İzmir (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈizmiɾ]) is a metropolitan city
in the western extremity of
Anatolia and the third most populous city
in Turkey, after
Istanbul and Ankara. It is the second most
populous city on the
Aegean Sea after Athens, Greece. In 2017, the
İzmir had a population of 3,028,323, while
had a total population of 4,273,677. İzmir's metropolitan area
extends along the outlying waters of the
Gulf of İzmir
Gulf of İzmir and inland to
the north across the
Gediz River delta; to the east along an alluvial
plain created by several small streams; and to a slightly more rugged
terrain in the south.
In classical antiquity the city was known as Smyrna, a name which
remained in use in English and other foreign languages until the
Turkish Postal Service Law (Posta Hizmet Kanunu) of 28 March 1930,
İzmir the internationally recognized name.[citation
İzmir has almost 4,000 years of recorded urban history and
even longer as an advanced human settlement. Lying on an advantageous
location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation,
midway on the western Anatolian coast, it has been one of the
principal mercantile cities of the
Mediterranean Sea for much of its
İzmir hosted the
Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World
University Games (Universiade) in 2005.
The city of
İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of
these, Konak district corresponds to historical İzmir, this
district's area having constituted the "
İzmir Municipality" (Turkish:
İzmir Belediyesi) area until 1984. With the
constitution of the "Greater
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality"
İzmir Büyükşehir Belediyesi), the city of
together initially nine, and more recently eleven, metropolitan
districts, namely Balçova, Bayraklı, Bornova, Buca, Çiğli,
Gaziemir, Güzelbahçe, Karabağlar, Karşıyaka, Konak and
Narlıdere. In an ongoing process, the Mayor of
İzmir was also vested with authority over additional districts
Bergama in the north to
Selçuk in the south, bringing
the number of districts considered as being part of
twenty-one, two of these having been only partially administratively
included in İzmir.
1 Main features
2 Names and etymology
3.1 Ancient times
3.1.1 Old Smyrna
3.1.2 Lydian rule
3.1.3 Persian rule
3.1.4 Alexander the Great
3.1.5 Roman rule
3.2 Medieval period
3.3 Ottoman rule
3.3.1 International port city
3.4 Modern times
6 Main sights
İzmir International Fair
15.1 Connection with other cities and countries
15.2 Transport within the city
15.2.2 Urban ferries
15.2.4 Light Metro
İzmir Public Transportation Statistics
16 Twin towns and sister cities
17 See also
20 Further reading
21 External links and resources
İzmir has almost 4,000 years of recorded urban history and possibly
even longer as an advanced human settlement. Set in an advantageous
location at the head of a gulf in a deep indentation midway along the
western Anatolian coast, the city has been one of the principal
mercantile cities of the
Mediterranean Sea for much of its history.
Its port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight
handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.S. joint-venture established in
1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey. The workforce, and
particularly its rising class of young professionals, is concentrated
either in the city or in its immediate vicinity (such as in
Turgutlu), and as either larger companies or SMEs, affirm their names
with an increasingly wider global scale and intensity. Politically,
İzmir is considered a stronghold of the Republican People's Party.
İzmir hosted the
Mediterranean Games in 1971 and more recently the
World University Games
World University Games (Universiade) in 2005. A bid submitted to the
BIE to host the Universal Expo 2015, in March 2008, lost to Milan.
İzmir also incorporates the nearby ancient cities of Ephesus,
Sardis and Klazomenai, and centers of international tourism
such as Kuşadası, Çeşme,
Mordoğan and Foça.
Ottomans took over
İzmir in the 15th century, they did not
inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other key
points of the trade network, namely
Istanbul and Aleppo. The emergence
İzmir as a major international port by the 17th century was
largely a result of the attraction it exercised over foreigners, and
the city's European orientation.
Panorama of İzmir
Names and etymology
The modern name "İzmir" is the Turkish rendering of the original
Greek name "Smyrna" and "Smyrne" (Σμύρνη). In medieval times,
Westerners used forms like Smire, Zmirra, Esmira, Ismira, which was
İzmir into Turkish, originally written as ايزمير
with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet.
In ancient Anatolia, the name of a locality called Ti-smurna is
mentioned in some of the Level II tablets from the Assyrian colony in
Kültepe (first half of the 2nd millennium BC), with the prefix ti-
identifying a proper name, although it is not established with
certainty that this name refers to modern-day İzmir.
A view of central İzmir
The region of
İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the
Yortan culture in Anatolia's prehistory, knowledge of which is almost
entirely drawn from its cemeteries. In the second half of the 2nd
millennium BC, it was in the western end of the extension of the still
Arzawa Kingdom, an offshoot and usually a dependency
of the Hittites, who themselves spread their direct rule as far as the
coast during their Great Kingdom. That the realm of the 13th century
Luwian ruler, who is depicted in the
Kemalpaşa Karabel rock
carving at a distance of only 50 km (31 mi) from
called the Kingdom of Myra may also leave grounds for association with
the city's name.
The latest known rendering in Greek of the city's name is the Aeolic
Greek Μύρρα Mýrrha, corresponding to the later Ionian and Attic
Σμύρνα (Smýrna) or Σμύρνη (Smýrnē), both presumably
descendants of a Proto-Greek form *Smúrnā. Some would see in the
city's name a reference to the name of an Amazon called
Smyrna said to
have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor.
Others link the name to the Myrrha commifera shrub, a plant producing
the aromatic resin called myrrh that is indigenous to the Middle East
and northeastern Africa, which was the city's chief export in
antiquity. The Romans took over this name as Smyrna, which is
still the name used in English when referring to the city in
pre-Turkish times. In Ottoman Turkish the town's name was ايزمير
In English, the city was called
Smyrna into the 20th century. Izmir
(sometimes İzmir) was adopted in English and most foreign languages
Turkey adopted the Latin alphabet in 1928 and urged other
countries to use the city's Turkish name.
See also: Timeline of İzmir
Main article: Smyrna
Karabel rock-carving of the
Luwian local leader "Tarkasnawa, King of
Myra" is near Kemalpaşa, a few kilometres to the east of İzmir.
The city is one of the oldest settlements of the
The 2004 discovery of
Yeşilova Höyük and the neighboring
Yassıtepe, in the small delta of Meles River, now the
reset the starting date of the city's past further back than
previously thought. Findings from two seasons of excavations carried
out in the
Yeşilova Höyük by a team of archaeologists from İzmir's
Ege University indicate three levels, two of which are prehistoric.
Level 2 bears traces of early to mid-Chalcolithic, and Level 3 of
Neolithic settlements. These two levels would have been inhabited by
the indigenous peoples of the area, very roughly, between 7th
millennium BC to 4th millennium BC. As the seashore receded with time,
the site was later used as a cemetery. Several graves containing
artifacts dating roughly from 3000 BC, and contemporary with the first
city of Troy, were found.
The first settlement to have commanded the
Gulf of İzmir
Gulf of İzmir as a whole
was established on top of Mount Yamanlar, to the northeast of the
inner gulf. In connection with the silt brought by the streams which
join the sea along the coastline, the settlement to form later the
core of "Old Smyrna" was founded on the slopes of the same mountain,
on a hill (then a small peninsula connected to the mainland by a small
isthmus) in the present-day quarter of Bayraklı. The Bayraklı
settlement is thought to have stretched back in time as far as the 3rd
millennium BC. Archaeological findings of the late
Bronze Age show a certain decree of Mycenaean influence in the
settlement and the surrounding region, though further excavations of
Bronze Age layers are needed to propose Old
Smyrna of that time as a
Mycenaean settlement. In the 13th century BC, however, invasions
Balkans (the so-called sea people) destroyed
Troy VII, and
Central and Western
Anatolia as a whole fell into what is generally
called the period of "Anatolian" and "Greek" Dark Ages of the Bronze
Nearby ancient site of
Klazomenai in Urla, slightly outside İzmir
urban zone, is associated with some of the oldest known records of
trade in olive oil.
At the dawn of İzmir's recorded history, Pausanias describes "evident
tokens" such as "a port called after the name of
Tantalus and a
sepulchre of him by no means obscure", corresponding to the city's
area and which have been tentatively located to date. The term
"Old Smyrna" is used to describe the Archaic Period city located at
Tepekule, Bayraklı, to make a distinction with the city of Smyrna
rebuilt later on the slopes of Mount
Pagos (present-day Kadifekale).
The Greek settlement in Old
Smyrna is attested by the presence of
pottery dating from about 1000 BC onwards. The most ancient ruins
preserved to our times date back to 725–700 BC. According to
Herodotus the city was founded by
Aeolians and later seized by
Ionians. The oldest house discovered in
Bayraklı has been dated
to 925 and 900 BC. The walls of this well-preserved house (2.45 by 4
metres or 8.0 by 13.1 feet), consisting of one small room typical of
the Iron Age, were made of sun-dried bricks and the roof of the house
was made of reeds. The oldest model of a
multiple-roomed house of this period was found in Old Smyrna. Known to
be the oldest house having so many rooms under its roof, it was built
in the second half of the 7th century BC. The house has two floors and
five rooms with a courtyard. Around that time, people started to build
thick, protective ramparts made of sun-dried bricks around the city.
Smyrna was built on the
Hippodamian system, in which streets run
north-south and east-west and intersect at right angles, in a pattern
familiar in the
Near East but the earliest example in a western city.
The houses all faced south. The most ancient paved streets in the
Ionian civilization have also been discovered in ancient
Entry of the castle walls in
Kadifekale (ancient Pagos)
Homer, referred to as Melesigenes meaning "Child of the Meles Brook",
is said to have been born in
Smyrna in the 7th or 8th century BC.
Combined with written evidence, it is generally admitted that Smyrna
Chios put forth the strongest arguments in claiming
Homer and the
main belief is that he was born in Ionia. A River Meles, still bearing
the same name, is located within the city limits, although
associations with the Homeric river is subject to controversy.
From the 7th century onwards,
Smyrna achieved the identity of an
city-state. About a thousand people lived inside the city walls, with
others living in nearby villages, where fields, olive trees,
vineyards, and the workshops of potters and stonecutters were located.
People generally made their living from agriculture and fishing. The
most important sanctuary of Old
Smyrna was the Temple of Athena, which
dates back to 640–580 BC and is partially restored today. Smyrna, by
this point, was no longer a small town, but an urban center taking
part in the
Mediterranean trade. The city eventually became one of the
twelve Ionian cities and was well on its way to becoming a foremost
cultural and commercial center in the
Mediterranean basin of that
period, reaching its peak between 650–545 BC.
The city's port position near their capital drew the
Smyrna. The army of Lydia's
Mermnad dynasty conquered the city some
time around 610–600 BC and is reported to have burned and
destroyed parts of the city, although recent analyses on the remains
Bayraklı demonstrate that the temple has been in continuous use or
was very quickly repaired under Lydian rule.
Soon afterwards, an invasion from outside
Anatolia by the Persian
Empire effectively ended Old Smyrna's history as an urban center of
note. The Persian emperor
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great attacked the coastal cities
of the Aegean after conquering the capital of Lydia. As a result, Old
Smyrna was destroyed in 545 BC.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great re-founded the city at a new location beyond the
Meles River around 340 BC. Alexander had defeated the Persians in
several battles and finally the Emperor
Darius III himself at Issus in
333 BC. Old
Smyrna on a small hill by the sea was large enough only
for a few thousand people. Therefore, the slopes of Mount Pagos
(Kadifekale) was chosen for the foundation of the new city, for which
Alexander is credited, and this act lay the ground for a resurgence in
the city's population.
Agora of Smyrna
Agora of Smyrna
In 133 BC, Eumenes III, the last king of the Attalid dynasty of
Pergamum, was about to die without an heir. In his will, he bequeathed
his kingdom to the Roman Republic, and this included Smyrna. The city
thus came under Roman rule as a civil diocese within the Province of
Asia and enjoyed a new period of prosperity. Towards the close of the
1st century AD, when
Smyrna appeared as one of the seven churches of
Asia addressed in the Book of Revelation,
Smyrna had a Christian
congregation undergoing persecution from the city's
2:9). In contrast to several of the other churches, Apostle John had
nothing negative to say about this church. He did, however, predict
that the persecution would continue and urged them, "Be faithful to
the point of death, and I will give you the crown of life" (Revelation
2:10). The persecution of Christians continued into the 2nd century,
as documented by the martyrdom of Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, in AD
Given the importance the city had achieved, the Roman emperors who
Anatolia also visited Smyrna. In early AD 124, Emperor Hadrian
Smyrna on his journeys across the Empire and possibly
Caracalla came in 214–215.
Smyrna was a fine city with stone-paved
In AD 178, the city was devastated by an earthquake. Considered to be
one of the greatest disasters the city has faced in its history, the
earthquake razed the town to the ground. The destruction was so great
that the support of the Empire for rebuilding was necessary. Emperor
Marcus Aurelius contributed greatly to the rebuilding and the city was
re-founded again. During this period the state agora was restored.
Many of the works of architecture from the city's pre-Turkish period
date from this period.
Roman Empire was divided into two distinct entities, Smyrna
became a territory of the Eastern Roman Empire. The city kept its
status as a notable religious center in the early times of the
Byzantine Empire. However, the city did decrease in size greatly
during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, never returning to
the Roman levels of prosperity.
The Turks first captured
Smyrna under the Seljuk commander Çaka Bey
in 1076, along with Klazomenai,
Foça and a number of the Aegean
Islands. Çaka Bey (known as
Tzachas among the Byzantines) used İzmir
as a base for his naval operations. After his death in 1102, the city
and the neighboring region was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire. The
port city was then captured by the
Knights of St John
Knights of St John when
Constantinople was conquered by the Crusaders during the Fourth
Crusade in 1204, but the
Nicaean Empire would reclaim possession of
the city soon afterwards, albeit by according vast concessions to
their Genoese allies who kept one of the city's castles. [citation
Smyrna was captured again by the Turks in the early 14th century. Umur
Bey, the son of the founder of the Beylik of Aydın, took first the
upper fort of Mount
Pagos (thereafter called Kadifekale), and then the
lower port castle of Neon Kastron (called St. Peter by the Genoese and
as "Ok Kalesi" by the Turks). As
Tzachas had done two centuries
before, Umur Bey used the city as a base for naval raids. In 1344, a
coalition of forces coordinated by
Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI took back the lower
castle in a surprise attack in the Smyrniote crusades. A sixty-year
period of uneasy cohabitation between the two powers, the Turks
holding the upper castle and the Knights the lower, followed Umur
Hisar Mosque (1592–1598) in the
Kemeraltı neighbourhood of İzmir.
Konak Square in 1865
The port of İzmir, from an 1883 encyclopedia.
The upper city of
İzmir was captured from its Aydinid rulers by the
Ottomans for the first time in 1389 during the reign of Bayezid I, who
led his armies toward the five Western Anatolian Beyliks in the winter
of the same year he had come to the throne. In 1402, however, Timur
(Tamerlane) won the Battle of
Ankara against the Ottomans, putting a
serious check on the Ottoman state for the two following decades and
handing back the territories of most of the Beyliks to their former
Timur attacked and destroyed
Smyrna and was
responsible for the massacre of most of the Christian population,
which constituted the vast majority in Smyrna. In 1415, Mehmet
I took back
İzmir for the
Ottomans for the second time. With the
death of the last bey of Aydın, İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey, in 1426 the
city passed fully under Ottoman control. İzmir's first Ottoman
governor was a converted son of the Bulgarian Shishman dynasty. During
the campaigns against Cüneyd, the
Ottomans were assisted by the
forces of the
Knights Hospitaller who pressed the Sultan to return the
port castle to them. However, the sultan refused to make this
concession, despite the resulting tensions between the two camps, and
he gave the Hospitallers permission to build a castle (the present-day
Bodrum Castle) in
Petronium (Bodrum) instead.
In a landward-looking arrangement somewhat against its nature, the
city and its present-day dependencies became an Ottoman sanjak
(sub-province) either inside the larger vilayet (province) of Aydın
part of the eyalet of Anatolia, with its capital in
Kütahya or in
"Cezayir" (i.e. "Islands" referring to "the Aegean Islands"). In the
15th century, two notable events for the city were a surprise Venetian
raid in 1475 and the arrival of Sephardic
Spain after 1492;
they later made
İzmir one of their principal urban centers in Ottoman
İzmir may have been a rather sparsely populated place in the
15th and 16th centuries, as indicated by the first extant Ottoman
records describing the town and dating from 1528. In 1530, 304 adult
males, both tax-paying and tax-exempt were on record, 42 of them
Christians. There were five urban wards, one of these situated in the
immediate vicinity of the port, rather active despite the town's small
size and where the non-Muslim population was concentrated. By 1576,
İzmir had grown to house 492 taxpayers in eight urban wards and had a
number of dependent villages. This corresponded to a total
population estimated between 3500 and 5000.
International port city
The St. Stepanos Armenian Church (1863) located in the Basmane
district served the Armenian community of İzmir. It was burned during
the Great Fire of
Smyrna in 1922.
İzmir's remarkable growth began in the late 16th century when cotton
and other products of the region brought French, English, Dutch and
Venetian traders here. With the privileged trading
conditions accorded to foreigners in 1620 (these were the infamous
capitulations that were later to cause a serious threat and setback
for the Ottoman state in its decline),
İzmir began to be one of the
foremost trade centers of the Empire. Foreign consulates moved from
Chios to the city by the early 17th century (1619 for the French
Consulate, 1621 for the British), serving as trade centers for their
nations. Each consulate had its own quay, where the ships under their
flag would anchor. The long campaign for the conquest of
years between 1648 and 1669) also considerably enhanced İzmir's
position within the Ottoman realm since the city served as a port of
dispatch and supply for the troops.
Despite facing a plague in 1676, an earthquake in 1688 and a great
fire in 1743, the city continued to grow. By the end of the 17th
century, the population was estimated at around ninety thousand, the
Turks forming the majority (about 60,000); there were also 15,000
Greeks, 8,000 Armenians and 6,000 to 7,000 Jews, as well as a
considerable section made up of French, English, Dutch and Italian
merchants. In the meantime, the
Ottomans had allowed İzmir's
inner bay dominated by the port castle to silt up progressively (the
location of the present-day
Kemeraltı bazaar zone) and the port
castle ceased to be of use.
In 1770, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by Russian forces at the
Battle of Çeşme, located near the city. This triggered fanatical
Muslim groups to proceed to the massacre of c. 1,500 local Greeks.
Later, in 1797 a riot resulting from the indiscipline of janissaries
corps led to massive destruction of the Frankish merchant community
and the killing of 1,500 members of the city's Greek community.
The first railway lines to be built within the present-day territory
Turkey went from İzmir. A 130 km (81 mi) İzmir-Aydın
railway was started in 1856 and finished in 1867, a year later than
the Smyrna-Cassaba Railway, itself started in 1863. The wide arc
of the Smyrna-Cassaba line advancing in a wide arc to the north-west
from İzmir, through the
Karşıyaka suburb, contributed greatly to
the development of the northern shores as urban areas. These new
developments, typical of the industrial age and the way the city
attracted merchants and middlemen gradually changed the demographic
structure of the city, its culture and its Ottoman character. In 1867,
İzmir finally became the center of its own vilayet, still called by
neighboring Aydın's name but with its own administrative area
covering a large part of Turkey's present-day Aegean Region.
In the late 19th century, the port was threatened by a build-up of
silt in the gulf and an initiative, unique in the history of the
Ottoman Empire, was undertaken in 1886. In order to redirect the silt,
the bed of the
Gediz River was redirected to its present-day northern
course, so that it no longer flowed into the gulf. The beginning of
the 20th century saw
İzmir take on the look of a global metropolis
with a cosmopolitan city center. According to the 1893 Ottoman census,
more than half of the population was Turkish, with 133,800 Greeks,
9,200 Armenians, 17,200 Jews, and 54,600 foreign nationals.
According to author Katherine Flemming, by 1919, Smyrna's 150,000
Greeks made up just under half of the population, outnumbering the
Turks in the city two to one, while the American Consul General,
George Horton, records 165,000 Turks, 150,000 Greeks, 25,000 Jews,
25,000 Armenians, and 20,000 foreigners (Italians, French, British,
Americans). According to Henry Morgenthau and Trudy Ring, before
World War I, the Greeks alone numbered 130,000, out of a total
population of 250,000. Moreover, according to various
scholars, prior to the war, the city hosted more Greeks than Athens,
the capital of Greece. The Ottoman ruling class of that era
referred to the city as Infidel
Smyrna (Gavur İzmir) due to its
strong Greek presence.
A monument dedicated to Turkish journalist Hasan Tahsin, who is said
to have fired the "first bullet" against the occupying Greek army
Following the defeat of the
Ottoman Empire in World War I, the victors
had, for a time, intended to carve up large parts of
respective zones of influence and offered the western regions of
Greece under the Treaty of Sèvres. On 15 May 1919, the
Greek Army landed in Smyrna, but the Greek expedition towards central
Anatolia was disastrous for both that country and for the local Greeks
of Anatolia. By September 1922 the Greek army had been defeated and
was in full retreat, the last Greek soldiers leaving
Smyrna on 8
A distant view of the Pasaport Quay (1877) in the background, as seen
Konak Pier (1890) at the port of İzmir.
Turkish Army retook possession of the city on 9 September 1922,
effectively ending the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). Four days later,
on 13 September 1922, a great fire broke out in the city, lasting
until 22 September. The fire completely destroyed the Greek and
Armenian quarters, while the Muslim and
Jewish quarters escaped
damage. Estimated Greek and Armenians deaths resulting from the
fire range from 10,000 to 100,000 Approximately
50,000 to 400,000 Greek and Armenian refugees crammed the
waterfront to escape from the fire and were forced to remain there
under harsh conditions for nearly two weeks. The systematic evacuation
of Greeks on the quay started on 24 September when the first Greek
ships entered the harbor under the supervision of Allied
destroyers. Some 150,000 to 200,000 Greeks were evacuated in
total. The remaining Greeks left for
Greece in 1923, as part of
the population exchange between
Greece and Turkey, a stipulation of
the Treaty of Lausanne, which formally ended the Greco-Turkish War.
The war, and especially the events that took place in İzmir, such as
the fire, probably the greatest disaster the city has ever
experienced, continue to influence the psyches of the two nations to
this day. The Turks have claimed that the Greek army landing was
marked from the very first day by the "first bullet" fired on Greek
detachments by the journalist
Hasan Tahsin and the bayonetting to
Colonel Fethi Bey
Colonel Fethi Bey and his unarmed soldiers in the city's
historic barracks (Sarı Kışla — the Yellow Barracks), for
refusing to shout "Zito o Venizelos" (Long Live Venizelos). The
Greeks, on the other hand, have cited the numerous atrocities
committed by the Turkish soldiers against the Greeks and Armenians
(locals or hinterland refugees) in İzmir. These include the lynching
of the Orthodox Metropolitan Chrysostomos following the recapture of
the city on 9 September 1922 and the slaughter of Armenian and Greek
males, who were then sent to the so-called labour battalions . The
city was, once again, gradually rebuilt after the proclamation of the
Turkish Republic in 1923.
Population of İzmir
Astronaut photograph highlighting the modern urban landscape of İzmir
The period after the 1960s and the 1970s saw another blow to the
fabric of İzmir, when local administrations tended to neglect
İzmir's traditional values and landmarks. For many inhabitants, this
was as serious as the 1922 fire. Some administrators were not always
in tune with the central government in
Ankara and regularly fell short
of government subsidies, and the city absorbed huge waves of
immigration from inland Anatolia, causing a population explosion.
Today, it is not surprising that many inhabitants of
to residents of other prominent Turkish cities) look back with
nostalgia to a cozier, more manageable city, which came to an end in
the last few decades. The Floor Ownership Law of 1965 (Kat Mülkiyeti
Kanunu), allowing and encouraging arrangements between house or land
proprietors and building contractors by which each would share the
benefits of renting out eight-floor apartment blocks built to replace
former single-family houses, proved especially disastrous for the
İzmir is growing in several directions at the same time. The
north-western corridor extending to
Aliağa brings together both mass
housing projects, including villa-type projects and intensive
industrial area, including an oil refinery. In the southern corridor
Gaziemir yet another important growth trend is observed,
contributed to by the Aegean Free Zone, light industry, the airport
and mass housing projects. The presence of the Tahtalı Dam, built to
provide drinking water, and its protected zone did not check urban
spread here, which has offshoots in cooperatives outside the
metropolitan area as far south as the Ayrancılar–
Torbalı axis. To
the east and the north-east, urban development ends near the natural
barriers constituted respectively by the Belkahve (Mount Nif) and
Sabuncubeli (Mount Yamanlar-Mount Sipylus) passes. But the settlements
both above Bornova, inside the metropolitan zone, and around
Kemalpaşa and Ulucak, outside the metropolitan zone, see mass housing
and secondary residences development. More recently, the metropolitan
area displays growth, especially along the western corridor,
encouraged by the
Çeşme motorway and extending to districts outside
the city of
İzmir proper, such as
Seferihisar and Urla. The
population of the city is predominantly Muslim, but it was
predominantly non-Muslim up to the earlier quarter of 20th
İzmir is also home to Turkey's second largest
Jewish community after
Istanbul, numbering about 2,500. The community is still
concentrated in their traditional quarter of Karataş. Smyrniot Jews
Sabbatai Zevi and
Darío Moreno were among famous figures in the
Jewish community. Others include the
Pallache family with three
grand rabbis: Haim, Abraham, and Nissim.
The Levantines of İzmir, who are mostly of Genoese and to a lesser
degree of French and Venetian descent, live mainly in the districts of
Bornova and Buca. One of the most prominent present-day figures of the
community is Caroline Giraud Koç, wife of the renowned Turkish
industrialist Mustafa Koç, whose company, Koç Holding, is one of the
largest family-owned industrial conglomerates in the world.
İzmir once had a large Greek and Armenian community, but after the
end of the Greco-Turkish War, many of the Christians remaining in the
city were transferred to
Greece under the terms of the 1923 population
Greece and Turkey. Others were massacred in the
ensuing conflict, or forced into servitude in the infamous labour
battalions of the Turkish Forces.
İzmir has a
Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification:
Csa), which is characterized by long, hot and dry summers; and mild to
cool, rainy winters. The total precipitation for
İzmir averages 686
millimetres (27 in) per year; however, 77% of that falls during
November through March. The rest of the precipitation falls during
April through May and September through October. There is very little
rainfall from June to August.
Maximum temperatures during the winter months are usually between 10
and 16 °C (50 and 61 °F). Although it is rare, snow can
İzmir from December to February staying for a period of hours
rather than a whole day or more. During summer, the air temperature
can climb as high as 40 °C (104 °F) from June to
September; however it is usually between 30 and 36 °C (86 and
Record rain= 145.3 kg/m2 (29.09.2006)
Record snow= 8.0 cm (04.01.1979)
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Turkish Meteorological Service, World Meteorological
Organization (precipitation data)
Source #2: BBC Weather (humidity values)
Standing on Mount Yamanlar, the tomb of
Tantalus was excavated by
Charles Texier in 1835 and is an example of the historic traces in the
region prior to the Hellenistic Age, along with those found in nearby
Kemalpaşa and Mount Sipylus.
Asansör (1907) offers panoramic views of the city
Smyrna is well preserved, and is arranged into the Agora
Open Air Museum of İzmir, although important parts buried under
modern buildings wait to be brought to light. Serious consideration is
also being given to uncovering the ancient theatre of
Smyrna where St.
Polycarp was martyred, buried under an urban zone on the slopes of
Kadifekale. It was distinguishable until the 19th century, as evident
by the sketches done at the time. At top of the same hill stands an
ancient castle, one of İzmir's landmarks.
İzmir Clock Tower
İzmir Clock Tower (1901)
One of the more pronounced elements of İzmir's harbor is the Clock
Tower, a beautiful marble tower in the middle of the Konak district,
standing 25 m (82 ft) in height. It was designed by
Levantine French architect Raymond Charles Père in 1901 to
commemorate the 25th anniversary of the ascension of
Abdülhamid II to
the Ottoman throne in 1876. The clock's workings were given as a gift
by the German Kaiser Wilhelm II, a political ally of Abdülhamid II.
The tower features four fountains placed around the base in a circular
pattern, and the columns are inspired by North African themes.
Kemeraltı bazaar zone set up by the Ottomans, combined with the
Agora, rests near the slopes of Kadifekale.
İzmir has had three
castles historically –
Kadifekale (Pagos), the portuary Ok Kalesi
(Neon Kastron, St. Peter), and Sancakkale, which remained vital to
İzmir's security for centuries. Sancakkale is situated in the
İnciraltı quarter between the
Balçova and Narlıdere
districts, on the southern shore of the Gulf of İzmir. It is at a key
point where the strait allows entry into the innermost tip of the Gulf
at its narrowest, and due to shallow waters through a large part of
this strait, ships have sailed close to the castle.
There are nine synagogues in İzmir, concentrated either in the
Jewish quarter of
Karataş or in Havra Sokak (Synagogue
street) in Kemeraltı, and they all bear the signature of the 19th
century when they were built or re-constructed in depth on the basis
of former buildings.
The Atatürk Mask (Turkish: Atatürk Maskı) is a large concrete
relief of the head of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern
Turkey, located to the south of
Kadifekale the historical castle of
İzmir Bird Paradise (Kuş Cenneti) in Çiğli, a bird sanctuary
near Karşıyaka, has recorded 205 species of birds, including 63
species that are resident year-round, 54 species of summer migratory
birds, 43 species of winter migratory birds, and 30 transient species.
56 species of birds have bred in the park. The sanctuary, which covers
80 square kilometres, was registered as "the protected area for water
birds and for their breeding" by the Turkish Ministry of Forestry in
1982. A large open-air zoo was established in the same district of
Çiğli in 2008 under the name Sasalı Park of Natural Life.
A seaside view from the
İnciraltı quarter, with the Crowne Plaza
Hotel at left.
Kıbrıs Şehitleri is one of the most popular streets in Alsancak
Enjoying Kordon with a ride on İzmir's phaetons
View of Cumhuriyet Square in Konak
Governor's Office at Konak Square
View of Konak's shore
Museum of Ethnography
Bazaar Street from
Typical residential buildings of the
Bornova Shopping Center is inspired in concept by İzmir's
İzmir Commodity Exchange Building
Folkart Towers are the 5th highest twin towers in
Europe with a
structural height of 200 m (656 ft)
A view of
İnciraltı Urban Forest from the bike path dedicated to
İzmir in Şirinyer, Buca
19th century Levantine house in Dumlupınar, Buca
Buca street with old houses (Dumlupınar, Buca)
Easygoing lifestyle in Buca
A view of the city park in
İzmir International Fair
İzmir International Fair
İzmir prides itself with its busy schedule of trade fairs,
exhibitions and congresses. The fair and the festival are held in the
compound of İzmir's vast inner city park named Kültürpark in the
first days of September, and organized by İZFAŞ, a depending company
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality.
Ahmet Adnan Saygun
Ahmet Adnan Saygun Art Center
The annual International
İzmir Festival, which begins in mid-June and
continues until mid-July, has been organized since 1987. During the
festival, many world-class performers such as soloists and virtuosi,
orchestras, dance companies, rock and jazz groups have given recitals
and performances at various venues in the city and its surrounding
areas; including the ancient theatres at
Ephesus (near Selçuk) and
Metropolis (an ancient Ionian city situated near the town of
Torbalı.) The festival is a member of the European Festivals
Association since 2003.
Jazz Festival is among the numerous events
organized every year by the İKSEV (
İzmir Foundation for Culture,
Arts and Education) since 1994. The festival aims to bring together
masters and lovers of jazz with the aim to generate feelings of love,
friendship and peace.
İzmir Short Film Festival is organized since 1999
and is a member of the European Coordination of Film Festivals.
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality has built the
Ahmet Adnan Saygun
Ahmet Adnan Saygun Art
Center on a 21,000 m2 land plot in the Güzelyalı district, in order
to contribute to the city's culture and art life. The acoustics of the
center have been prepared by ARUP which is a world-famous company in
İzmir's cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural
history, hence the large variety of food originating from the Aegean
Mediterranean regions. Population movement from Eastern and South
Anatolia regions has enriched the local cuisine. Another factor
is the large and fertile area of land surrounding the region which
grows a rich selection of vegetables. There is considerable culinary
usage of green leaf vegetables and wild plants amongst the residents,
especially those with insular heritage, such as the immigrants from
Crete. Some of the common dishes found here are the tarhana soup (made
from dried yoghurt and tomatoes), "İzmir" köfte, sulu köfte,
keşkek (boiled wheat with meat), zerde (sweetened rice with saffron)
and mücver (made from zucchine and eggs). A Sephardic contribution to
the Turkish cuisine, boyoz and lokma are pastries associated with
İzmir. Kumru is a special kind of sandwich that is associated
particularly with the
Çeşme district and features cheese and tomato
in its basics, with sucuk also added sometimes.
The mascot of the
2005 Summer Universiade
2005 Summer Universiade which was held in İzmir.
Kemal Koyuncu during the
2011 European Team Championships First League
Several important international sports events have been held in
26–28 April 2013 –
2012–13 FIBA EuroChallenge Final Four,
18–19 June 2011 –
2011 European Team Championships First League,
28 August – 2 September 2010 – Group D of the 2010 FIBA World
3–13 September 2009 – Groups A, C, E, Semifinals & Final of
the 2009 Men's European Volleyball Championship
7–11 May 2008 – The 7th WTF World Junior
4–9 July 2006 – The 2006 European Seniors Fencing Championship,
14–23 July 2006 – The U20 European Basketball Championship for
7–22 August 2005 – The 2005 Summer Universiade, the International
University Sports Games,
2–7 September 2005 – Preliminary games of the 2005 European
Women's Basketball Championship,
6–17 October 1971 – The 1971
Notable football clubs in
İzmir include: Altay, Bucaspor, Altınordu,
İzmirspor and Karşıyaka. Recently,
relegated from the top tier, Turkish Super League by the end of the
2010–11 season. Göztepe made sports history in
Turkey by having
played the semi-finals of the
Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in the 1968–69
season, and the quarter finals of the
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in the
1969–70 season; becoming the first ever Turkish football club to
play a semi-final game in
Europe and the only one for two decades.
Altay and Göztepe have won the
Turkish Cup twice for
İzmir and all
of İzmir's teams periodically jumped in and out of Süper Lig.
İzmir is also the birthplace of two Greek sports clubs,
namely the multi-sport club
Panionios and association football club
Apollon Smyrni F.C.
Apollon Smyrni F.C. which were founded in the city and moved to Athens
Karşıyaka's basketball department
Karşıyaka Basket won the Turkish
Basketball League twice, the
Turkish Cup once and the Presidential Cup
Arkas Spor is a successful volleyball club in the city, having won the
Turkish Men's Volleyball League
Turkish Men's Volleyball League and the
Turkish Cup several times, and
CEV Challenge Cup
CEV Challenge Cup in the 2008–09 season.
The 50,000 capacity
İzmir Atatürk Stadium
İzmir Atatürk Stadium regularly hosts, apart
from Turkish Super League games of İzmir-based teams, many other
Super League and
Turkish Cup derby matches.
The city boasts of several sports legends, past and present. Already
at the dawn of its history, notable natives such as the son of its
first port's founder
Pelops had attained fame and kingdom with a
chariot race and Onomastus is one of history's first recorded
sportspeople, having won the boxing contest in the
Olympiad of 688 BC.
Born in İzmir, and nicknamed Taçsız Kral (The Uncrowned King),
1960s football star
Metin Oktay is a legend in Turkey. Oktay became
the first notable Turkish footballer to play abroad, with Palermo in
Italy's Serie A, during the 1961–1962 season. Two other notable
football figures from
Alpay Özalan and Mustafa Denizli,
the first having played for
Aston Villa F.C.
Aston Villa F.C. between 2000 and 2003 and
the second, after a long playing career as the captain of İzmir's
Altay S.K., still pursues a successful career as a coach, being the
only manager in Turkish Super League history to win a championship
title with each of Istanbul's "Big Three" clubs (Galatasaray,
Fenerbahçe S.K., and Beşiktaş J.K.) and having guided the Turkish
national football team to the
UEFA Euro 2000
UEFA Euro 2000 Quarter-Finals.
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality (İBB) Sports Club's ice hockey team
began playing in the
Turkish Ice Hockey Super League
Turkish Ice Hockey Super League during the
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality building in Konak
İzmir district Municipalities
Local elections, 2014
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Izmir has its own local channels, there are 9 TV channels broadcasting
in Ege Providence, 26 Radio stations and 15 local Newspapers. TRT
Documentary is a Turkish National TV Channel broadcasting in
TV channels broadcasting in Izmir
▪Ege TV Local TV ▪Kanal 35 Local TV ▪Sky TV Local TV
▪Kordon TV Local TV ▪FRM TV Online TV ▪Ege Üniversitesi TV
Local TV ▪Ben TV Online TV ▪Yenigün TV Online TV ▪TRT
BELGESEL TV National TV
Local Radio station
İzmir ▪Romantik Radyo ▪Romantik Türk ▪Radyo 35
▪Kordon FM ▪İmbat FM ▪Radyo Kordelya ▪Radyo Efe ▪Oynak FM
▪Duygusal FM ▪Sky Radyo ▪Radyo Pause ▪Radyo Ege ▪Ege FM
▪Ege'nin Sesi Radyosu ▪Herkül FM ▪Can Radyo ▪Batı Radyo
▪Radyo Gökkuşağı ▪Yıldız FM ▪
Buca FM ▪Radyo Ege Kampüs
100.8 ▪Rock City FM ▪öRT FM ▪Y.Tire FM ▪DEÜ FM 
Newspapers & magazines
▪Ege Telgraf ▪Ekonomik Çözüm ▪Gözlem ▪Haber Ekspres
▪Ticaret ▪Yenigün ▪Yeni Asır ▪Yeni Ekonomi ▪Yenigün
Gazetesi ▪9 Eylül Gazetesi ▪Küçük Menderes Gazetesi ▪Büyük
Tire ▪Ege Gazetesi ▪
Torbalı Ege ▪Büyük Torbalı
Arts that mentioned Izmir
The comedy "L'impresario delle Smirne" by
Carlo Goldoni (1759).
The poem "The Turkish Captive" in the poetry volume
Les Orientales by
Victor Hugo (1828) .
The solo piano piece "In Smyrna" by
Edward Elgar (1905).
Eric Ambler (1939). Mask of Dimitrios
ISBN 0-7927-1821-6. Chivers.
The movie "You Can't Win 'Em All" with
Tony Curtis and Charles Bronson
The travel book John D. Tumpane (1981). Scotch and Holy Water
ISBN 0-9607382-0-7. St. Giles Pr.
Dido Sotiriou (1962). Farewell Anatolia
ISBN 960-04-0479-8. Kedros.
E. Howard Hunt
E. Howard Hunt (2006).
İzmir ISBN 1-55611-474-5.
Donald I. Fine Books.
Jeffrey Eugenides (2002). Middlesex ISBN 0-374-70430-9.
Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
The novel/TV series "The Witches of Smyrna" by Mara Meimaridi (2004).
Louis de Bernières
Louis de Bernières (2005). Birds Without Wings (novel)
ISBN 1-4000-7932-2. Knopf Publishing Group.
There are twenty one public hospitals in Izmir.
Turkey has consists of
a mix of public and private health system, also
Turkey has Universal
health care insurance system (SGK) which residents registered with
TC number ( Turkish ID number) can receive medical treatment free
of charge in public hospitals. One of the largest hospitals
currently is under construction in Ege Province,
So far the biggest investment has been made with the value of 780
Members of Parliament for İzmir
General election, June 2015 •
İzmir (1st), (2nd)
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The current Mayor of the
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality is Aziz
Kocaoğlu from the Republican People's Party (CHP), in office since
2004. He was re-elected in both 2009 and 2014. His predecessor, the
Ahmet Piriştina (CHP) was first elected in 1999, but
died of a heart attack in 2004.
İzmir has traditionally been a stronghold for the CHP, the
centre-left Kemalist political party which forms the main opposition
in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Being the third largest city
İzmir is viewed as the CHP's most prized electoral
stronghold, since the party has a more limited support base in both
İstanbul and Ankara. Since the right-wing Justice and Development
Party (AKP) gained power in 2002, the electorate of
İzmir has been
notable for voting strongly in favour of the CHP in every general and
local election. In the 2007 and 2010 and 2017 referendums, the İzmir
electorate strongly rejected the AKP government's constitutional
reform proposals. Almost all of the city's districts have returned
strong pluralities or majorities for the CHP in past elections,
although the party lost ground in the 2014 local elections.
Due to the economic and historical importance of the city,
long been a strategic electoral target for the AKP, since beating the
CHP in their most significant stronghold would be politically
substantial. The majority of the citizens in
İzmir have continued to
vote for the centre-left political parties (in particular the CHP),
despite large-scale pledges by the AKP promising investment and new
infrastructure. For general elections,
İzmir returns 26 Members
of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The province
is split into two electoral districts which roughly divide the city
into a northern and southern district, each electing 13 MPs.
Anti-government protests in 2013 and 2014 against the AKP were
particularly strong in İzmir.
During the 2014 presidential election, 58.64% of the city's electorate
voted for the CHP candidate Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu. In contrast, the
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan received 33.38% of the vote. The
Selahattin Demirtaş received 7.98%.
A view of the
İzmir International Fair
İzmir International Fair (center) and the seaport of
Trade through the city's port had a determinant importance for the
economy of the
Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 19th century and
the economic foundations of the early decades of Turkey's Republican
era were also laid here in
İzmir Economic Congress. Presently, İzmir
area's economy is divided in value between various types of activity
as follows: 30.5% for industry, 22.9% for trade and related services,
13.5% for transportation and communication and 7.8% for agriculture.
İzmir provided 10.5% of all tax revenues collected by Turkey
and its exports corresponded to 6% and its imports 4% of Turkey's
foreign trade. The province as a whole is Turkey's third largest
Istanbul and Bursa, and the fifth largest importer.
85–90% of the region's exports and approximately one fifth of all
Turkish exports are made through the Port of
Alsancak with an annual
container loading capacity of close to a million.
The following universities were established in İzmir:
Ionian University, the first university of the city, established in
1920. It was organized by the Greek mathematician and close friend of
Albert Einstein, Constantin Carathéodory, on the instructions of the
Greek government. However, it never operated due to the developments
of the Greco-Turkish War.
Ege University – Founded in 1955.
Dokuz Eylül University
Dokuz Eylül University – Founded in 1982.
İzmir University of Economics – Founded as a private sector
initiative in 2002 by the
İzmir Chamber of Commerce, İzmir
University of Economics is a specialized university with a campus in
the metropolitan district of Balçova.
Yaşar University – Founded in 2001 by Yaşar Holding, the School of
Foreign Languages is located in the central
while the main Selcuk Yasar campus is located in Bornova.
İzmir – Founded in 2007.Closed in 2016
Katip Çelebi University – Founded in 2010.
Şifa University – Founded in 2010.Closed in 2016
Volleyball tournament between faculties at the
Ege University sports
hall in İzmir.
The following universities are located nearby the city of İzmir:
İzmir Institute of Technology
İzmir Institute of Technology – Founded in 1992,
of Technology is the city's first institute of technology, while the
campus, which is Turkey's largest, is located in the nearby district
University of Gediz – Founded in 2009, is located in the nearby
district of Menemen. The university has another campus in Çankaya
district. There is a medical campus project in
İzmir . There are a total of nine universities in and near İzmir.
The city is also home to well-rooted high-school establishments that
are renowned across Turkey, such as
İzmir Anatolian Vocational High
School of Commerce which was established in 1854 and the American
Collegiate Institute which was established in 1878.
İzmir is also home to the third
U.S. Space Camp
U.S. Space Camp in the world, Space
Historically, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the city
was an educational center of the Greek world, with a total of 67 male
and 4 female schools that time. The most important Greek educational
institution was the Evangelical School that operated from 1733 to
International schools in İzmir:
Botschaftsschule Ankara, Zweigstelle
Izmir (German school)
Scuola primaria e dell’infanzia italiana di Smirne (Italian
See also: Transport in İzmir
İzmir is served by national and international flights through the
Adnan Menderes International Airport
Adnan Menderes International Airport and there is a modern rapid
transit line running from the southwest to the northeast. The city is
trying to attract investors through its strategic location and its
relatively new and highly developed technological infrastructure in
transportation, telecommunications and energy.
Connection with other cities and countries
Alsancak Railway Station (1858) in İzmir, where the first railway
line in the Ottoman Empire, the İzmir–Selçuk-
Aydın line, entered
service two years earlier, in 1856.
Adnan Menderes International Airport
Adnan Menderes International Airport (ADB) is well served with
connections to Turkish and international destinations. It is located
Gaziemir district of İzmir.
A recently built large bus terminal, the Otogar in the Pınarbaşı
suburb on the outskirts of the city, has intercity buses to
destinations across Turkey. It is quite easy to reach the bus
terminal, since bus companies' shuttle services pick up customers from
each of their branch offices scattered across the city at regular
intervals, free of charge.
İzmir has two historical rail terminals in the city centre. Alsancak
Terminal, built in 1858 and Basmane Terminal, built in 1866 are the
two main railway stations of the city. The Turkish State Railways
operates regional service to Ödemiş, Tire, Selçuk, Aydın, Söke,
Nazilli and Uşak, as well as inter city service to Ankara,
Transport within the city
Co-ordinated transport was introduced to
İzmir in 1999, the first
Turkey to apply the lessons of integration. A body known as
UKOME gives strategic direction to the Metro, the
ESHOT bus division,
ferry operations, utilities and road developments.
İzmir has an
integrated pre-pay ticket, the Kentkart (Citycard). The card is valid
on metro (subway), buses, ferries and certain other municipal
facilities. The Kentkart allows use of multiple forms of transport
within a 90-minute window for the price of a single fare.
İzmir Municipality's urban ferry services in the Gulf of İzmir.
İzmir Metro: Stadyum (
İzmir Atatürk Stadium) Station.
İZBAN commuter train heading towards Adnan Menderes International
All major districts are covered by a dense municipal bus network under
the name ESHOT. The acronym stands for "E elektrik (electricity); S su
(water); H havagazı (gas); O otobüs (bus) and T troleybüs
(trolleybus)." Electricity, water and gas are now supplied by separate
undertakings, and İzmir's trolleybus system ceased to operate in
1992. However, the bus company has inherited the original name. ESHOT
operates about 1,500 buses with a staff of 2,700. It has five garages
at Karataş, Gümrük, Basmane, Yeşilyurt and Konak. A privately
owned company, İzulaş, operates 400 buses from two garages, running
services under contract for ESHOT. These scheduled services are
supplemented by the privately owned minibus or dolmuş services.
Taken over by
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality since 2000 and operated
within the structure of a private company (İzdeniz), İzmir's urban
ferry services for passengers and vehicles are very much a part of the
life of the inhabitants of the city, which is located along the deep
end of a large gulf. 24 ferries shuttle between 8 quays (clockwise
Bostanlı, Karşıyaka, Bayraklı, Alsancak, Pasaport, Konak, Göztepe
Special lines to points further out in the gulf are
also put in service during summer, transporting excursion or holiday
makers. These services are cheap and it is not unusual to see natives
or visitors taking a ferry ride simply as a pastime.
İzmir has a metro network that is constantly being extended with new
stations being put in service. The network "
consisting of one line, starts from the Fahrettin Altay station in
Balçova in the southern portion of the metropolitan area and runs
towards northeast to end in Bornova. The line is 20 km
(12.4 mi) long. The stations are Fahrettin Altay, Poligon,
Göztepe, Hatay, İzmirspor, Üçyol, Konak, Çankaya, Basmane, Hilal,
Halkapınar, Stadyum, Sanayi, Bölge, Bornova, Ege University, Evka 3.
A more ambitious venture named
İZBAN has begun involves the
construction of a new 80 km (50 mi) line between the Aliağa
district in the north, where an oil refinery and its port are and the
Menderes district in the south, to reach and serve the Adnan Menderes
International Airport. The line comprises 31 stations and the full
ride between the two ends takes 86 minutes.
Main article: İZBAN
İZBAN, sometimes referred to as Egeray, is a commuter rail system
İzmir and its metropolitan area. It is the busiest commuter
railway in Turkey, serving about 150,000 passengers daily. İZBAN
is a portmanteau of the words "İzmir" and "Banliyö".
Established in 2006 and began operations in 2010,
İZBAN was formed to
revive commuter rail in İzmir. Currently,
İZBAN operates a
80 km (50 mi) long system, with 31 stations, consisting of
two lines: the Southern Line and the Northern Line.
İZBAN A.Ş. operates the railway and is owned 50% by the Turkish
State Railways and 50% by the
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality. İZBAN
is a part of the municipality's
İzmir Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in İzmir, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 62 min. 13%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 15 min, while 27% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 10.4 km, while 22% travel for over
12 km in a single direction. 
Twin towns and sister cities
The following is a list of İzmir's sister cities:
Ancona, Italy, (Cooperation Agreement) since 2005
Baku, Azerbaijan, since 1985
Bălţi, Moldova, since 1996
Bremen, Germany, since 1993
Constanţa, Romania, since 1995
Famagusta, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Kardzhali, Bulgaria, since 2008
Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1996
Odense, Denmark, since 1991
Plzeň, Czech Republic, since 1987
Split, Croatia, since 1996
Turin, Italy, (Goodwill Agreement) since 2012
Volgograd, Russia, since 2006
Indonesia (Since 1996)
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, since 1991
Mumbai, India, since 1997
Kazakhstan (Cooperation Agreement) since 2004
Uzbekistan (Cooperation Agreement) since 1992
Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1996
Tianjin, China, since 1990
Türkmenabat, Turkmenistan, since 1994
Wuhan, China, since 2013
Xiamen, China, (Letter of Intent) since 2014
Sousse, Tunisia, since 2006
Cape Town, South Africa, (Cooperation Agreement) since 2014
Havana, Cuba, since 1996
Tampa, USA, since 1990
Long Beach, California, USA, since 2004
List of people from Izmir
List of museums in Izmir
List of parks in İzmir
List of hospitals in
List of mayors of İzmir
List of Ottoman mosques in Izmir
Yeni Kavaflar Market
Ekrem Akurgal (2002). Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey: From
Prehistoric Times Until the End of the Roman Empire
ISBN 0-7103-0776-4. Kegan Paul.
Smyrna September 1922 ISBN 978-0-06-225989-9, 2015.
George E. Bean. Aegean Turkey: An archaeological guide
ISBN 978-0-510-03200-5, 1967. Ernest Benn, London.
Cecil John Cadoux (1938). Ancient Smyrna: A History of the City from
the Earliest Times to 324 A.D. Blackwell Publishing.
İzmir and the Levantine world (1550–1650)
ISBN 0-295-96932-6, 2000. University of Washington.
C. Edmund Bosworth. Historic Cities of the Islamic World,
218–221 ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2, 2008. Brill Academic
Philip Mansel, Levant: Splendour and Catastrophe on the Mediterranean,
London, John Murray, 11 November 2010, hardback, 480 pages,
ISBN 978-0-7195-6707-0, New Haven, Yale University Press, 24 May
2011, hardback, 470 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-17264-5
^ a b c "Turkey: Major cities and provinces". citypopulation.de.
^ a b c d 
^ WebProNews. "Microsoft acquires Devbiz business solutions".
WebProNews. Retrieved May 22, 2010. See also: List of companies
acquired by Microsoft Corporation
^ Edhem Eldem; Daniel Goffman; David Morgan (1999). The Ottoman City
Between East and West: Aleppo,
İzmir and Istanbul
ISBN 0-521-64304-X. Cambridge University Press.
^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic
World. Leiden, Boston: Brill. p. 218. ISBN 978 90 04 15388
Ekrem Akurgal (1983). Old Smyrna's 1st Settlement Layer and the
Artemis Sanctuary. Turkish Historical Society.
^ K. Lambrianides (1992). "Preliminary survey and core sampling on the
Aegean coast of Turkey". Anatolian Studies. British Institute at
Ankara. 42: 75–78. doi:10.2307/3642952. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
^ J.D.Hawkins (1998). "Tarkasnawa King of Mira". Anatolian Studies.
British Institute at Ankara. 48: 1–31. doi:10.2307/3643046.
^ Molly Miller (1971). The Thalassocracies ISBN 0-87395-062-3,
ISBN 978-0-87395-062-6. State University of New York
Press. . See also Life of
Homer (Pseudo-Herodotus) and Cadoux.
^ For example,
Izmir in the Library of
Congress Country Studies
(Turkey), by the US State Department, by the UN in legal treaty texts,
by the British Foreign Office, in Encarta (first listing is Izmir,
secondary is İzmir), in Webster's, by the BBC, by the
by CNN, by CBC, by NPR, by the Washington Post. The Turkish spelling
İzmir is also seen in English texts, for example, in the
Yeşilova Höyük excavations". Retrieved 2007-02-21.
^ Wagner, Ana. "Carolina Digital Repository - The Ahhiyawa Question:
Providing Archaeological Evidence for the interconnection between the
Hittites and the Mycenaeans". cdr.lib.unc.edu. University of North
Carolina. p. 14. Retrieved 26 October 2017. In Western Anatolia,
Izmir display a degree of Mycenaean
^ Pausanias. The description of Greece, Volume 2, p. 38.
^ According to Herodotus, the Ionian seizure of the city from the
Aeolians was a celebrated deceit that had occurred in the following
manner: Colophonians fleeing internal strife within their Ionian city
had taken refuge in Old Smyrna. But soon afterwards, these defectors
had taken advantage of an opportunity that had presented itself when
native Aeolian Smyrniots had gone outside the city ramparts for a
festival in honor of Dionysos, and had taken possession of the city.
They forced an agreement upon the former inhabitants, who were obliged
to take all their movable assets in the city and leave.
^ An earlier siege laid by Gyges of
Lydia is recounted by
the form of a story according to which the King of
Lydia would have
attacked the city to avenge the ill-treatment received from its
inhabitants a certain Manes, a poet and a favorite of the sovereign.
Ronald Syme (1998). "Journeys of Hadrian" (PDF). Dr. Rudolf Hbelt
Bonn – University of Cologne. p. 162.
^ Ring, ed.: Trudy (1995). International dictionary of historic places
(1. publ. in the USA and UK. ed.). Chicago [u.a.]: Fitzroy Dearborn.
p. 351. ISBN 9781884964022. Timur... sacked
massacred nearly all of its inhabitants CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ Foss, Clive. Byzantine and Turkish Sardis. Harvard University Press.
p. 93. ISBN 9780674089693.
Tamerlane determined to conquer
Smyrna... In December 1402,
Smyrna was taken and destroyed, its
Christian population massacred.
^ Boynuzsekisi village in the same plain as
İzmir and inhabited in
1532 by 50 Muslim and 29 non-Muslim families who paid its taxes along
with the city was an offshoot of the
İzmir founded by city-dwellers
according to some sources while the Ottoman records refer to the
inhabitants of this village as living here since "evvel-kadim" –
since times immemorial. Muhammet Yazıcı (2002). "XVI. Yüzyılda
Batı Anadolu Bölgesinde (Muğla, İzmir, Aydın, Denizli) Türkmen
Yerleşimi ve Demografik Dağılım (Turkmen settlement and the
demographical distribution in the 16th century in western Anatolia),
p. 183-184 for
İzmir urban wards" (PDF). Muğla University. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-04.
^ Karavasilis, Niki (2010). The Whispering Voice of Smyrna. Dorrance
Publishing. p. 250. ISBN 1434952975.
^ C. Edmund Bosworth. Historic Cities of the Islamic World,
218–221 ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2, 2008. Brill Academic
^ Samatopoulou-Vasilakou, Chrysothemis (1 January 2008). "The Greek
Communityies in the
Asia Minor and Their Theatrical
Activity 1800-1922". Études Helléniques. Centre de recherche
helléniques = Centre of Hellenic Research. 16 (1-2): 53. Retrieved 4
March 2017. This was the second biggest slaughter of the Greek
Smyrna since 1770, when after the Cesme sea battle,
fanatic Muslims massacred 1, 500 Greeks.
^ Clogg, Richard (2008). The Movement for Greek Independence,
1770-1821: A Collection of Documents. Barnes & Noble. p. xii.
ISBN 9780064912167. In this riot some fifteen hundred Greeks are
reported to have been killed and massive damage was done to the
property of the Frankish merchant community
^ A short line built in
Dobruja (now in Romania) was started and
finished earlier. Ed. Ralf Roth – Günter Dinhobl (2008). Across the
Borders: Financing the World's Railways in the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Centuries, p. 188, ISBN 978-0-7546-6029-3. Ashgate
^ Kemal H. Karpat (1985). Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic
and Social Characteristics. University of Wisconsin Press.
pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-299-09160-6. Retrieved 29 August
^ Fleming Katherine Elizabeth. Greece: A
Jewish History. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 81. ISBN 978-0-691-10272-6.
^ George Horton (1 January 2003). The Blight of Asia: An Account of
the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans
and the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; with the True Story of
the Burning of Smyrna. Taderon Press (Gomidas Institute).
ISBN 978-1-903656-15-0. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
^ a b Ring Trudy, Salkin Robert M., La Boda Sharon. International
Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. Taylor & Francis,
1995. ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2, p. 351
^ a b Morgenthau Henry. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, Page & Company, 1918, p. 32.
^ Panayi, Panikos (1998). Outsiders History of European Minorities.
London: Continuum International Pub. Group. p. 111.
^ MacMillan, Margaret (2003). Paris 1919 six months that changed the
world (Random House trade paperback ed.). New York: Random House.
p. 430. ISBN 9780307432964.
^ Stewart, Matthew (2003-01-01). "It Was All a Pleasant Business: The
Historical Context of 'On the Quai at Smyrna'". The Hemingway Review.
23 (1): 58–71. doi:10.1353/hem.2004.0014.
^ Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence
Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 
^ a b Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in
Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press,
2002, p. 52.
^ Rudolph J. Rummel,
Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal
Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers.
ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6. , p. 233.
^ Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47-52.
^ Edward Hale Bierstadt, Helen Davidson Creighton. The great betrayal:
a survey of the near East problem (1924), R. M. McBride & company,
^ "U.S. Red Cross Feeding 400,000 Refugees," Japan Times and Mail, 10
^ Naimark, Fires of Hatred, p. 50.
^ Marjorie H. Dobkin,
Smyrna 1922: The Destruction of a City (London:
Faber, 1972; reprint: Kent, OH: Kent State University, 1988).
^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Gábor Ágoston, Bruce
Alan Masters, page 292, 2009
^ Hasibe Velibeyoğlu (2004). "Development Trends of Single Family
Housing Estates in
İzmir Metropolitan Fringe Area" (PDF). İzmir
Institute of Technology.
^ "Two faces of modern Turkey". BBC. 2007-07-19. Retrieved
^ "Smyrniots in
Israel (1/7)" (in Turkish). The newspaper "Yeni
Asır". Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. Retrieved
^ "Official Statistics (Statistical Data of Provinces and
districts)-İzmir" (in Turkish). Turkish Meteorological Service.
Retrieved September 14, 2012.
^ "Climate Information for İzmir". World Meteorological Organization.
Retrieved September 14, 2012.
^ "BBC Weather: İzmir". BBC. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
^ Lord Byron's notes on 8 March 1810 during his travels into the
region indicate: "Passed the low fort on the right on a tongue of land
– immense cannon mouths with marble balls appearing under the fort
walls. Obliged to go close to the Castle, on account of shallows on
the other side in [the] large bay of Smyrna."
Boyoz and Kumru". EatinIzmir. 2007. Retrieved
^ "Turkish Ice Hockey Federation". Turkish Ice Hockey Federation.
İzmir TV Channels".
İzmir Kent Rehberi. Retrieved 24 February
^ Archived copy.
^ "İzmir's Foreign Trade Structure" (in Turkish).
İzmir Chamber of
^ Agelopoulos, Georgios. "Ethnography and national priorities in the
post-Ottoman context" (PDF). Department of Balkan, Slavic and Oriental
Studies. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
^ Θεοδωρίδου Λίλα; Σωτηρίου Ζωή. "Η
Βιβλιοθήκη του Ιωνικού Πανεπιστημίου
Σμύρνης" (PDF). Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων.
Retrieved 5 June 2011.
^ Geōrgiadou, Maria (2004). Constantin Carathéodory: mathematics and
politics in turbulent times. Springer. p. 145.
^ "Elenco scuole italiane non paritarie all'estero –Calendario
boreale, a.s. 2015/16(D.I. MAE-MIUR n. 4461/2012 art. 2)" (PDF).
Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2016-08-28.
İzmir News". Archived from the original on 2009-02-11.
İzmir transport article".
Aydın Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public
Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was
copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License.
^ "Sister Cities".
İzmir Metropolitan Municipality. Retrieved
^ Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen - Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften /
Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen - Unit 32 Twinning / International
Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall -
Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on
2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
^ "Kardeş Şehirler" [Sister Cities].
Famagusta Municipality (in
Turkish). Retrieved 2013-10-19.
Mostar Gradovi prijatelji" [
Mostar Twin Towns]. Grad
Official City Website] (in Macedonian). Archived from the original on
2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-12-19.
^ http://www.izmir.bel.tr/SisterCities/591/en. Missing or empty
Atay, Çinar. "Once upon a Time, İzmir", Skyline (Istanbul), no. 172
(Nov. 1997), p. 62-64, 66, 68, , 72. N.B.: Amply ill. with
reproductions of 19th-century black and white photos.
External links and resources
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Izmir.
Izmir travel guide from Wikivoyage
İzmir City Portal
İzmir Province of Turkey
List of Provinces by Region
West Black Sea
East Black Sea
Central East Anatolia
Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.
Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
Timeline of İzmir
List of mayors of İzmir
Dokuz Eylül University
İzmir Bakırçay University
İzmir Democracy University
İzmir Institute of Technology
İzmir Kâtip Çelebi University
İzmir University of Economics
Museums and Monuments
Avrasya Anı Evi
Bostanlı Open-air Archaeological Museum
Natural History Museum of Ege University
İnciraltı Sea Museum
İzmir Archaeology Museum
İzmir Art and Sculpture Museum
Izmir Ethnography Museum
İzmir Toy Museum
Adnan Menderes Airport
Trams in İzmir
Buildings and structures
İzmir Clock Tower
İzmir International Fair
List of tallest buildings in İzmir
Yeni Kavaflar Market
İzmir Cumhuriyet Square