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Časlav
Časlav
(Greek: Τζεέσθλαβος, Serbian Cyrillic: Часлав[a] ; c. 890s – 960) was Prince of the Serbs from c. 927 until his death in c. 960.[b] He significantly expanded the Serbian Principality when he managed to unite several Slavic tribes, stretching his realm over the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Sava river and the Morava valley. He successfully fought off the Magyars, who had crossed the Carpathians
Carpathians
and ravaged Central Europe, when they invaded Bosnia. Časlav
Časlav
is remembered, alongside his predecessor Vlastimir, as founders of Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages. Časlav
Časlav
was the son of Klonimir, a son of Strojimir
Strojimir
who ruled as co-prince in 851–880. He belongs to the first Serbian dynasty, the Vlastimirovićs (ruling since the early 7th century), and is the last known ruler of the family.

Contents

1 Background 2 Early life 3 Reign 4 War with Magyars
Magyars
and death 5 Aftermath 6 Legacy 7 Family 8 See also 9 Annotations 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Background[edit] After the death of Prince Vlastimir, Serbia
Serbia
was ruled as an oligarchy by his three sons:[1] Mutimir, Gojnik
Gojnik
and Strojimir, although Mutimir, the eldest, had supreme rule.[2] In the 880s, Mutimir
Mutimir
seized the throne, exiling his brothers and Klonimir, who was Strojimir's son, to the Bulgar Khanate; the court of Boris I of Bulgaria.[1] This was most likely due to treachery.[2] Petar, the son of Gojnik, was kept at the Serbian court of Mutimir
Mutimir
for political reasons,[2] but he soon fled to Croatia.[1] When Mutimir
Mutimir
died, his son Pribislav inherited the rule, but he only ruled for a year; Petar returned and defeated him in battle and seized the throne; Pribislav fled to Croatia
Croatia
with his brothers Bran and Stefan.[1] Bran was defeated, captured and blinded (blinding was a Byzantine tradition that meant to disqualify a person to take the throne[3]). In 896, Klonimir
Klonimir
returned from Bulgaria, backed by Boris I, taking the important stronghold Destinikon. Klonimir
Klonimir
was defeated and killed.[4] The Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars
Byzantine–Bulgarian Wars
made de facto the First Bulgarian Empire the most powerful Empire of Southeastern Europe. The Bulgarians won after invading at the right time, they met little resistance in the north because of the Byzantines fighting the Arabs
Arabs
in Anatolia.[5] Early life[edit] Časlav
Časlav
was born in the 890s (before 896) in Preslav, the capital of the First Bulgarian Empire, growing up at the court of Simeon I.[6] His father was Klonimir. In 924, Časlav
Časlav
was sent to Serbia
Serbia
with a large Bulgarian army.[7] The army ravaged a good part of Serbia, forcing Zaharija to flee to Croatia.[7] Symeon summoned all the Serbian dukes to pay homage to their new Prince, but instead of instating Časlav, he took them all captive, annexing Serbia.[7] Bulgaria now considerably expanded its borders; neighbouring ally Michael of Zahumlje
Michael of Zahumlje
and Croatia, where Zaharija was exiled and soon died.[7] Croatia
Croatia
at this time was ruled by the most powerful monarch in Croatian history, Tomislav.[7] Reign[edit]

Vlastimirović dynasty

Višeslav (c. 780) Radoslav (after 800) Prosigoj (before 830) Vlastimir
Vlastimir
(c. 830–851) Mutimir
Mutimir
(c. 851–891) Pribislav (891–892) Petar (892–917) Pavle (917–921) Zaharija (921–924) Časlav
Časlav
(933–960)

v t e

Bulgarian rule was not popular, many Serbs fled to Croatia
Croatia
and Byzantium.[8] After the death of Simeon (927) Časlav
Časlav
and four friends[9] escaped to Serbia.[8] Časlav
Časlav
found popular support and restored the state, many exiles quickly returned.[8] He immediately submitted to Byzantine overlordship of Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
and gained financial and diplomatic support for his efforts.[8] He maintained close ties with Byzantium throughout his whole reign.[8] Byzantine influence (Byzantine church in particular) greatly increased in Serbia, Orthodox influences from Bulgaria as well.[8] The period was crucial to the future Christian demonym (Orthodox versus Catholic), as ties formed in this era were to have great importance on how the different Slavic churches would line up when they would split (Great Schism, 1054).[8] Many scholars have felt that the Serbs, being in the middle of the Roman and Orthodox jurisdiction, could have been either way, unfortunately information on this era and region is scarce.[8] He enlarged Serbia, uniting the tribes of Bosnia, Herzegovina, Old Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
(incorporated Zeta, Pagania, Zahumlje, Travunia,[6] Konavle, Bosnia and Rascia
Rascia
into Serbia, "ι Σερβλια").[10] He took over regions previously held by Michael of Zahumlje, who disappeared from sources in 925.[6] War with Magyars
Magyars
and death[edit] Main article: Magyar-Serb conflict

Execution of Časlav.

The Magyars
Magyars
had settled in the Carpathian basin
Carpathian basin
in 895.[11] In the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars, Emperor Leo had employed the Magyars
Magyars
against the Bulgars in 894.[11] In the years following, the Magyars
Magyars
mainly concentrated on the lands to the west of their realm.[11] In 934 and 943 the Magyars
Magyars
raided far into the Balkans, deep into Byzantine Thrace.[11] According to CPD, the Magyars
Magyars
led by Kisa invaded Bosnia, and Časlav hurried and encountered them at the banks of river Drina.[9] The Magyars
Magyars
were decisively defeated, with Kisa being slewn by voivode Tihomir.[9] Časlav
Časlav
married off his daughter to Tihomir, as a result of his courage and slaying of the Magyar leader. Kisa's widow requested from the Magyar leaders to give her an army for vengeance.[9] With an "unknown number" of troops, the widow returned and surprised Časlav
Časlav
at Syrmia.[9] In the night, the Magyars
Magyars
attacked the Serbs, captured Časlav
Časlav
and all of his male relatives.[9] On the command of the widow, all of them were bound by their hands and feet and thrown into the Sava
Sava
river.[9] The events are dated to around 960[9] or shortly thereafter, as De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
does not mention this event. Aftermath[edit]

Map of Theme Sirmium within Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1045.

After Časlav's death the realm crumbled, local nobles restored the control of each province, and according to the 'CPD', his son-in-law Tihomir ruled Rascia.[12] The written information about the first dynasty ends with the death of Časlav.[9] The Catepanate of Ras
Catepanate of Ras
is established between 971–976, during the rule of John Tzimiskes
John Tzimiskes
(r. 969–976).[13] A seal of a strategos of Ras has been dated to Tzimiskes' reign, making it possible for Tzimiskes' predecessor Nikephoros II Phokas
Nikephoros II Phokas
to have enjoyed recognition in Rascia.[14][15] The protospatharios and katepano of Ras was a Byzantine governor named John.[16] Data on the katepano of Ras during Tzimiskes' reign is missing.[17] Byzantine military presence ended soon thereafter with the wars with Bulgaria, and was re-established only c. 1018 with the short-lived Theme of Sirmium, which however did not extend much into Rascia
Rascia
proper.[14] Bosnia emerges as a state after the death of Časlav.[18] In the 990s, Jovan Vladimir
Jovan Vladimir
emerges at the most powerful Serbian noble. With his court centered in Bar on the Adriatic coast, he had much of the Serbian Pomorje
Pomorje
('maritime') under his control including Travunia
Travunia
and Zachlumia. His realm may have stretched west- and northwards to include some parts of the Zagorje ('hinterlands', inland Serbia
Serbia
and Bosnia) as well. Cedrenus calls his realm "Trymalia or Serbia",[19] according to Radojicic and Ostrogorski, the Byzantines calls Zeta – Serbia, and its inhabitants Serbs.[20] Vladimir’s pre-eminent position over other Slavic nobles in the area explains why Emperor Basil II
Basil II
approached him for an anti-Bulgarian alliance. With his hands tied by war in Anatolia, Emperor Basil required allies for his war against Tsar Samuel, who had much of Macedonia. In retaliation, Samuel invaded Duklja
Duklja
in 997, and pushed through Dalmatia up to the city of Zadar, incorporating Bosnia and Serbia
Serbia
into his realm. After defeating Vladimir, Samuel reinstated him as a vassal Prince. Legacy[edit] Stevan Sremac
Stevan Sremac
(1855–1906) authored Veliki župan Časlav
Časlav
in 1903.[21] Family[edit] According to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, Časlav
Časlav
had one daughter:[12]

Unnamed, married Tihomir, who succeeded in ruling terram Rassa (Rascia).[12]

See also[edit]

List of Serbian monarchs Serbia
Serbia
in the Middle Ages Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja Battle of Drina
Drina
(medieval)

Annotations[edit]

^ Name: The first attestation of his name is the Greek Tzeésthlabos (Τζεέσθλαβος), in Latin Caslavus, in Serbian Časlav. He was a descendant of Vlastimirović, his father was Klonimir, hence, according to the contemporary naming culture, his name was Časlav Klonimirović Vlastimirović. ^ Reign [and death]: Ćorović dates his accession to 927 or shortly thereafter,[9] Ostrogorsky to 927 or 928, supported by Fine.[8] Ćorović dates his death to around 960,[9] as does Fine.[8] ^ Tihomir: The only mention of Tihomir is taken from the Chronicle of the Priest of Doclea. Various inaccurate and wrong claims make it an unreliable source, the majority of modern historians conclude that it is mainly fictional, or wishful thinking, pointing at the religious tone of the region and "author" itself. One of the main controversies lies in the fact that the "Antivari Archepiscopate" did not exist between 1142 and 1198 – at which time [supposedly], Grgur, the author, was Archbishop. The work enumerates the Serbian rulers mentioned in De Administrando Imperio, but contradict the forming and divisions of the South Slavs. It nevertheless gives a unique sight into South Slavic history. The oldest copies of the manuscript date to the 17th century, thereof claims of dubious status.

References[edit]

^ a b c d Fine 1991, p. 141. ^ a b c Đekić 2009. ^ Longworth, Philip (1997), The making of Eastern Europe: from prehistory to postcommunism (1997 ed.), Palgrave Macmillan, p. 321, ISBN 0-312-17445-4  ^ Fine 1991, p. 154. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, p. 312., cited in Vasil'ev, A. (1902) (in Russian). Vizantija i araby, II. pp. 88, p. 104, pp. 108–111 ^ a b c The entry of the Slavs into Christendom, p. 209 ^ a b c d e Fine 1991, p. 153. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fine 1991, p. 159. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Srbi između Vizantije, Hrvatske i Bugarske; ^ Fine 1991, p. 160. ^ a b c d Stephenson, p. 39 ^ a b c Живковић 2006, p. 57. ^ GK, Abstract: "the establishment of catepanate in Ras between 971 and 976" ^ a b Stephenson, Paul. The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-slayer. p. 42.  ^ Paul Magdalino, Byzantium in the year 1000, p. 122 ^ Academia, 2007, Byzantinoslavica, Volumes 65–66, p. 132 ^ Krsmanović 2008, p. 189. ^ Ćirković 2004, p. 40–41. ^ Cedrenus II, col. 195. ^ Nikola Banasevic, Letopis popa Dukqanina i narodna predawa, p. 79, Document ^ Stevan Sremac
Stevan Sremac
(1903). Veliki župan Časlav. Izd. Matice srpske. 

Sources[edit]

Primary sources

Moravcsik, Gyula, ed. (1967) [1949]. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (2nd revised ed.). Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.  Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogenitus (1830). De Ceremoniis
De Ceremoniis
(Reisky, J. ed.). Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.  Шишић, Фердо, ed. (1928). Летопис Попа Дукљанина (Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja). Београд-Загреб: Српска краљевска академија.  Кунчер, Драгана (2009). Gesta Regum Sclavorum. 1. Београд-Никшић: Историјски институт, Манастир Острог.  Живковић, Тибор (2009). Gesta Regum Sclavorum. 2. Београд-Никшић: Историјски институт, Манастир Острог. 

Secondary sources

Bury, John B. (1912). A History of the Eastern Empire from the Fall of Irene to the Accession of Basil I. (A.D. 802-867). London: MacMillan.  Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.  Đekić, Đ (2009). "Why did prince Mutimir
Mutimir
keep Petar Gojnikovic?" (PDF). Teme, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 683–688.  Ferjančić, Božidar (1997). "Basile I et la restauration du pouvoir byzantin au IXème siècle" [Vasilije I i obnova vizantijske vlasti u IX veku]. Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta (in French). Belgrade (36): 9–30.  Ferjančić, Božidar (2007). Vizantijski izvori za istoriju naroda Jugoslavije II (fototipsko izdanje originala iz 1959 ed.). Belgrade. pp. 46–65. ISBN 978-86-83883-08-0.  Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.  Krsmanović, Bojana (2008). The Byzantine Province in Change: On the Threshold Between the 10th and the 11th Century. Belgrade: Institute for Byzantine Studies.  Mijatovic, Cedomilj (2007) [1908]. Servia and the Servians. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 1-60520-005-0.  Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Runciman, Steven (1930). A History of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: G. Bell & Sons.  Runciman, Steven (1988) [1929]. The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign: A Study of Tenth-Century Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Stephenson, Paul (2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Vlasto, Alexis P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Живковић, Тибор (2002). Јужни Словени под византијском влашћу 600-1025 (South Slavs under the Byzantine Rule 600-1025). Београд: Историјски институт САНУ, Службени гласник.  Живковић, Тибор (2006). Портрети српских владара: IX-XII век (Portraits of Serbian Rulers: IX-XII Century). Београд: Завод за уџбенике и наставна средства.  Živković, Tibor (2007). "The Golden Seal of Stroimir" (PDF). Historical Review. Belgrade: The Institute for History. 55: 23–29.  Živković, Tibor (2008). Forging unity: The South Slavs between East and West 550-1150. Belgrade: The Institute of History, Čigoja štampa.  Živković, Tibor (2013a). "On the Baptism of the Serbs and Croats in the Time of Basil I (867–886)" (PDF). Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana (1): 33–53.  Živković, Tibor (2013b). "The Urban Landcape of Early Medieval Slavic Principalities in the Territories of the Former Praefectura Illyricum and in the Province of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(ca. 610-950)". The World of the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas, Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD). Belgrade: The Institute for History. pp. 15–36. 

External links[edit]

Steven Runciman, A History of the First Bulgarian Empire, London 1930. Ćorović, Vladimir (2001). "Istorija srpskog naroda". 

Časlav Vlastimirović dynasty Born: 896 Died: 960

Regnal titles

Preceded by Zaharija Prince of Serbia 933–960 Succeeded by Tihomir[c] as Prince of Rascia

Vacant Title next held by Jovan Vladimir as Prince of Serbs and Duklja
Duklja
(990)

v t e

Monarchs of Serbia

Serbian Principality (1st; Raška), 641–969

Unknown Archon Višeslav Radoslav Prosigoj Vlastimir Mutimir Pribislav Petar Pavle Zaharija Časlav Byzantine annexation, Duklja
Duklja
subsequently emerging as seat

Serbian Principality (2nd; Duklja), 998–1101

Jovan Vladimir Stefan Vojislav Mihailo Constantine Bodin Raška re-emerging as seat (Grand Principality)

Serbian Grand Principality, 1101–1217

Vukan Uroš I Uroš II Beloš Desa Tihomir Stefan Nemanja Stefan the First-Crowned Proclamation of Kingdom

Serbian Kingdom, 1217–1346 Serbian Empire, 1346–1371

Stefan the First-Crowned Stefan Radoslav Stefan Vladislav Stefan Uroš I Stefan Dragutin

Vladislav at Syrmia

Stefan Milutin Stefan Konstantin Stefan Dečanski Stefan Dušan Proclamation of Empire Stefan Dušan Stefan Uroš V Fall of the Serbian Empire

Moravian Serbia, 1371–1402 Serbian Despotate, 1402–1537

Lazar Stefan Lazarević Proclamation of Despotate Stefan Lazarević Đurađ Branković Lazar Branković Stefan Branković Stephen Tomašević Ottoman annexation, titular: Vuk Grgurević Đorđe Branković Jovan Branković Ivaniš Berislavić Stevan Berislavić Radič Božić Pavle Bakić Stefan Štiljanović Ottoman annexation

Revolutionary Serbia, 1804–1837

Karađorđe Miloš Obrenović

Principality of Serbia, 1837–1882

Miloš Milan II Mihailo Aleksandar Miloš Mihailo Milan IV Proclamation of Kingdom

Kingdom of Serbia, 1882–1918

Milan I Alexander Petar I Proclamation of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

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