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Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
(Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhøjyk]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.[1] In July 2012, it was inscribed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[2] Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
is located overlooking the Konya
Konya
Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya
Konya
(ancient Iconium) in Turkey, approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. The eastern settlement forms a mound which would have risen about 20 m (66 ft) above the plain at the time of the latest Neolithic
Neolithic
occupation. There is also a smaller settlement mound to the west and a Byzantine settlement a few hundred meters to the east. The prehistoric mound settlements were abandoned before the Bronze Age. A channel of the Çarşamba River once flowed between the two mounds, and the settlement was built on alluvial clay which may have been favourable for early agriculture.

Contents

1 Archaeology 2 Culture 3 Religion 4 Archaeological project support 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Archaeology[edit] The site was first excavated by James Mellaart
James Mellaart
in 1958. He later led a team which further excavated there for four seasons between 1961 and 1965.[3][4][5][6] These excavations revealed this section of Anatolia as a centre of advanced culture in the Neolithic
Neolithic
period.[7] Excavation revealed 18 successive layers of buildings signifying various stages of the settlement and eras of history. The bottom layer of buildings can be dated as early as 7500 BC while the top layer is of 5600 BC.[8] Mellaart was banned from Turkey
Turkey
for his involvement in the Dorak affair in which he published drawings of supposedly important Bronze Age artifacts that later went missing.[9] After this scandal, the site lay idle until 1993, when investigations began under the leadership of Ian Hodder, then at the University of Cambridge.[10][11][12][13] These investigations are among the most ambitious excavation projects currently in progress according to, among others, Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn. In addition to extensive use of archaeological science, psychological and artistic interpretations of the symbolism of the wall paintings have been employed. Hodder, a former student of Mellaart, chose the site as the first "real world" test of his then-controversial theory of post-processual archaeology.[14] The site has always had a strong research emphasis upon engagement with digital methodologies, driven by the project's experimental and reflexive methodological framework.[15] Culture[edit]

On-site restoration of a typical interior

On-site restoration of a typical interior

The earliest excavations of the site

Deep trenches in the site

view of southern part of the site

Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
was composed entirely of domestic buildings, with no obvious public buildings. While some of the larger ones have rather ornate murals, the purpose of some rooms remains unclear.[7] The population of the eastern mound has been estimated to be, at maximum, 10,000 people, but the population likely varied over the community’s history. An average population of between 5,000 and 7,000 is a reasonable estimate. The sites were set up as large numbers of buildings clustered together. Households looked to their neighbors for help, trade, and possible marriage for their children.[16] The inhabitants lived in mudbrick houses that were crammed together in an aggregate structure. No footpaths or streets were used between the dwellings, which were clustered in a honeycomb-like maze. Most were accessed by holes in the ceiling, with doors reached by ladders and stairs. The rooftops were effectively streets. The ceiling openings also served as the only source of ventilation, allowing smoke from the houses' open hearths and ovens to escape.

The Neolithic This box:

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Neolithic
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↓ Chalcolithic

Houses had plaster interiors characterized by squared-off timber ladders or steep stairs. These were usually on the south wall of the room, as were cooking hearths and ovens. The main rooms contained raised platforms that may have been used for a range of domestic activities. Typical houses contained two rooms for everyday activity, such as cooking and crafting.[16] All interior walls and platforms were plastered to a smooth finish.[7] Ancillary rooms were used as storage, and were accessed through low openings from main rooms. All rooms were kept scrupulously clean. Archaeologists identified very little rubbish in the buildings, finding middens outside the ruins, with sewage and food waste, as well as significant amounts of wood ash. In good weather, many daily activities may also have taken place on the rooftops, which may have formed a plaza. In later periods, large communal ovens appear to have been built on these rooftops. Over time, houses were renewed by partial demolition and rebuilding on a foundation of rubble, which was how the mound was gradually built up. As many as eighteen levels of settlement have been uncovered. As a part of ritual life, the people of Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
buried their dead within the village.[16] Human remains have been found in pits beneath the floors and, especially, beneath hearths, the platforms within the main rooms, and under beds. Bodies were tightly flexed before burial and were often placed in baskets or wound and wrapped in reed mats. Disarticulated bones in some graves suggest that bodies may have been exposed in the open air for a time before the bones were gathered and buried. In some cases, graves were disturbed, and the individual’s head removed from the skeleton. These heads may have been used in rituals, as some were found in other areas of the community. In a woman's grave spinning whorls were recovered and in a man's grave, stone axes.[16] Some skulls were plastered and painted with ochre to recreate faces, a custom more characteristic of Neolithic
Neolithic
sites in Syria
Syria
and at Neolithic
Neolithic
Jericho
Jericho
than at sites closer by. Vivid murals and figurines are found throughout the settlement, on interior and exterior walls. Distinctive clay figurines of women, notably the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük, have been found in the upper levels of the site.[17] Although no identifiable temples have been found, the graves, murals, and figurines suggest that the people of Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
had a religion rich in symbols. Rooms with concentrations of these items may have been shrines or public meeting areas. Predominant images include men with erect phalluses, hunting scenes, red images of the now extinct aurochs (wild cattle) and stags, and vultures swooping down on headless figures.[7] Relief
Relief
figures are carved on walls, such as of lionesses facing one another. Heads of animals, especially of cattle, were mounted on walls. A painting of the village, with the twin mountain peaks of Hasan Dağ in the background,[18] is frequently cited as the world's oldest map,[19] and the first landscape painting.[7] However, some archaeologists question this interpretation. Stephanie Meece, for example, argues that it is more likely a painting of a leopard skin instead of a volcano, and a decorative geometric design instead of a map.[20] Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
had no apparent social classes, as no houses with distinctive features (belonging to royalty or religious hierarchy, for example) have been found so far. The most recent investigations also reveal little social distinction based on gender, with men and women receiving equivalent nutrition and seeming to have equal social status, as typically found in Paleolithic
Paleolithic
cultures.[21][22][23] Children observed domestic areas. They learned how to perform rituals and how to build or repair houses by watching the adults make statues, beads and other objects.[16] Çatalhöyük's spatial layout may be due to the close kin relations exhibited amongst the people. It can be seen, in the layout, that the people were "divided into two groups who lived on opposite sides of the town, separated by a gully." Furthermore, because no nearby towns were found from which marriage partners could be drawn, "this spatial separation must have marked two intermarrying kinship groups." This would help explain how a settlement so early on would become so large.[24] In upper levels of the site, it becomes apparent that the people of Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
were gaining skills in agriculture and the domestication of animals. Female figurines have been found within bins used for storage of cereals, such as wheat and barley, and the figurines are presumed to be of a deity protecting the grain. Peas
Peas
were also grown, and almonds, pistachios, and fruit were harvested from trees in the surrounding hills. Sheep were domesticated and evidence suggests the beginning of cattle domestication as well. However, hunting continued to be a major source of food for the community. Pottery
Pottery
and obsidian tools appear to have been major industries; obsidian tools were probably both used and also traded for items such as Mediterranean
Mediterranean
sea shells and flint from Syria.

Artifacts

Excavations at the southern area of the site

Excavations at the southern area of the site

The earliest known textile fragments. They may be fabrics used to wrap the dead. They are carbonized in a fire and radiocarbon dated to c. 6000 BC.[25]

Images of deities

Aurochs' heads

Aurochs' heads

Mother Goddess
Mother Goddess
from Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
(Turkey), neolithic age (about 5500-6000 BC), today in Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
in Ankara

Twin goddess. Marble statuette, height 17.2 cm, from Çatalhöyük, 6000-5500 BC. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

Stamp seal, small terracotta. Çatalhöyük, 6000-5500 BC. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

Obsidian
Obsidian
mirrors. Çatalhöyük, 6000-5500 BC. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

Religion[edit]

Murals
Murals
in Museum of Anatolian Civilizations

Neolithic
Neolithic
hunters attacking an aurochs in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations

Detail of the mural showing the hind part of the aurochs, a deer and hunters

Murals
Murals
in Museum of Anatolian Civilizations

Seated goddess flanked by two felines

See also: History of religion A striking feature of Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
are its female figurines. Mellaart, the original excavator, argued that these well-formed, carefully made figurines, carved and molded from marble, blue and brown limestone, schist, calcite, basalt, alabaster, and clay, represented a female deity. Although a male deity existed as well, "statues of a female deity far outnumber those of the male deity, who moreover, does not appear to be represented at all after Level VI".[26] To date, eighteen levels have been identified. These artfully-hewn figurines were found primarily in areas Mellaart believed to be shrines. The stately goddess seated on a throne flanked by two female lions (illustration) was found in a grain bin, which Mellaart suggests might have been a means of ensuring the harvest or protecting the food supply.[27] In later cultures, similar depictions are seen of Cybele, a mountain goddess. Whereas Mellaart excavated nearly two hundred buildings in four seasons, the current excavator, Ian Hodder, spent an entire season excavating one building alone.[28] Hodder and his team, in 2004 and 2005, began to believe that the patterns suggested by Mellaart were false. They found one similar figurine, but the vast majority did not imitate the Mother Goddess
Mother Goddess
style that Mellaart suggested. Instead of a Mother Goddess
Mother Goddess
culture, Hodder points out that the site gives little indication of a matriarchy or patriarchy.

There are full breasts on which the hands rest, and the stomach is extended in the central part. There is a hole in the top for the head which is missing. As one turns the figurine around one notices that the arms are very thin, and then on the back of the figurine one sees a depiction of either a skeleton or the bones of a very thin and depleted human. The ribs and vertebrae are clear, as are the scapulae and the main pelvic bones. The figurine can be interpreted in a number of ways - as a woman turning into an ancestor, as a woman associated with death, or as death and life conjoined. It is possible that the lines around the body represent wrapping rather than ribs. Whatever the specific interpretation, this is a unique piece that may force us to change our views of the nature of Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
society and imagery. Perhaps the importance of female imagery was related to some special role of the female in relation to death as much as to the roles of mother and nurturer.[29]

In an article in the Turkish Daily News, Hodder is reported as denying that Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
was a matriarchal society and quoted as saying "When we look at what they eat and drink and at their social statues, we see that men and women had the same social status. There was a balance of power. Another example is the skulls found. If one's social status was of high importance in Çatalhöyük, the body and head were separated after death. The number of female and male skulls found during the excavations is almost equal."[30] In another article in the Hurriyet Daily News Hodder is reported to say "We have learned that men and women were equally approached".[31] In a report in September 2009 on the discovery of around 2000 figurines Hodder is quoted as saying:

Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
was excavated in the 1960s in a methodical way, but not using the full range of natural science techniques that are available to us today. Sir James Mellaart
James Mellaart
who excavated the site in the 1960s came up with all sorts of ideas about the way the site was organised and how it was lived in and so on ... We’ve now started working there since the mid 1990s and come up with very different ideas about the site. One of the most obvious examples of that is that Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
is perhaps best known for the idea of the mother goddess. But our work more recently has tended to show that in fact there is very little evidence of a mother goddess and very little evidence of some sort of female-based matriarchy. That’s just one of the many myths that the modern scientific work is undermining.[32]

Professor Lynn Meskell explained that while the original excavations had found only 200 figures, the new excavations had uncovered 2,000 figurines of which most were animals, with less than 5% of the figurines women.[32] Estonian folklorist Uku Masing
Uku Masing
has suggested as early as in 1976, that Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
was probably a hunting and gathering religion and the Mother Goddess
Mother Goddess
figurine did not represent a female deity. He implied that perhaps a longer period of time was needed in order to develop symbols for agricultural rites.[33] His theory was developed in the paper "Some remarks on the mythology of the people of Catal Hüyük".[34] Archaeological project support[edit] The current archaeological investigations at Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
are supported by the following institutions and organizations:[35][36]

Selçuk University British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Institute of Archaeology, University College London Cardiff University Stanford University World Monuments Fund Turkish Cultural Foundation Istanbul
Istanbul
University University of California, Berkeley Polish Heritage Council Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań University at Buffalo Global Heritage Fund Yapi Kredi Boeing Shell Merko Thames Water National Geographic Society American Embassy in Ankara University of York University of Reading

See also[edit]

Cities of the ancient Near East Cucuteni–Trypillian culture Göbekli Tepe Kamyana Mohyla List of largest cities throughout history List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Matriarchy Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution Old Europe (archaeology) Sacred bull Venus figurines

Notes[edit]

^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2013-02-09.  Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
added to UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List Global Heritage Fund blog article ^ J. Mellaart, Excavations at Çatal Hüyük, first preliminary report: 1961. Anatolian Studies, vol. 12, pp. 41–65, 1962 ^ J. Mellaart, Excavations at Çatal Hüyük, second preliminary report: 1962. Anatolian Studies, vol. 13, pp. 43–103, 1963 ^ J. Mellaart, Excavations at Çatal Hüyük, third preliminary report: 1963. Anatolian Studies, vol. 14, pp. 39–119, 1964 ^ J. Mellaart, Excavations at Çatal Hüyük, fourth preliminary report: at 1965. Anatolian Studies, vol. 16, pp. 15–191, 1966 ^ a b c d e Kleiner, Fred S.; Mamiya, Christin J. (2006). Gardner's Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective: Volume 1 (Twelfth ed.). Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing. pp. 12–4. ISBN 0-495-00479-0.  ^ Catalhuyuk - First known city Archived 2015-11-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kenneth Pearson and Patricia Connor, The Dorak affair, New York, Atheneum, 1968 ^ I. Hodder, Çatalhöyük, Anatolian Archaeology, vol. 4, pp. 8–10, 1998 ^ I. Hodder, Getting to the Bottom of Thing: Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
1999, Anatolian Archaeology, vol. 5, pp. 4–7, 1999 ^ I. Hodder, Çatalhöyük, Anatolian Archaeology, vol. 8, pp. 5–7, 2002 ^ I. Hodder, A New Phase of Excavation at Çatalhöyük, Anatolian Archaeology, vol. 9, pp. 9–11, 2003 ^ Morgan, Colleen; University (2016). "Analog to Digital: Transitions in Theory and Practice in Archaeological Photography at Çatalhöyük". Internet Archaeology (42). doi:10.11141/ia.42.7.  ^ Taylor, James; University; Issavi, Justine; Berggren, Åsa; Lukas, Dominik; Mazzucato, Camilla; Tung, Burcu; Dell'Unto, Nicoló (2018). "'The Rise of the Machine': the impact of digital tablet recording in the field at Çatalhöyük". Internet Archaeology (47). doi:10.11141/ia.47.1.  ^ a b c d e Maynes, Mary Jo; Waltner, Ann (2012). The Family: A World History. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530476-3.  ^ "Incredible discovery of intact female figurine from neolithic era in Turkey
Turkey
Ars Technica".  ^ Noah Wiener (November 1, 2013). " Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
mural". Bible History Daily. Biblical Archaeology Society. Archived from the original on November 24, 2013. This Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
mural is thought to represent a nearby volcanic eruption. New scientific evidence confirms a contemporaneous eruption at nearby Hasan Dağ.  ^ Cartographic Images (accessed February 23, 2014) ^ A bird’s eye view - of a leopard’s spots. The Çatalhöyük ‘map’ and the development of cartographic representation in prehistory. Anatolian Studies 56, 2006, pp. 1–16. Published by The British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara ^ Leften Stavros Stavrianos (1991). A Global History from Prehistory to the Present. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-357005-3.  Pages 9–13 ^ R Dale Gutrie (2005). The Nature of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31126-0.  Page 420-422 ^ Museum of Antiquites web site Archived 2007-11-21 at the Wayback Machine. (accessed February 13, 2008). ^ Maynes, Mary Jo; Waltner, Ann (2012). The Family: A World History. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-19-530476-3.  ^ Jenkins, pp. 39–47 ^ Mellaart, James (1967). Catal Huyuk: A Neolithic
Neolithic
Town in Anatolia. McGraw-Hill. p. 181.  ^ Mellaart (1967), 180. ^ Balter, Michael (2005). The Goddess
Goddess
and the Bull. New York: Free Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-7432-4360-9.  ^ Hodder, Ian (2005). "New finds and new interpretations at Çatalhöyük". Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
2005 Archive Report. Catalhoyuk Research Project, Institute of Archaeology.  ^ Hodder, Ian (2008-01-17). "A Journey to 9000 years ago". Retrieved 2008-08-07.  ^ Hodder, Ian (2015-03-25). " Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
excavations reveal gender equality in ancient settled life". Retrieved 2015-03-25.  ^ a b O'Brien, Jeremy "New techniques undermine 'mother goddess' role in the community" Irish Times September 20, 2009 [1] ^ Masing, Uku (2011). Aarded Tellistes. Tartu, Estonia: Ilmamaa. pp. 209–227. ISBN 978-9985-77-351-2.  ^ Oriental Studies 3. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis 392 / Tartu Riikliku Ülikooli Toimetised 392. Tartu 1976, 75–92. ^ Çatalhöyük: Excavations of a Neolithic
Neolithic
Anatolian Höyük - Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
Archive Report 2008 ^ [2]

References[edit]

Ian Hodder. "This Old House: At Çatalhöyük, a Neolithic
Neolithic
site in Turkey, families packed their mud-brick houses close together and traipsed over roofs to climb into their rooms from above". Natural History Magazine (June 2006). Archived from the original on 2006-11-15. Retrieved 2006-08-19. 

Further reading[edit]

Bailey, Douglass. Prehistoric Figurines: Representation and Corporeality in the Neolithic. New York: Routledge, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-33151-X; paperback, ISBN 0-415-33152-8). Balter, Michael. The Goddess
Goddess
and the Bull: Çatalhöyük: An Archaeological Journey to the Dawn of Civilization. New York: Free Press, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7432-4360-9); Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2006 (paperback, ISBN 1-59874-069-5). A highly condensed version was published in The Smithsonian Magazine, May 2005. Dural, Sadrettin. "Protecting Catalhoyuk: Memoir of an Archaeological Site Guard." Contributions by Ian Hodder. Translated by Duygu Camurcuoglu Cleere. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59874-050-9. Hodder, Ian. "Women and Men at Çatalhöyük," Scientific American Magazine, January 2004 (update V15:1, 2005). Hodder, Ian. The Leopard's Tale: Revealing the Mysteries of Çatalhöyük. London; New York: Thames & Hudson, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-500-05141-0). (The UK title of this work is Çatalhöyük: The Leopard's Tale.) Mallett, Marla, "The Goddess
Goddess
from Anatolia: An Updated View of the Catak Huyuk Controversy," in Oriental Rug Review, Vol. XIII, No. 2 (December 1992/January 1993). Mellaart, James. Çatal Hüyük: A Neolithic
Neolithic
Town in Anatolia. London: Thames & Hudson, 1967; New York: McGraw-Hill
McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1967. On the Surface: Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
1993–95, edited by Ian Hodder. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research and British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1996 (ISBN 0-9519420-3-4). Taylor, James Stuart (2016), Making Time For Space At Çatalhöyük: GIS as a tool for exploring intra-site spatiotemporality within complex stratigraphic sequences, University of York
University of York
(PhD thesis) 

Todd, Ian A. Çatal Hüyük in Perspective. Menlo Park, CA: Cummings Pub. Co., 1976 (ISBN 0-8465-1958-5; ISBN 0-8465-1957-7).

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Çatalhöyük.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Çatalhöyük.

Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
— Excavations of a Neolithic
Neolithic
Anatolian Höyük, Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
excavation official website Explore Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
on Global Heritage Network Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
photos The First Cities: Why Settle Down? The Mystery of Communities, by Michael Balter, Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
excavation official biographer Remixing Çatalhöyük Interview with Ian Hodder March 201 "Ian Hodder: Çatalhöyük, Religion & Templeton’s 25%"

v t e

Ancient settlements in Turkey

Aegean

Aegae Aizanoi Alabanda Alinda Allianoi Amorium Amyzon Antioch
Antioch
on the Maeander Apamea in Phrygia Aphrodisias Apollonia in Mysia Apollonos Hieron Atarneus Aulai Bargylia Beycesultan Blaundus Caloe Caryanda Celaenae Ceramus Colophon Claros Cyme Didyma Dios Hieron Docimium Ephesus Erythrae Eucarpia Euromus Gambrion Gryneion Halicarnassus Hierapolis Iasos Karmylissos Kaunos Klazomenai Knidos Labraunda Laodicea on the Lycus Latmus Lebedus Leucae Limantepe Magnesia ad Sipylus Magnesia on the Maeander Metropolis Miletus Myndus Myriandrus Myrina Myus Notion Nysa on the Maeander Oenoanda Pepuza Pergamon Perperene Phocaea Pinara Pitane Priene Sardis Smyrna Stratonicea in Lydia Stratonicea in Caria Temnos Teos Tymion

Black Sea

Alaca Höyük Comana in the Pontus Euchaita Hattusa Heraclea Pontica Hüseyindede Tepe Ibora Laodicea Pontica Nerik Nicopolis Pompeiopolis Salatiwara Samuha Sapinuwa Tripolis Yazılıkaya Zaliche

Central Anatolia

Alişar Hüyük Binbirkilise Çatalhöyük Cotenna Derbe Dorylaeum Eudocia (Cappadocia) Eudocia (Phrygia) Gordium Heraclea Cybistra Irenopolis Kaman-Kalehöyük Kerkenes Kültepe
Kültepe
(Kanesh) Laodicea Combusta Meloë Mokissos Nyssa Pessinus Purushanda Tavium Tyana

Eastern Anatolia

Altıntepe Ani Cafer Höyük Melid Sugunia Tushpa

Marmara

Achilleion Aegospotami Ainos Alexandria Troas Apamea Myrlea Apollonia on the Rhyndax Apros Assos Byzantium Cardia Cebrene Chalcedon Charax Cius Cyzicus Drizipara/Drusipara Faustinopolis Germanicopolis Lamponeia Lampsacus Lygos Lysimachia Marpessos Neandreia Nicomedia Orestias Perinthos Sestos Sigeion Skepsis Troy
Troy
(Hisarlik)

Mediterranean

Acalissus Acarassus Alalakh Amelas Anazarbus Andriaca Antigonia Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia Antiochia Lamotis Antioch
Antioch
on the Cragus Antioch
Antioch
on the Pyramis Antiphellus Aperlae Aphrodisias
Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Araxa Ariassos Arneae Arsinoe Arycanda Aspendos Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing Balbura Bubon Calynda Carallia Carmylessus Casae Castabala Cestrus Choma Cibyra Mikra Comama Comana in Cappadocia Comba Coracesium Corycus
Corycus
(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia in Pamphylia Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

Antioch
Antioch
in the Taurus Antioch
Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia at the Zeugma Sultantepe Tille Tushhan Zeugma

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UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in Turkey

Aegean

Aphrodisias Ephesus Hierapolis
Hierapolis
/ Pamukkale Pergamon Xanthos
Xanthos
/ Letoon1

Black Sea

Hittite Capital of Hattusa Safranbolu

Central Anatolia

Göreme
Göreme
and Rock Sites of Cappadocia Neolithic
Neolithic
Site of Çatalhöyük Divriği Great Mosque and Hospital

East Anatolia

Historic city of Ani

Marmara

Archaeological Site of Troy Bursa
Bursa
and Cumalıkızık Historic Areas of Istanbul Selimiye Mosque
Selimiye Mosque
and its Social Complex

Mediterranean

Xanthos
Xanthos
/ Letoon1

Southeastern Anatolia

Mount Nemrut
Mount Nemrut
in Commagene Diyarbakır Fortress
Diyarbakır Fortress
and Hevsel Gardens

1 Shared with other regions

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Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbols

symbolism

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Archaeological museums in Turkey

Aegean Region

Afyonkarahisar Archaeological Museum Aydın Archaeological Museum Bodrum Castle Bolvadin Museum Bostanlı Open-air Archaeological Museum Ephesus
Ephesus
Archaeological Museum Hierapolis Izmir Archeology Museum Archaeological Museum of Manisa Uşak Museum of Archaeology

Black Sea Region

Amasya Museum Bolu Museum Çorum Archaeological Museum Kastamonu Archaeological Museum Konuralp Museum Samsun Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography Sinop Archaeological Museum Tokat Museum Trabzon Museum

Central Anatolia Region

Çatalhöyük Eskişehir Archaeological Museum Konya
Konya
Archaeological Museum Gordion Museum Museum of Anatolian Civilizations

Eastern Anatolia Region

Kars Museum

Marmara Region

Bursa
Bursa
Archaeological Museum Çanakkale Archaeological Museum Great Palace Mosaic Museum Istanbul
Istanbul
Archaeology Museums Kırklareli Museum Sadberk Hanım Museum Tekirdağ Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography

Mediterranean Region

Adana Archaeology Museum Alanya
Alanya
Archaeological Museum Antalya Museum Arslan Eyce Private Amphora Museum Burdur Archaeological Museum Hatay Archaeology Museum Karatepe-Aslantaş Open-Air Museum Mersin Museum Misis Mosaic Museum Silifke Museum Tarsus Museum

Southeastern Anatolia Region

Adıyaman Archaeological Museum Diyarbakır Archaeological Museum Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology Şanlıurfa Museum Zeugma M

.