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Year 1158 ( MCLVIII) was a
common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a lunisolar calendar, a month) added to keep th ...
(link will display the full calendar) of the
Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Roman consul Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on , by edict. It was designed with the aid of Greek mathematics, Greek mathematicians and Ancient Greek astronomy, as ...
.


Events


By place


Byzantine Empire

* Autumn – Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos) sets out from
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsargrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qustantiniya (Arabic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopo ...
at the head of an expeditionary army. He marches to Cillicia; and while the main army follows the coast road eastwards – Manuel hurries ahead with a force of only 500 cavalry. He manages to surprise King Thoros II (the Great), who has participated in the attack on
Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country located south of the Anatolian Peninsula in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its continental position is disputed; while it is geo ...
(see 1156). Thoros flees into the mountains and Cilicia is occupied by the Byzantines.


Europe

*
January 11 Events Pre-1600 * 532 – Nika riots in Constantinople: A quarrel between supporters of different Chariot racing, chariot teams—the Blues and the Greens—in the Hippodrome of Constantinople, Hippodrome escalates into violence. * 630 &nd ...
Vladislav II becomes king of
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area consisting of the historical Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by the List o ...
. He is crowned by Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) with a
diadem A diadem is a type of Crown (headgear), crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. Overview The word derives from the Ancient Greek, Greek διάδημα ''diádēma'', "band" or "fillet", fr ...
(called by the chroniclers a ''diadema'' or ''circulus''). Vladislaus is also invested with
Upper Lusatia Upper Lusatia (german: Oberlausitz ; hsb, Hornja Łužica ; dsb, Górna Łužyca; szl, Gōrnŏ Łużyca; pl, Łużyce Górne or ''Milsko''; cz, Horní Lužice) is a historical region in Germany and Poland. Along with Lower Lusatia to the ...
, and accompanies Frederick to
Milan Milan ( , , Lombard language, Lombard: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4  ...
to suppress the rebellion in
Lombardy Lombardy ( it, Lombardia, Lombard language, Lombard: ''Lombardia'' or ''Lumbardia' '') is an administrative regions of Italy, region of Italy that covers ; it is located in the northern-central part of the country and has a population of about 10 ...
(Northern
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and its territory largely coincides with the Italy (geographical region) ...
). * The Diet of Roncaglia is convoked by Frederick I. He mobilises an army of 100,000 men and leaves in June for a second Italian expedition – accompanied by
Henry the Lion Henry the Lion (german: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty who ruled as the duke of Saxony and duke of Bavaria, Bavaria from 1142 and 1156, respectively, until 1180. Henry was one of the most po ...
and his Saxon forces. He crosses the
Alps The Alps () ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps ; sl, Alpe . are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across seven Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Swi ...
and lays
siege A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition warfare, attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity con ...
to Milan. German forces capture the city from the rebels after a short siege. However Milan soon rebels again, with Empress Beatrice taken captive and forced into parading on a donkey. * Raymond of Fitero, Spanish monk and
abbot ''Abbot'' is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various Western religious traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The ...
, pledges to defend the fortress of Calatrava (guarding the roads to Córdoba and Toledo) from incoming Muslim raiders. It is the founding moment of the
Order of Calatrava The Order of Calatrava ( es, Orden de Calatrava, pt, Ordem de Calatrava) was one of the Spanish military orders, four Spanish military orders and the first Military order (society), military order founded in Kingdom of Castile, Castile, but the s ...
, the spearhead of the Iberian armies during the
Reconquista The ' (Spanish language, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese and Galician language, Galician for "reconquest") is a Historiography, historiographical construction describing the 781-year period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula be ...
. *
August 31 Events Pre-1600 * 1056 – After a sudden illness a few days previously, Byzantine Empress Theodora dies childless, thus ending the Macedonian dynasty The Macedonian dynasty (Greek language, Greek: Μακεδονική Δυναστε ...
– King Sancho III (the Desired) dies after a 1-year reign. He is succeeded by his 2-year-old son
Alfonso VIII Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (''El Noble'') or the one of Las Navas (''el de las Navas''), was King of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom and Crown of Castile. For ...
(the Noble) as ruler of Castile. The noble houses of Lara and Castro claim the regency, as the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II (ruler of León and Galicia). * Portuguese forces, led by King Afonso I (the Great), conquer Pamela, Alcácer do Sal and
Sesimbra Sesimbra () is a municipality of Portugal, in the Setúbal District, lying at the foothills of the ''Serra da Arrábida'', a mountain range between Setúbal and Sesimbra. Due to its particular position at the Península de Setúbal, Setúbal Bay, n ...
from the diminished
Almoravids The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslims, Muslim dynasty centered in the territory of present-day Morocco. It established an empire in the 11 ...
.


England

* Summer – King Henry II travels to
France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
to meet King
Louis VII Louis VII (1120 – 18 September 1180), called the Younger, or the Young (french: link=no, le Jeune), was List of French monarchs, King of the Franks from 1137 to 1180. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, Louis VI (hence t ...
and propose a marriage between his three-year-old son Henry and Louis' daughter
Margaret Margaret is a female first name, derived via French () and Latin () from grc, μαργαρίτης () meaning "pearl". The Greek is borrowed from Indo-Iranian languages, Persian. Margaret has been an English name since the 11th century, and r ...
(less than a year old). She is shipped to
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separa ...
, as the future wife and queen. The
Vexin Vexin () is an historical county of northwestern France. It covers a verdant plateau on the right bank (north) of the Seine The Seine ( , ) is a river in northern France. Its drainage basin is in the Paris Basin (a geological relative lowlan ...
region is promised to Margaret as
dowry A dowry is a payment, such as property or money, paid by the bride's family to the groom or his family at the time of marriage. Dowry contrasts with the related concepts of bride price and dower. While bride price or bride service is a paymen ...
and is put under the care of the
Knights Templar The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon ( la, Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order, o ...
, until her future husband is old enough to take control of it.''King John'' by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 27. * The 12-year-old
William Marshal William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke (1146 or 1147 – 14 May 1219), also called William the Marshal (Anglo-Norman language, Norman French: ', French language, French: '), was an Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman. He served five ...
is sent to the Château de Tancarville in
Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie, Nouormandie ; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical and cultural region in Northwestern ...
to be brought up in the household of William the Tancarville, a cousin of William's mother. He begins his training as a knight, this also includes academic studies, practical lessons in chivalry and courtly life, and warfare and combat (using wooden swords and spears). * Welsh forces under Ifor Bach (Ivor the Short) attack
Cardiff Castle Cardiff Castle ( cy, Castell Caerdydd) is a medieval castle and Victorian architecture, Victorian Gothic revival mansion located in the Cardiff city centre, city centre of Cardiff, Wales. The original motte and bailey castle was built in the l ...
and kidnap William Fitz Robert, Norman lord of
Glamorgan , HQ = Cardiff , Government = Glamorgan County Council (1889–1974) , Origin= , Code = GLA , CodeName = Chapman code , Replace = * West Glamorgan * Mid Glamorgan * South Glamorgan , Mo ...
, along with his family.


Asia

*
September 5 Events Pre-1600 * 917 – Liu Yan (emperor), Liu Yan declares himself emperor, establishing the Southern Han state in southern China, at his capital of Panyu. *1367 – Swa Saw Ke becomes king of Ava Kingdom, Ava *1590 – Alexande ...
– Emperor Go-Shirakawa abdicates the throne after a 3-year reign. He is succeeded by his 15-year-old son Nijō as the 77th emperor of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north ...
. Go-Shirakawa retains power, and gives Kiyomori Taira a higher position to lead a
samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century until their abolition in 1876. They were the well-paid retai ...
-dominated government.


By topic


Economy

* The English
Pound Sterling Sterling (abbreviation: stg; Other spelling styles, such as STG and Stg, are also seen. ISO code: GBP) is the currency of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United King ...
(
currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, Wikt:currens, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" is a standardization of money in any form, in use or currency in circulation, circulation as a medium of exchange, for example ba ...
) is introduced.


Education

* The
University of Bologna The University of Bologna ( it, Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a Public university, public research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (''studiorum''), it is the List of old ...
is granted its first privileges by Frederick I.


Religion

* The Diocese of Derry is founded in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, in Northwestern Europe, north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Grea ...
.


Births

*
August 6 Events Pre-1600 *1284 – The Republic of Pisa is defeated in the Battle of Meloria (1284), Battle of Meloria by the Republic of Genoa, thus losing its naval dominance in the Mediterranean. *1538 – Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Go ...
Al-Nasir li-Din Allah, Abbasid caliph (d.
1225 Year 1225 ( MCCXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or ...
) *
September 23 Events Pre-1600 * 38 – Drusilla, Caligula's sister who died in June, with whom the emperor is said to have an incestuous relationship, is deified. * 1122 – Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree to the Concord ...
Geoffrey II, duke of
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula, historical country and cultural area in the west of modern France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country pri ...
(d. 1186) * Albert I (the Proud), margrave of
Meissen Meissen (in German orthography: ''Meißen'', ) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Repub ...
(d. 1195) *
Baldwin of Bethune Baldwin is a Germanic name, composed of the elements ''bald'' "bold" and ''win'' "friend". People * Baldwin (name) Places Canada * Baldwin, York Regional Municipality, Ontario * Baldwin, Ontario, in Sudbury District * Baldwin's Mills, Que ...
, French
nobleman Nobility is a social class A social class is a grouping of people into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes. Membership in a social class can for example be dependent on ...
(d. 1212) * Ermengol VIII (or Armengol), count of
Urgell Modern-day Urgell (), also known as ''Baix Urgell'' (''baix'' meaning "lower", by contrast with Alt Urgell "Higher Urgell"), is a Comarques of Catalonia, ''comarca'' (county) in Catalonia, Spain, forming only a borderland portion of the region hi ...
(d. 1208) * Fujiwara no Ietaka, Japanese ('' waka'') poet (d. 1237) * Giordano Forzatè, Italian religious leader (d. 1248) * Henry I, French nobleman and knight (d. 1190) * Henry I (the Elder), German nobleman (d. 1223) * Jinul (or Chinul), Korean
Zen Master Zen master is a somewhat vague English term that arose in the first half of the 20th century, sometimes used to refer to an individual who teaches Zen Buddhist meditation Meditation is a practice in which an individual uses a technique ...
(d. 1210) * Margaret of France, daughter of
Louis VII Louis VII (1120 – 18 September 1180), called the Younger, or the Young (french: link=no, le Jeune), was List of French monarchs, King of the Franks from 1137 to 1180. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, Louis VI (hence t ...
(d. 1197) * Philip of Dreux, bishop of
Beauvais Beauvais ( , ; pcd, Bieuvais) is a city and commune in northern France France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of Overseas France, overseas regions and te ...
(d. 1217) * Satō Tsugunobu, Japanese warrior (d.
1185 Year 1185 ( MCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F ...
) * Taira no Shigehira, Japanese general (d. 1185) * Theobald I, French nobleman and knight (d.
1214 Year 1214 ( MCCXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Roman consul Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It to ...
) * Valdemar Knudsen, Danish bishop (d.
1236 Year 1236 ( MCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Roman consul Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took ...
) * Yvette of Huy, Belgian anchoress (d.
1228 Year 1228 (Roman numerals, MCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Sixth Crusade * Summer – Emperor Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederic ...
)


Deaths

*
April 26 Events Pre-1600 * 1336 – Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early Italian Renaissance, Renaissance Italy, and one of ...
Martirius, archbishop of
Esztergom Esztergom ( ; german: Gran; la, Solva or ; sk, Ostrihom, known by Names of European cities in different languages: E–H#E, alternative names) is a city with county rights in northern Hungary, northwest of the capital Budapest. It lies in Kom ...
*
July 19 Events Pre-1600 *AD 64 – The Great Fire of Rome causes widespread devastation and rages on for six days, destroying half of the city. * 484 – Leontius (usurper), Leontius, Roman usurper, is crowned Eastern emperor at Tarsus, Mersin ...
Wibald, German monk and
abbot ''Abbot'' is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various Western religious traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The ...
(b.
1098 Year 1098 (Roman numerals, MXCVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place First Crusade * February 9 – Battle of the Lake of Antioch: The Crusaders und ...
) *
July 27 Events Pre-1600 *1054 – Siward, Earl of Northumbria, invades Scotland and defeats Macbeth, King of Scotland, somewhere north of the Firth of Forth. *1189 – Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Friedrich Barbarossa arrives at Niš, the ...
Geoffrey VI, count of
Nantes Nantes (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: or ; ) is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast. The city is the List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, sixth largest in France, with a popul ...
(b.
1134 . Year 1134 ( MCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year (i.e., a year with 365 days) that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. ...
) *
August 20 Events Pre-1600 * AD 14 – Agrippa Postumus, maternal grandson of the late Roman emperor Augustus Caesar Augustus (born Gaius Octavius; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), also known as Octavian, was the first Roman empero ...
Rögnvald Kali Kolsson, Earl of
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of the island of Great Britain. Orkney is 10 miles (16 km) north ...
*
August 31 Events Pre-1600 * 1056 – After a sudden illness a few days previously, Byzantine Empress Theodora dies childless, thus ending the Macedonian dynasty The Macedonian dynasty (Greek language, Greek: Μακεδονική Δυναστε ...
Sancho III, king of Castile (b. 1134) *
September 22 Events Pre-1600 * 904 – The warlord Zhu Quanzhong kills Emperor Zhaozong of Tang, Emperor Zhaozong, the penultimate emperor of the Tang dynasty, after seizing control of the imperial government. *1236 – The Samogitians defeat the L ...
Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francia, East Frankish king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the olde ...
, German bishop (b. 1114) *
December 15 Events Pre-1600 * 533 – Vandalic War: Byzantine Empire, Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Tricamarum. * 687 – Pope Sergius I is elected as a compromise between antipopes P ...
Frederick II, German archbishop * Abu Jafar ibn Atiyya, Almohad
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called '' katib'' (secretary), who was ...
and writer *
Anselm of Havelberg Anselm of Havelberg (c. 1100 – 1158) was a Germans, German bishop and politician, statesman, and a secular and religious ambassador to Constantinople. He was a Premonstratensian, a defender of his order and a critic of the monastic life of h ...
, German bishop (b.
1100 Year 1100 (Roman numerals, MC) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, the 1100th year of the Common Era (CE) and ''Anno Domini'' (AD) designations, the 100th year of the 2nd millennium, ...
) * Barthélemy de Jur, French bishop (b. 1080) * Oda of Brabant, Belgian prioress and saint * Thorbjorn Thorsteinsson, Norwegian pirate


References

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