Asked how his interest in science originally developed he said he’d been fascinated by technology since childhood, recalling a clockwork toy British soldier with a gun that he played with for a few days before taking apart to see how it worked. He described how as a young man visiting China
China
he was excited to be shown around hydroelectric dams and metal smelting works  ^ a b c d "The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Western Science". Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ Bobbie L Kyle (28 March 2008). "10 Things You Didn't Know About the Dalai Lama". The U.S. News & World Report. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has an interest in machines, which he developed as a young boy. As a teenager he repaired a movie projector by himself, without its guide or any instructions. He has been known to say that he would have become an engineer if he hadn't been a monk  ^ Curt Newton (1 February 2004). "Meditation and the Brain". technologyreview.com. MIT Technology Review. The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
notes that both traditions encourage challenging dogma based on observation and analysis, and a willingness to revise views based on empirical evidence.  ^ Vincent Horn. "The Evolution of the Mind and Life Dialogues". Buddhist Geeks. Archived from the original (Podcast Interview, transcription) on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015. This week, Adam Engle, the business mastermind behind the Mind and Life Institute, joins us to discuss both the evolution of the project as well as its larger impact  ^ Begley, Sharon (2007). "1". Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain (2008 Paperback ed.). New York: Random House. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-345-47989-1.  ^ a b c d Begley, Sharon (2007). "1". Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain (2008 Paperback ed.). New York: Random House. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-0-345-47989-1.  ^ "Mission". Mind and Life Institute. Retrieved 6 May 2015. Mind and Life emerged in 1987 from a meeting of three visionaries: Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
— the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people and a global advocate for compassion; Adam Engle, a lawyer and entrepreneur; and Francisco Varela, a neuroscientist  ^ a b Vincent Horn. "The Evolution of the Mind and Life Dialogues". Buddhist Geeks. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ "Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
on the Sciences of Mind". Shambala. Retrieved 6 May 2015. a historic meeting that took place between several prominent Western scientists and the Dalai Lama  ^ "Past Dialogues". Mind and Life Institute. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Centre for Ethics and Transformative Values". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 7 May 2015. The Center focuses on the development of interdisciplinary research and programs in varied fields of knowledge, from science and technology to education and international relations  ^ "The Science and Clinical Applications of Meditation". Mind and Life XIII. 2005. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Johns Hopkins is one of the world's premier centers for scholarship, research and patient care  ^ "His Holiness the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to Give Special
Special
Presentation at Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. 20 April 2012.  ^ Tenzin Gyatso (12 November 2005). "Science at the Crossroads". Washington DC: Office of Dalai Lama. I am also grateful to the numerous eminent scientists with whom I have had the privilege of engaging in conversations through the auspices of the Mind and Life Institute which initiated the Mind and Life conferences that began in 1987 at my residence in Dharamsala, India. These dialogues have continued over the years and in fact the latest Mind and Life dialogue concluded here in Washington just this week.  ^ " Dialogues
Dialogues
with the Dalai Lama". Mind and Life Institute. Retrieved 6 May 2015. These Dialogues
Dialogues
will expand as Mind and Life grows to include Europe, Asia, and beyond  ^ a b "A 25 Years History of Accomplishment" (PDF). Mind and Life Institute. 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and Western Science". Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. he has led a campaign to introduce basic science education in Tibetan Buddhist monastic colleges and academic centers, and has encouraged Tibetan scholars to engage with science as a way of revitalizing the Tibetan philosophical tradition  ^ "Emory- Tibet
Tibet
Science Initiative receives $1 million grant from Dalai Lama
Lama
Trust". Georgia, USA: Emory University. 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. For more than 30 years I have been engaged in an ongoing exchange with scientists, exploring what modern scientific knowledge and time-honored science of mind embodied by the Tibetan tradition can bring to each other's understanding of reality  ^ "His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso Founding Patron, CCARE". Palo Alto, California: Stanford University School of Medicine. Retrieved 7 May 2015. He has been a strong supporter of the neurosciences for over two decades. His Holiness is a benefactor of CCARE having personally provided the largest sum he has ever given to scientific research  ^ "Our History". Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. In 1992, the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
personally challenged Dr. Davidson to investigate how well-being could be nurtured through the insights from neuroscience. His Holiness believes that "All humans have an innate desire to overcome suffering and find happiness." This launched a robust series of research studies and new discoveries have emerged about how the mind works and how well-being can be cultivated.  ^ Lama, Dalai (2005). The Universe in a Single Atom (First Large Print ed.). New York: Random House. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-375-72845-7.  ^ James Kingsland (3 November 2014). " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
enlightens and enraptures contemplative scientists in Boston". Boston, USA: The Guardian. He ... had long since abandoned Buddhist ideas about cosmology after reading about the findings of modern astronomers  ^ Lethe Guo (18 December 2013). "High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism and modern science". China
China
Tibet
Tibet
Online. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. crossover between Buddhism and science
Buddhism and science
has become a hot topic in the academic and cultural circles over the recent decades  ^ Gary Stivers Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
meets Idaho’s religious leaders, sunvalleyonline.com, 15 September 2005 ^ Claudia Dreifus (28 November 1993). "New York Times Interview with the Dalai Lama". New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2009.  ^ I'm messenger of India's ancient thoughts: Dalai Lama, I'm messenger of India's ancient thoughts: The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
– Hindustan Times, Dalai Lama
Lama
Story Page – USATODAY.com, Canada Tibet
Tibet
CommitteeNewsroomWTN "I'm messenger of India's ancient thoughts": Dalai Lama; 14 November 2009; Itanagar. Indian Express Newspaper; Hindustan Times Newspaper; PTI News; Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Quotes Page — USATODAY.com; Official website; Signs of change emanating within China: Dalai Lama; By Shoumojit Banerjee; 27 May 2010; The Hindu
Hindu
newspaper ^ Yeshe, Jamphel. "Address by His Holiness The XIV Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Of Tibet To the United Nations
United Nations
World Conference On Human Rights". Retrieved 10 October 2014.  ^ Bernton, Hal (15 May 2001). " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
urges students to shape the world". Archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Lila, Muhammad (22 April 2013). "International Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Pleads for Myanmar
Myanmar
Monks to End Violence Amid Damning Rights Report". ABC News. Dharamshala. Retrieved 19 June 2015.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
decries Buddhist attacks on Muslims in Myanmar". Reuters. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
presses Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi
over Rohingya migrants". BBC. 28 May 2015.  ^ "Universal Compassion Movement". Universalcompassion.org. 2010-11-25. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ Iyer 2008, p. 203. ^ "H.H. Dalai Lama". Shabkar.org. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ a b "The (Justifiably) Angry Marxist: An interview with the Dalai Lama". Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. Retrieved 6 September 2013.  ^ a b Of course the Dalai Lama's a Marxist by Ed Halliwell, The Guardian, June 20, 2011 ^ Catherine Phillips (15 January 2015). ‘I Am Marxist’ Says Dalai Lama. Newsweek. Retrieved 16 January 2015. ^ Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(2014-03-30). "Condolence Message from His Holiness the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
at the Passing Away of Baba Phuntsog Wangyal". Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(1999-09-27). "Long Trek to Exile For Tibet's Apostle". 154 (12). Time. Retrieved 29 August 2010.  ^ a b c " Tibet
Tibet
and China, Marxism, Nonviolence". Hhdl.dharmakara.net. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "'Marxist' Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
criticises capitalism". London: The Sunday Telegraph. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ a b Morgan, Joyce (2009-12-01). "Think global before local: Dalai Lama". The Sydney
Sydney
Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
bemoans deforestation of Tibet". Agence France-Presse. 2007-11-21. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "His Holiness the Dalai Lama's Address to the University at Buffalo". Archive.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Campaigns to End Wildlife Trade". ENS. 8 April 2005.  ^ Justin Huggler (18 February 2006). "Reports Fur Flies Over Tiger Plight". New Zealand Herald. [permanent dead link] ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Reminds Anti-Whaling Activists to Be Non-Violent". Tokyo. Environment News Service. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Perry, Michael (2009-11-30). " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
says climate change needs global action". Sydney. Reuters. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "Dalai Lama: Sex spells trouble". News24.com. 2008-11-28.  ^ Published: 5:18 pm GMT 29 November 2008 (29 November 2008). "Sexual intercourse spells trouble, says Dalai Lama". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
comments on Tiger Woods' scandal". FOX Sports. 2010-02-20. Retrieved 9 May 2010.  ^ " Buddhism
Buddhism
and homosexuality". www.religioustolerance.org.  ^ OUT Magazine
OUT Magazine
February/March 1994 ^ The Huffington Post, 07/13/09, Gay
Gay
Marriage: What Would Buddha Do?, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-shaheen/gay-marriage-what-would-b_b_230855.html ^ LifeSiteNews, 11/02/07/, The Dalai Lama, Like the Pope, Says Gay
Gay
Sex is "Sexual Misconduct", http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/archive/ldn/2007/nov/07110208 ^ Beyond Dogma by the Dalai Lama ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Urges 'Respect, Compassion, and Full Human Rights for All', including Gays". Conkin, Dennis. Bay Area Reporter, 19 June 1997. ^ Press Release in WORLD, 24/04/2006, HIS HOLINESS THE DALAI LAMA ISSUES STATEMENT IN SUPPORT OF HUMAN RIGHTS OF LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL AND TRANSGENDER PEOPLE, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Tamara Conniff: The Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Proclaims Himself a Feminist: Day Two of Peace and Music in Memphis". Huffingtonpost. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ Spencer, Richard (2007-12-07). " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
says successor could be a woman". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-11-19.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Says If Successor Is Female, She Must Be Very Attractive". Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
'Culture Of Compassion' Talk: Key To Good Health Is 'Peace Of Mind' (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. 2013-04-18. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "His Holiness the Dalai Lama's Remarks on Retirement – March 19th, 2011". 19 March 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2014.  ^ Statement of His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, on the Issue of His Reincarnation Archived 4 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Website
Website
of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
of Tibet 24 September 2011. ^ "CTV Exclusive: Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
will choose successor". CTV. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
says successor not required". Aljazeera. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.  ^ Religions in the modern world : traditions and transformations. Woodhead, Linda,, Partridge, Christopher H. (Christopher Hugh), 1961-, Kawanami, Hiroko, (Third edition ed.). Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 9780415858809. OCLC 916409066. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ " China
China
Will Make the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Reincarnate Whether He Likes It or Not". The Wire. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.  ^ "World News Briefs; Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Group Says It Got Money From C.I.A." The New York Times. 2 October 1998.  ^ William Blum (2006). Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower. Zed Books. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Mann, Jim (15 September 1998). "CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in '60s, Files Show". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved 8 September 2013. In his 1990 autobiography, 'Freedom in Exile', the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
explained that his two brothers made contact with the CIA during a trip to India in 1956. The CIA agreed to help, 'not because they cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all Communist
Communist
governments', the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
wrote.  ^ Jonathan Mirsky. "Tibet: The CIA's Cancelled War". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 3 November 2013.  ^ a b "A look at the Dalai Lama's ridiculous Indian heart". China Tibet
Tibet
Information Center. 2010-01-22. Retrieved 17 August 2010.  ^ Gyalpo, Dhundup (2010-02-09). "Why is the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
"son of India"?". Dharamshala: Tibet
Tibet
Sun. Retrieved 18 August 2010.  ^ "Tawang is part of India: Dalai Lama". TNN. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2008.  ^ Mills 2003. ^ Kay 2004. ^ Kay 2004, p. 47. ^ Lague, David. Mooney, Paul. and Lim, Benjamin Kang. (21 December 2015). " China
China
co-opts a Buddhist sect in global effort to smear Dalai Lama". Reuters. Retrieved 21 December 2015. ^ David Lague; Stephanie Nebehay (11 March 2016). "Buddhist group leading global anti- Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
protests disbands". Reuters. Geneva, Switzerland: Reuters. Retrieved 12 March 2016. The Buddhist group leading a global campaign of harassment against the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
has called off its demonstrations and disbanded, according to a statement on its website. The announcement comes after a Reuters
Reuters
investigation revealed in December that China’s ruling Communist
Communist
Party backs the Buddhist religious sect behind the protests that have confronted the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in almost every country he visits. Reuters
Reuters
found that the sect had become a key instrument in China’s campaign to discredit the Tibetan spiritual leader.  ^ Regina A. Corso (29 May 2013). "The Dalai Lama, President Obama and Pope Francis
Pope Francis
at Highest Levels of Popularity in U.S. and Five Largest European Countries". New York: Harris, A Nielsen Company.  ^ Anand, Dibyesh (2010-12-15). "The Next Dalai Lama: China
China
has a choice". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2010.  ^ Buckley, Michael (2006). Tibet
Tibet
(2 ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-84162-164-7. Retrieved 5 December 2010.  ^ "Dalai Lama". Twitter.com.  ^ "Dalai Lama". Facebook.com. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "Dalai Lama: Instagram". Retrieved 14 July 2015.  ^ "Dalai Lama". plus.google.com.  ^ Fisher, D., Shahghasemi, E. & Heisey, D. R. (2009). A Comparative Rhetorical Analysis
Analysis
of the 1 4th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. Midwest CIES 2009 Conference, Ohio, U.S.A. ^ Interview with CBC News, 16 April 2004 ^ "Photos Of Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Banned In Monasteries Across Tibet
Tibet
– tribunedigital-chicagotribune". 2016-03-22. Archived from the original on 2016-03-22. Retrieved 2017-07-28.  ^ ""Red Dwarf" Meltdown (TV Episode 1991)".  ^ LastWeekTonight (2017-03-05), Dalai Lama: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver
John Oliver
(HBO), retrieved 2017-09-07  ^ "List of awards". Replay.waybackmachine.org. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ "1959 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership – Dalai Lama". Replay.waybackmachine.org. 2009-01-05. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ https://www.tibet.de/fileadmin/pdf/tibu/1988/tibu007-1988-17-gk-tuebingen.pdf (in German) ^ a b Cherian, John (November 2010). "Not so noble". 27 (23). Frontline. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012.  ^ "Presentation Speech by Egil Aarvik, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
goes astray". China
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Internet Information Center. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 19 December 2010.  ^ "Four Freedoms Awards". Roosevelt Institute. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-23.  ^ " Dalai Lama
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named Emory distinguished professor". News.emory.edu. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.  ^ Knowlton, Brian (18 October 2007). "Bush and Congress Honor Dalai Lama". nytimes.com. Retrieved 9 January 2013.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Wins 2012 Templeton Prize". Philanthropy News Daily. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.  ^ " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
gives Templeton Prize
Templeton Prize
money to Indian charity". 14 May 2010. 

Sources[edit]

Craig, Mary. Kundun: A Biography of the Family of the Dalai Lama (1997) Counterpoint. Calcutta. ISBN 978-1-887178-64-8 Bell, Sir Charles (1946). Portrait of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Wm. Collins, London, 1st edition. (1987) Wisdom Publications, London. ISBN 086171055X Iyer, Pico. The Open Road: The Global Journey of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama
Lama
(2008) Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-38755-4 Knaus, Robert Kenneth. Orphans of the Cold War: America and the Tibetan Struggle for Survival (1999) PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-891620-18-8 Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet : Conversations with the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(1st ed.). New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1.  Mullin, Glenn H. (2001). The Fourteen Dalai Lamas: A Sacred Legacy of Reincarnation, pp. 452–515. Clear Light Publishers. Santa Fe, New Mexico. ISBN 978-1-57416-092-5. Richardson, Hugh E. (1984). Tibet
Tibet
& Its History. 1st edition 1962. 2nd edition, Revised and Updated. Shambhala Publications, Boston. ISBN 978-0-87773-376-8 (pbk). Shakya, Tsering. The Dragon In The Land Of Snows (1999) Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11814-9 United States. Congressional-Executive Commission on China. The Dalai Lama: What He Means for Tibetans Today: Roundtable before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, 13 July 2011. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 2012.

External links[edit]

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Official website Collection of speeches and letters H.H. the Fourteenth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Tenzin Gyatso – at Rigpa Wiki A film clip " Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Greeted By Nehru, Again Blasts Reds, 1959/04/30 (1959)" is available at the Internet Archive Photographs of the Dalai Lama's visit to UC Santa Cruz, October 1979 from the UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections Appearances on C-SPAN

14th Dalai Lama Dalai Lama Born: 6 July 1935

Buddhist titles

Preceded by Thubten Gyatso Dalai Lama 1935–present Recognised in 1937; enthroned in 1940 Incumbent Heir: 15th Dalai Lama

Political offices

Preceded by Ngawang Sungrab Thutob Regent Ruler of Tibet 1950–1959 Part of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
from 1951 Position abolished

New office Head of state
Head of state
of the Central Tibetan Administration 1959–2012 Succeeded by Lobsang Sangay as Sikyong

Awards and achievements

Preceded by United Nations Peacekeeping Forces Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 1989 Succeeded by Mikhail Gorbachev

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The 14th Dalai Lama

Books

Ancient Wisdom, Modern World: Ethics for the new Millennium The Art of Happiness Essential Teachings Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama How to See Yourself As You Really Are My Land and My People An Open Heart The Power of Buddhism The Universe in a Single Atom The World of Tibetan Buddhism Beyond Religion: Ethics for a Whole World The Book of Joy

Organized vision

Foundation for Universal Responsibility of His Holiness the Dalai Lama Library of Tibetan Works and Archives Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Center for Peace and Education

Family

Thubten Jigme Norbu
Thubten Jigme Norbu
(brother) Jetsun Pema (sister)

Related

Thupten Jinpa
Thupten Jinpa
(translator) Recognition Travels Seven Years in Tibet
Tibet
(1997 film) Kundun
Kundun
(1997 film) 10 Questions for the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(2006 documentary) Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Renaissance (2007 documentary) The Sun Behind the Clouds
The Sun Behind the Clouds
(2010 documentary Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Awakening (2014 documentary) Compassion in Action (2014 documentary)

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Dalai Lamas

Gendun Drup Gendun Gyatso Sonam Gyatso Yonten Gyatso Lozang Gyatso Tsangyang Gyatso Kelzang Gyatso Jamphel Gyatso Lungtok Gyatso Tsultrim Gyatso Khedrup Gyatso Trinley Gyatso Thubten Gyatso Tenzin Gyatso

List of Dalai Lamas Gelug
Gelug
Yellow Hat sect Ganden Phodrang Potala
Potala
Palace Norbulingka

v t e

Political leaders of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region

CPC Secretaries

Zhang Guohua Fan Ming Zhang Jingwu Zhang Guohua Ren Rong Yin Fatang Wu Jinghua Hu Jintao Chen Kuiyuan Guo Jinlong Yang Chuantang Zhang Qingli Chen Quanguo Wu Yingjie

Congress Chairmen

Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Yang Dongsheng Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Raidi Legqog Qiangba Puncog Padma Choling Losang Jamcan

Government Chairmen

Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(Preparatory Committee) Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
(Preparatory Committee, acting) Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme
Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme
(People's Committee) Zeng Yongya (Revolutionary Committee) Ren Rong (Revolutionary Committee) Sanggyai Yexe Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Doje Cedain Gyaincain Norbu Legqog Qiangba Puncog Padma Choling Losang Jamcan Che Dalha

CPPCC Chairmen

Tan Guansan Zhang Guohua Ren Rong Yin Fatang Yangling Dorje Raidi Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai

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Vice Chairpersons of the National People's Congress
National People's Congress
Standing Committee

1st (1954–1959)

Soong Ching-ling Lin Boqu Li Jishen Zhang Lan Luo Ronghuan Shen Junru Guo Moruo Huang Yanpei Peng Zhen Li Weihan Chen Shutong Tenzin Gyatso, Dalai Lama Saifuddin Azizi Cheng Qian
Cheng Qian
(alternate)

2nd (1959–1964)

Lin Boqu Li Jishen Luo Ronghuan Shen Junru Guo Moruo Huang Yanpei Peng Zhen Li Weihan Chen Shutong Tenzin Gyatso, Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(removed from office) Saifuddin Azizi Cheng Qian Choekyi Gyaltsen, Panchen Erdeni (removed from office) He Xiangning Liu Bocheng Lin Feng

3rd (1964–1975)

Peng Zhen Liu Bocheng Li Jingquan Kang Sheng Guo Moruo He Xiangning Huang Yanpei Chen Shutong Li Xuefeng Xu Xiangqian Yang Mingxuan Cheng Qian Saifuddin Azizi Lin Feng Liu Ningyi (secretary-general) Zhang Zhizhong Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Zhou Jianren

4th (1975–1978)

Dong Biwu Soong Ching-ling Kang Sheng Liu Bocheng Wu De Wei Guoqing Saifuddin Azizi Guo Moruo Xu Xiangqian Nie Rongzhen Chen Yun Tan Zhenlin Li Jingquan Zhang Dingcheng Cai Chang Ulanhu Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Zhou Jianren Xu Deheng Hu Juewen Li Suwen Yao Lianwei Deng Yingchao
Deng Yingchao
(alternate)

5th (1978–1983)

Soong Ching-ling Nie Rongzhen (resigned) Liu Bocheng
Liu Bocheng
(resigned) Ulanhu Wu De (resigned) Wei Guoqing Chen Yun Guo Moruo Tan Zhenlin Li Jingquan Zhang Dingcheng
Zhang Dingcheng
(resigned) Cai Chang
Cai Chang
(resigned) Deng Yingchao Saifuddin Azizi Liao Chengzhi Ji Pengfei
Ji Pengfei
(resigned) Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Zhou Jianren (resigned) Xu Deheng Hu Juewen Peng Zhen Xiao Jinguang
Xiao Jinguang
(alternate) Zhu Yunshan (alternate) Shi Liang
Shi Liang
(alternate) Peng Chong (alternate) Xi Zhongxun
Xi Zhongxun
(alternate) Su Yu
Su Yu
(alternate) Yang Shangkun
Yang Shangkun
(alternate) Choekyi Gyaltsen, Panchen Erdeni (alternate) Zhu Xuefan (alternate)

6th (1983–1988)

Chen Pixian Wei Guoqing Geng Biao Hu Juewen Xu Deheng Peng Chong Wang Renzhong Shi Liang Zhu Xuefan Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Choekyi Gyaltsen, Panchen Erdeni Saifuddin Azizi Zhou Gucheng Yan Jici Hu Yuzhi Rong Yiren Ye Fei Liao Hansheng Han Xianchu Huang Hua Chu Tunan (supplemental)

7th (1988–1993)

Xi Zhongxun Ulanhu Peng Chong Wei Guoqing Zhu Xuefan Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme Choekyi Gyaltsen, Panchen Erdeni Saifuddin Azizi Zhou Gucheng Yan Jici Rong Yiren Ye Fei Liao Hansheng Ni Zhifu Chen Muhua Fei Xiaotong Sun Qimeng Lei Jieqiong Wang Hanbin

8th (1993–1998)

Tian Jiyun Wang Hanbin Ni Zhifu Chen Muhua Fei Xiaotong Sun Qimeng Lei Jieqiong Qin Jiwei Li Ximing Wang Bingqian Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai Wang Guangying Cheng Siyuan Lu Jiaxi Buhe Tömür Dawamat Wu Jieping Gan Ku Li Peiyao (killed)

9th (1998–2003)

Tian Jiyun Xie Fei Jiang Chunyun Zou Jiahua Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai Wang Guangying Cheng Siyuan Buhe Tömür Dawamat Wu Jieping Peng Peiyun He Luli Zhou Guangzhao Cao Zhi Ding Shisun Cheng Siwei Xu Jialu Jiang Zhenghua Cheng Kejie (removed from office)

10th (2003–2008)

Wang Zhaoguo Li Tieying Ismail Amat He Luli Ding Shisun Cheng Siwei Xu Jialu Jiang Zhenghua Gu Xiulian Raidi Sheng Huaren Lu Yongxiang Uyunqimg Han Qide Michael Fu Tieshan

11th (2008–2013)

Wang Zhaoguo Lu Yongxiang Uyunqimg Han Qide Hua Jianmin Chen Zhili Zhou Tienong Li Jianguo Ismail Tiliwaldi Jiang Shusheng Chen Changzhi Yan Junqi Sang Guowei

12th (2013–2018)

Li Jianguo Wang Shengjun Chen Changzhi Yan Junqi Wang Chen (secretary-general) Shen Yueyue Ji Bingxuan Zhang Ping Qiangba Puncog Arken Imirbaki Wan Exiang Zhang Baowen Chen Zhu

13th (2018–2023)

Wang Chen Cao Jianming Zhang Chunxian Shen Yueyue Ji Bingxuan Arken Imirbaki Wan Exiang Chen Zhu Wang Dongming Padma Choling Ding Zhongli Hao Mingjin Cai Dafeng Wu Weihua

v t e

Nobel laureates of the People's Republic of China

Peace

14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(1989) Liu Xiaobo
Liu Xiaobo
(2010)

Literature

Mo Yan
Mo Yan
(2012)

Physiology or Medicine

Tu Youyou
Tu Youyou
(2015)

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Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Templeton Prize
Templeton Prize
laureates

1970s

Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
(1973) Brother Roger
Brother Roger
(1974) Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(1975) Leo Josef Suenens (1976) Chiara Lubich
Chiara Lubich
(1977) Thomas F. Torrance
Thomas F. Torrance
(1978) Nikkyō Niwano
Nikkyō Niwano
(1979)

1980s

Ralph Wendell Burhoe (1980) Cicely Saunders (1981) Billy Graham
Billy Graham
(1982) Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
(1983) Michael Bourdeaux (1984) Alister Hardy
Alister Hardy
(1985) James I. McCord (1986) Stanley Jaki
Stanley Jaki
(1987) Inamullah Khan (1988) Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker
& George MacLeod
George MacLeod
(1989)

1990s

Baba Amte
Baba Amte
& Charles Birch (1990) Immanuel Jakobovits (1991) Kyung-Chik Han (1992) Charles Colson
Charles Colson
(1993) Michael Novak (1994) Paul Davies
Paul Davies
(1995) Bill Bright (1996) Pandurang Shastri Athavale
Pandurang Shastri Athavale
(1997) Sigmund Sternberg (1998) Ian Barbour (1999)

2000s

Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
(2000) Arthur Peacocke (2001) John Polkinghorne
John Polkinghorne
(2002) Holmes Rolston III
Holmes Rolston III
(2003) George F. R. Ellis
George F. R. Ellis
(2004) Charles H. Townes
Charles H. Townes
(2005) John D. Barrow (2006) Charles Taylor (2007) Michał Heller
Michał Heller
(2008) Bernard d'Espagnat (2009)

2010s

Francisco J. Ayala
Francisco J. Ayala
(2010) Martin Rees
Martin Rees
(2011) 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
(2012) Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
(2013) Tomáš Halík
Tomáš Halík
(2014) Jean Vanier
Jean Vanier
(2015) Jonathan Sacks
Jonathan Sacks
(2016) Alvin Plantinga
Alvin Plantinga
(2017)

v t e

Ramon Magsaysay Award recipients

Government Service (1958–2008)

 Cambodia

Ek Sonn Chan

 China

Yuan Longping

 India

C.D. Deshmukh J. M. Lyngdoh

 Indonesia

Raden Kodijat Ali Sadikin

 Japan

Morihiko Hiramatsu Hiroshi Kuroki Yukiharu Miki

 Laos

Keo Viphakone

 Malaysia

Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim B. C. Shekhar

 Pakistan

Akhtar Hameed Khan

 Philippines

Jose Vasquez Aguilar Francisca Reyes-Aquino Hilario Davide, Jr. Grace Padaca Jesse Robredo Jovito R. Salonga Miriam Defensor Santiago Haydee Yorac

 Singapore

Goh Keng Swee

 Thailand

Anand Panyarachun Chamlong Srimuang Jon Ungphakorn Phon Sangsingkeo Prawase Wasi Puey Ungpakorn

 Taiwan

Shih-chu Hsu Kwoh-Ting Li Jiang Menglin

Public Service (1958–2008)

 Burma

Tee Tee Luce

 Ceylon

Mary H. Rutnam

 China

Gao Yaojie Jiang Yanyong Liang Congjie Wu Qing

 India

Baba Amte Banoo Jehangir Coyaji Manibhai Desai Jayaprakash Narayan V. Shanta

 Indonesia

H.B. Jassin Teten Masduki

 Pakistan

Ruth Pfau

 Philippines

Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Mutually Reinforcing Institutions (CARD MRI)

 South Korea

Kim Sun-tae Park Won-soon

 Spain based in  Philippines

Joaquin Villalonga

 Thailand

Fua Hariphitak Mechai Viravaidya Nilawan Pintong Phra Parnchand Prateep Ungsongtham Hata Sirindhorn Sithiporn Kridakara Sophon Suphapong Therdchai Jivacate Thongbai Thongpao

Community Leadership (1958–2008)

 Bangladesh

Tahrunessa Abdullah Fazle Hasan Abed Muhammad Yunus Zafrullah Chowdhury Mohammed Yeasin Angela Gomes

 Burma

Cynthia Maung

 India

Mandakini Amte & Prakash Amte Mabelle Arole & Rajanikant Arole Pandurang Shastri Athavale Chandi_Prasad_Bhatt Ela Bhatt Vinoba Bhave Aruna Roy Shantha Sinha Rajendra Singh

 Japan

Fusaye Ichikawa

 Laos

Sombath Somphone

 Malaysia

Tunku Abdul Rahman

   Nepal

Mahabir Pun

 Philippines

Gawad Kalinga Community Development Foundation Antonio Meloto

 Thailand

Aree Valyasevi Krasae Chanawongse Prayong Ronnarong

 Tibet

14th Dalai Lama

Journalism, Literature, and the Creative Communication Arts (1958–2008)

 Bangladesh

Matiur Rahman Abdullah Abu Sayeed

 Burma

Edward Michael Law-Yone

 Ceylon or  Sri Lanka

Wannakuwatta Amaradeva Tarzie Vittachi

 India

Mahasweta_Devi Palagummi Sainath Amitabha_Chowdhury

 Indonesia

Atmakusuma Astraatmadja Mochtar Lubis

 Japan

Akira Kurosawa Yasuji Hanamori Michiko Ishimure Akio Ishii

   Nepal

Bharat Koirala

 Philippines

Zacarias Sarian F. Sionil José Lino Brocka Radio Veritas James Reuter Bienvenido Lumbera Nick Joaquin Raul Locsin Eugenia Duran Apostol Sheila Coronel

 Thailand

Prayoon Chanyavongs

 Great Britain based in  Philippines

Robert McCulloch Dick

Peace and International Understanding (1958–2008)

 China

Tang Xiyang

 India

Mother Teresa Jockin Arputham Laxminarayan Ramdas

 Indonesia

Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif

 Japan

Ikuo Hirayama Tetsu Nakamura Saburo Okita Seiei Toyama

   Nepal

Sanduk Ruit

 Pakistan

Ibn Abdur Rehman

 Philippines

Operation Brotherhood Summer Institute of Linguistics William Masterson Harold Ray Watson International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Press Foundation of Asia Asian Institute of Management Corazon Aquino

 South Korea

Pomnyun
Pomnyun
Sunim

 Thailand

Asian Institute of Technology The Royal Project

 United States based in  Thailand

Genevieve Caulfield

Emergent Leadership (2001–)

 Burma

Ka Hsaw Wa

 China

Chen Guangcheng

 Cambodia

Oung Chanthol

 India

Sanjiv_Chaturvedi Arvind Kejriwal Nileema Mishra Sandeep Pandey

 Indonesia

Ambrosius Ruwindrijarto Dita Indah Sari

 Philippines

Benjamin Abadiano

 South Korea

Yoon Hye-ran

 Sri Lanka

Ananda Galappatti

 Timor-Leste

Aniceto Guterres Lopes

 United States based in  Hong Kong

Chung To

Uncategorized (2009–)

 Bangladesh

Syeda Rizwana Hasan A.H.M. Noman Khan

 Cambodia

Yang Saing Koma Koul Panha

 China

Fu Qiping Huo Daishan Ma Jun Pan Yue Yu Xiaogang

 India

Kulandei Francis Harish Hande Deep Joshi

 Indonesia

Hasanain Juaini Tri Mumpuni

 Japan

Tadatoshi Akiba

 Philippines

Alternative Indigenous Development Foundation, Inc. (AIDFI) Christopher Bernido Ma. Victoria Carpio-Bernido Romulo Davide Antonio Oposa Jr.

 Taiwan

Chen Shu-chu

 Thailand

Krisana Kraisintu

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 38242123 LCCN: n80079447 ISNI: 0000 0001 2128 5920 GND: 118523449 SELIBR: 176387 SUDOC: 029077818 BNF: cb12077841c (data) BIBSYS: 90293815 MusicBrainz: 4f3dea40-1b06-4ace-9e19-8844392fa1b0 NLA: 36563331 NDL: 00451263 NKC: jn19981000345 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV16044 BNE: XX1015812 SN

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